Indianapolis

Last updated

Indianapolis
City of Indianapolis and Marion County
Indianapolis Montage 2.jpg
Indianapolis Seal.png
Seal
Nickname(s): 
"Indy"; "Circle City"; "Crossroads of America"; "Naptown"; "Amateur Sports Capital of the World"; "Railroad City" [1]
Marion County Indiana Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Indianapolis city (balance) Highlighted 1836003.svg
Location within Marion County
USA Indiana location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Indianapolis
Location within Indiana
Usa edcp relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Indianapolis
Location within the United States
North America laea relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Indianapolis
Location within North America
Coordinates: 39°46′07″N86°09′29″W / 39.76861°N 86.15806°W / 39.76861; -86.15806 Coordinates: 39°46′07″N86°09′29″W / 39.76861°N 86.15806°W / 39.76861; -86.15806
Country United States
State Indiana
County Marion
FoundedJanuary 6, 1821 [2]
Incorporated (town) September 3, 1832 [2]
Incorporated (city)March 30, 1847 [2]
City-county consolidation January 1, 1970 [3]
Government
  Type Strong mayor–council
  Body Indianapolis City-County Council
   Mayor Joe Hogsett (D)
Area
[4]
  Land361.43 sq mi (936.1 km2)
  Water6.52 sq mi (16.9 km2)
Elevation
715 ft (218 m)
Population
 (2010) [5] [6]
   State capital and consolidated city-county 820,445
  Estimate 
(2018) [7]
867,125
  Rank 17th in the United States
  Density2,269/sq mi (876/km2)
   Urban
1,487,483 (US: 33rd)
   Metro
2,048,703 (US: 34th)
   CSA
2,431,361 (US: 28th)
Demonym(s) Indianapolitan [8]
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
Area code(s) 317 and 463
FIPS code 18-36003 [9]
Website www.indy.gov

Indianapolis ( /ˌɪndiəˈnæpəlɪs/ ), [10] [11] [12] often shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2018 estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 876,862. [13] The "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 867,125. [14] It is the 17th most populous city in the U.S. The Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U.S., with 2,048,703 residents. [15] Its combined statistical area ranks 28th, with a population of 2,431,361. [16] Indianapolis covers 368 square miles (950 km2), making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S.

Contents

Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to approximately 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. [17] In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government. The city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1-square-mile (2.6 km2) grid next to the White River. Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail later solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. [18] Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". [19] [20] [1] Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor.

Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U.S., based primarily on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing, professional and business services, education and health care, government, and wholesale trade. [21] The city has notable niche markets in amateur sports and auto racing. [22] [23] The Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company, and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. [24] The city has hosted many international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is perhaps best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500. [25]

Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League (NFL). It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, and Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI). The city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest privately funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, and public art. [26] [27] [28] [29] The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U.S. outside of Washington, D.C. [30] [31]

History

Etymology

The name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name, Indiana (meaning "Land of the Indians", or simply "Indian Land" [32] ), and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. [33] Other names considered were Concord, Suwarrow, and Tecumseh. [34]

Founding

A depiction of 1820 Indianapolis. Greater Indianapolis ;the history, the industries, the institutions, and the people of a city of homes (1910) (14803447463).jpg
A depiction of 1820 Indianapolis.
The Third Indiana Statehouse (1835-1877). AmCyc Indianapolis - State House.jpg
The Third Indiana Statehouse (1835–1877).

In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U.S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government. [35] Two years later, under the Treaty of St. Mary's (1818), the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821. [17] This tract of land, which was called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. [36]

The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840. [37] The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are generally considered to be the first permanent settlers; however, some historians believe George Pogue and family may have arrived first, on March 2, 1819, and settled in a log cabin along the creek that was later called Pogue's Run. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, and employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820. [38]

On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. [39] The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. [2] In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. [40] Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832 when Indianapolis incorporated as a town. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council. The city charter continued to be revised as Indianapolis expanded. [41] Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Corydon, Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U.S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825. [42]

Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. [43] A small segment of the ultimately failed Indiana Central Canal was opened in 1839. [44] The first railroad to serve Indianapolis, the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, began operation in 1847, and subsequent railroad connections fostered growth. [45] Indianapolis Union Station was the first of its kind in the world when it opened in 1853. [46]

Civil War and Gilded Age

Confederate POWs at Camp Morton in 1864. Prisoners at Camp Morton, c. 1863.jpg
Confederate POWs at Camp Morton in 1864.
Child laborers in an Indianapolis furniture factory, 1908. Child workers in Indianapolis.jpg
Child laborers in an Indianapolis furniture factory, 1908.

During the American Civil War, Indianapolis was mostly loyal to the Union cause. Governor Oliver P. Morton, a major supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, quickly made Indianapolis a rallying place for Union army troops. On February 11, 1861, president-elect Lincoln arrived in the city, en route to Washington, D.C. for his presidential inauguration, marking the first visit from a president-elect in the city's history. [47] On April 16, 1861, the first orders were issued to form Indiana's first regiments and establish Indianapolis as a headquarters for the state's volunteer soldiers. [48] [49] Within a week, more than 12,000 recruits signed up to fight for the Union. [50]

Indianapolis became a major logistics hub during the war, establishing the city as a crucial military base. [51] [52] Between 1860 and 1870, the city's population more than doubled. [45] An estimated 4,000 men from Indianapolis served in 39 regiments, and an estimated 700 died during the war. [53] On May 20, 1863, Union soldiers attempted to disrupt a statewide Democratic convention at Indianapolis, forcing the proceedings to be adjourned, sarcastically referred to as the Battle of Pogue's Run. [54] Fear turned to panic in July 1863, during Morgan's Raid into southern Indiana, but Confederate forces turned east toward Ohio, never reaching Indianapolis. [55] On April 30, 1865, Lincoln's funeral train made a stop at Indianapolis, where an estimated crowd of more than 100,000 people passed the assassinated president's bier at the Indiana Statehouse. [52] [56]

Following the Civil War—and in the wake of the Second Industrial Revolution—Indianapolis experienced tremendous growth and prosperity. In 1880, Indianapolis was the world's third largest pork packing city, after Chicago and Cincinnati, and the second largest railroad center in the United States by 1888. [57] [58] By 1890, the city's population surpassed 100,000. [45] Some of the city's most notable businesses were founded during this period of growth and innovation, including L. S. Ayres (1872), Eli Lilly and Company (1876), Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company (1910), and Allison Transmission (1915). Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing. [59] The city was an early focus of labor organization. [45] The Indianapolis Street Car Strike of 1913 and subsequent police mutiny and riots led to the creation of the state's earliest labor-protection laws, including a minimum wage, regular work weeks, and improved working conditions. [60] The International Typographical Union and United Mine Workers of America were among several influential labor unions based in the city. [45]

Modern Indianapolis

Meridian Street and Washington Street in 1904. Downtown Indianapolis, 1904.jpg
Meridian Street and Washington Street in 1904.
1911 Indianapolis 500, the inaugural running of the race. La course d'Indianapolis 1911.jpg
1911 Indianapolis 500, the inaugural running of the race.

Some of the city's most prominent architectural features and best known historical events date from the turn of the 20th century. The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, dedicated on May 15, 1902, would later become the city's unofficial symbol. [61] Ray Harroun won the inaugural running of the Indianapolis 500, held May 30, 1911, at Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Indianapolis was one of the hardest hit cities in the Great Flood of 1913, resulting in five known deaths [62] [63] [64] and the displacement of 7,000 families. [65]

As a stop on the Underground Railroad, Indianapolis had a higher black population than any other city in the Northern States, until the Great Migration. [66] Led by D. C. Stephenson, the Indiana Klan became the most powerful political and social organization in Indianapolis from 1921 through 1928, controlling City Council and the Board of School Commissioners, among others. At its height, more than 40% of native-born white males in Indianapolis claimed membership in the Klan. While campaigning in the city in 1968, Robert F. Kennedy delivered one of the most lauded speeches in 20th century American history, following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. [67] [68] [69] As in most U.S. cities during the Civil Rights Movement, the city experienced strained race relations. A 1971 federal court decision forcing Indianapolis Public Schools to implement desegregation busing proved controversial. [70]

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in 1970, the year Unigov was enacted. Monument Circle and historic district.jpg
The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in 1970, the year Unigov was enacted.

Under the mayoral administration of Richard Lugar, the city and county governments restructured, consolidating most public services into a new entity called Unigov. The plan removed bureaucratic redundancies, captured increasingly suburbanizing tax revenue, and created a Republican political machine that dominated Indianapolis politics until the 2000s decade. [71] [72] Unigov went into effect on January 1, 1970, increasing the city's land area by 308.2 square miles (798 km2) and population by 268,366 people. [73] [74] It was the first major city-county consolidation to occur in the United States without a referendum since the creation of the City of Greater New York in 1898. [75]

Amid the changes in government and growth, the city invested in an aggressive strategy to brand Indianapolis as a sports tourism destination. Under the administration of the city's longest-serving mayor, William Hudnut (1976–1992), millions of dollars were poured into sport facilities. [23] Throughout the 1980s, $122 million in public and private funding built the Indianapolis Tennis Center, Major Taylor Velodrome, Indiana University Natatorium, Carroll Track and Soccer Stadium, and Hoosier Dome. [23] The latter project secured the 1984 relocation of the NFL Baltimore Colts and the 1987 Pan American Games. [23] The economic development strategy succeeded in revitalizing the central business district through the 1990s, with the openings of the Indianapolis Zoo, Canal Walk, [44] Circle Centre Mall, Victory Field, and Bankers Life Fieldhouse.

During the 2000s, the city continued investing heavily in infrastructure projects, including two of the largest building projects in the city's history: the $1.1 billion Col. H. Weir Cook Terminal and $720 million Lucas Oil Stadium, both opened in 2008. [76] [77] A $275 million expansion of the Indiana Convention Center was completed in 2011. [78] Construction began that year on DigIndy, a $1.9 billion project to correct the city's combined sewer overflows (CSOs) by 2025. [79]

Geography

Landsat simulated-color image of the Indianapolis metropolitan area. NASA Satellite Captures Super Bowl Cities - Indianapolis (6813844367).jpg
Landsat simulated-color image of the Indianapolis metropolitan area.

Indianapolis is in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States, in central Indiana. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Indianapolis (balance) encompasses a total area of 368.2 square miles (954 km2), of which 361.5 square miles (936 km2) is land and 6.7 square miles (17 km2) is water. The consolidated city boundaries are coterminous with Marion County, with the exception of the autonomous municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway. [45] [80] Indianapolis is the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S.

Indianapolis is within the Tipton Till Plain, a flat to gently sloping terrain underlain by glacial deposits known as till. [81] The lowest point in the city is about 650 feet (198 m) above mean sea level, with the highest natural elevation at about 900 feet (274 m) above sea level. [81] Few hills or short ridges, known as kames, rise about 100 feet (30 m) to 130 feet (40 m) above the surrounding terrain. [81] The city lies just north of the Indiana Uplands, a region characterized by rolling hills and high limestone content. The city is also within the EPA's Eastern Corn Belt Plains ecoregion, an area of the U.S. known for its fertile agricultural land. [82]

Topographic relief slopes gently toward the White River and its two primary tributaries, Fall and Eagle creeks. In total, there are about 35 streams in the city, including Indian Creek and Pogue's Run. [83] Major bodies of water include Indian Lake, Geist Reservoir, and Eagle Creek Reservoir.

Cityscape

Panorama of downtown Indianapolis skyline, July 2016.jpg
Panorama of the downtown Indianapolis skyline in 2016.
The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument was dedicated in 1902. Monument Circle, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.jpg
The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument was dedicated in 1902.
Alexander Ralston's "Plat of the Town of Indianapolis," today known as the Mile Square. Plat of Indianapolis by Alexander Ralston.jpg
Alexander Ralston's "Plat of the Town of Indianapolis," today known as the Mile Square.
The Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District includes the American Legion (left) and Scottish Rite Cathedral (right). Indianapolis-1888215.jpg
The Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District includes the American Legion (left) and Scottish Rite Cathedral (right).

Indianapolis is a planned city. On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital, appointing Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham to survey and design a town plan for Indianapolis. Ralston had been a surveyor for the French architect Pierre L'Enfant, assisting him with the plan for Washington, D.C. Ralston's original plan for Indianapolis called for a town of 1 square mile (2.6 km2), near the confluence of the White River and Fall Creek. [84]

The plan, known as the Mile Square, is bounded by East, West, North, and South streets, centered on a traffic circle, called Monument Circle (originally Governor's Circle), from which Indianapolis's "Circle City" nickname originated. [85] Four diagonal streets radiated a block from Monument Circle: Massachusetts, Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana avenues. [86] The city's address numbering system begins at the intersection of Washington and Meridian streets. [87] Before its submersion into a sanitary tunnel, Pogue's Run was included into the plan, disrupting the rectilinear street grid to the southeast.

Noted as one of the finest examples of the City Beautiful movement design in the United States, the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District began construction in 1921 in downtown Indianapolis. [88] [89] The district, a National Historic Landmark, encompasses several examples of neoclassical architecture, including the American Legion, Central Library, and Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse. The district is also home to several sculptures and memorials, Depew Memorial Fountain , and open space, hosting many annual civic events. [89]

After completion of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, an ordinance was passed in 1905 restricting building heights on the traffic circle to 86 ft (26 m) to protect views of the 284 ft (87 m) monument. [90] The ordinance was revised in 1922, permitting buildings to rise to 108 ft (33 m), with an additional 42 ft (13 m) allowable with a series of setbacks. [90] A citywide height restriction ordinance was instituted in 1912, barring structures over 200 ft (61 m). [91] Completed in 1962, the City-County Building was the first skyscraper in the city, surpassing the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in height by nearly 100 ft (30 m). [92] A building boom, lasting from 1982 to 1990, saw the construction of six of the city's ten tallest buildings. [93] [94] The tallest is Salesforce Tower, completed in 1990 at 811 ft (247 m). [95] Indiana limestone is the signature building material in Indianapolis, widely included in the city's many monuments, churches, academic, government, and civic buildings. [93]

Compared with similar-sized American cities, Indianapolis is unique in that it contains some 200 farms covering thousands of acres of agricultural land within its municipal boundaries. [96] Equestrian farms and corn and soybean fields interspersed with suburban development are commonplace on the city's periphery, especially in Franklin Township. The stark contrast between Indianapolis's urban neighborhoods and rural villages is a result of the 1970 city-county consolidation, which expanded the city's incorporated boundary to be coterminous with Marion County. [97]

Neighborhoods

Webster Avenue in Irvington Terrace.jpg
360 Market Square, 2017.jpg
Single-family homes in Irvington Terrace (top) and contemporary high-rise apartments Downtown (bottom).

The city is divided into 99 community areas for statistical purposes, though many smaller neighborhoods exist within them. [98] Indianapolis's neighborhoods are often difficult to define because the city lacks historical ethnic divisions, as in Chicago, or physical boundaries, seen in Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. [99] Instead, most neighborhoods are subtle in their distinctions. [99] The Indianapolis Historic Preservation Commission recognizes several neighborhoods as historic districts, including: Central Court, Chatham Arch, Golden Hill, Herron-Morton Place, Lockerbie Square, Old Northside, Old Southside and Oliver Johnson's Woods. Expansion of the interurban system at the turn of the 20th century facilitated growth of several streetcar suburbs, including Broad Ripple, Irvington, University Heights, and Woodruff Place. [99]

The post–World War II economic expansion and subsequent suburbanization had a profound impact on the physical development of the city's neighborhoods. From 1950 to 1970, 97,000 housing units were built in Marion County. [99] Most of this new construction occurred outside Center Township, expediting out-migration from the city's urban neighborhoods to suburban areas, such as Castleton, Eagledale, and Nora. Between 1950 and 1990, over 155,000 residents left Center Township, resulting in urban blight and disinvestment. [99] Since the 2000s, Downtown Indianapolis and surrounding neighborhoods have seen increased reinvestment attributed to nationwide demographic trends, driven by empty nesters and millennials. [100] By 2020, Downtown is projected to have 30,000 residential units, compared to 18,300 in 2010. [101]

Renewed interest in urban living has been met with some dispute regarding gentrification and affordable housing. [102] [103] [104] According to a Center for Community Progress report, neighborhoods like Cottage Home and Fall Creek Place have experienced measurable gentrification since 2000. [105] The North Meridian Street Historic District is among the most affluent urban neighborhoods in the U.S., with a mean household income of $102,599 in 2017. [106]

Climate

Carrilon.png
Butler Winter 2015 04.jpg
Fall foliage (left) and a late-winter snow (right) on the Butler University campus.

Indianapolis has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), but can be considered a borderline humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) using the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm. It experiences four distinct seasons. [107] The city is in USDA hardiness zone 6a. [108]

Typically, summers are hot, humid and wet. Winters are generally cold with moderate snowfall. The July daily average temperature is 75.4 °F (24.1 °C). High temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 18 days each year, [109] and occasionally exceed 95 °F (35 °C). Spring and autumn are usually pleasant, if at times unpredictable; midday temperature drops exceeding 30 °F or 17 °C are common during March and April, and instances of very warm days (80 °F or 27 °C) followed within 36 hours by snowfall are not unusual during these months. Winters are cold, with an average January temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C). Temperatures dip to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below an average of 4.7 nights per year. [109]

The rainiest months occur in the spring and summer, with slightly higher averages during May, June, and July. May is typically the wettest, with an average of 5.05 inches (12.8 cm) of precipitation. [109] Most rain is derived from thunderstorm activity; there is no distinct dry season, although occasional droughts occur. Severe weather is not uncommon, particularly in the spring and summer months; the city experiences an average of 20 thunderstorm days annually. [110]

The city's average annual precipitation is 42.4 inches (108 cm), with snowfall averaging 25.9 inches (66 cm) per season. Official temperature extremes range from 106 °F (41 °C), set on July 14, 1936, [111] to −27 °F (−33 °C), set on January 19, 1994. [111] [112]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1840 2,695
1850 8,091200.2%
1860 18,611130.0%
1870 48,244159.2%
1880 75,05655.6%
1890 105,43640.5%
1900 169,16460.4%
1910 233,65038.1%
1920 314,19434.5%
1930 364,16115.9%
1940 386,9726.3%
1950 427,17310.4%
1960 476,25811.5%
1970 744,62456.3%
1980 700,807−5.9%
1990 731,3274.4%
2000 781,9266.9%
2010 820,4454.9%
Est. 2018867,125 [7] 5.7%
[5] [115] [116]
Racial composition2016 [117] 2010 [118] 1990 [119] 1970 [119]
White 61.6%61.8%75.8%81.6%
—Non-Hispanic56.5%58.6%75.2%80.9% [120]
Black or African American 28.0%27.5%22.6%18.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)9.9%9.4%1.1%0.8% [120]
Asian 2.8%2.1%0.9%0.1%

The U.S. Census Bureau considers Indianapolis as two entities: the consolidated city and the city's remainder, or balance. The consolidated city is coterminous with Marion County, except the independent municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway. [121] The city's balance excludes the populations of ten semi-autonomous municipalities that are included in totals for the consolidated city. [80] These are Clermont, Crows Nest, Homecroft, Meridian Hills, North Crows Nest, Rocky Ripple, Spring Hill, Warren Park, Williams Creek, and Wynnedale. [121] [3] An eleventh town, Cumberland, is partially included. [122] [123] As of 2018, the city's estimated consolidated population was 876,862 and its balance was 867,125. [13] [14] As of 2010, the city's population density was 2,270 people per square mile (880/km2). [124] Indianapolis is the most populous city in Indiana, containing nearly 13% of the state's total population. [80]

The Indianapolis metropolitan area, officially the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson metropolitan statistical area (MSA), consists of Marion County and the surrounding counties of Boone, Brown, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Johnson, Madison, Morgan, Putnam, and Shelby. As of 2018, the metropolitan area's population was 2,048,703, the most populous in Indiana and home to 30% of the state's residents. [15] [125] With a population of 2,431,361, the larger Indianapolis–Carmel–Muncie combined statistical area (CSA) covers 18 counties, home to 36% of Indiana residents. [16] [126] Indianapolis is also situated within the Great Lakes Megalopolis, the largest of 11 megaregions in the U.S.

Map of racial distribution in Indianapolis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) Race and ethnicity 2010- Indianapolis (5560477952).png
Map of racial distribution in Indianapolis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

According to the U.S. Census of 2010, 97.2% of the Indianapolis population was reported as one race: 61.8% White, 27.5% Black or African American, 2.1% Asian (0.4% Burmese, 0.4% Indian, 0.3% Chinese, 0.3% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.1% Thai, 0.1% other Asian); 0.3% American Indian, and 5.5% as other. The remaining 2.8% of the population was reported as multiracial (two or more races). [127] The city's Hispanic or Latino community comprised 9.4% of the city's population in the 2010 U.S. Census: 6.9% Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, and 2% as other. [127]

As of 2010, the median age for Indianapolis was 33.7 years. Age distribution for the city's inhabitants was 25% under the age of 18; 4.4% were between 18 and 21; 16.3% were age 21 to 65; and 13.1% were age 65 or older. [127] For every 100 females, there were 93 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90 males. [128]

The U.S. Census for 2010 reported 332,199 households in Indianapolis, with an average household size of 2.42 and an average family size of 3.08. [127] Of the total households, 59.3% were family households, with 28.2% of these including the family's own children under the age of 18; 36.5% were husband-wife families; 17.2% had a female householder (with no husband present) and 5.6% had a male householder (with no wife present). The remaining 40.7% were non-family households. [127] As of 2010, 32% of the non-family households included individuals living alone, 8.3% of these households included individuals age 65 years of age or older. [127]

The U.S. Census Bureau's 2007–2011 American Community Survey indicated the median household income for Indianapolis city was $42,704, and the median family income was $53,161. [129] Median income for males working full-time, year-round, was $42,101, compared to $34,788 for females. Per capita income for the city was $24,430, 14.7% of families and 18.9% of the city's total population living below the poverty line (28.3% were under the age of 18 and 9.2% were age 65 or older). [129]

As of 2015, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the 18th highest percentage of LGBT residents in the U.S., with 4.2% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. [130]

Religion

Interior of Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, head church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis. Saints Peter & Paul Cathedral (Indianapolis, Indiana), interior, nave view from the organ loft.jpg
Interior of Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, head church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis.

Of the 42.42% of the city's residents who identify as religious, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, at 11.31%. [131] The second highest religious group in the city are Baptists at 10.31%, with Methodists following behind at 4.97%. Presbyterians make up 2.13% of the city's religiously affiliated population, followed by Pentecostals and Lutherans. Another 8.57% are affiliated with other Christian faiths. [131] 0.32% of religiously affiliated persons identified themselves as following Eastern religions, while 0.68% of the religiously affiliated population identified as Jewish, and 0.29% as Muslim. [131] According to the nonpartisan and nonprofit Public Religion Research Institute's American Values Atlas, 22% of residents identify as religiously "unaffiliated," consistent with the national average of 22.7%. [132]

Indianapolis is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis. Joseph W. Tobin, C.Ss.R., served as archbishop from 2012 to 2017 and was elevated to cardinal in November 2016. On June 13, 2017, Pope Francis announced Charles C. Thompson would replace Tobin, who was reassigned to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark in January 2017. [133] Thompson is the youngest American archbishop. [134] The archdiocese also operates Bishop Simon Bruté College Seminary, affiliated with Marian University, while the Christian Theological Seminary is affiliated with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).

Indianapolis is the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Indianapolis, based from Christ Church Cathedral. The Indiana-Kentucky Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Indiana Conference of the United Methodist Church are also based in the city.

Economy

Downtown Indianapolis is the largest employment cluster in Indiana, with nearly 43,000 jobs per square mile (17,000/km). Indianapolis-1872528.jpg
Downtown Indianapolis is the largest employment cluster in Indiana, with nearly 43,000 jobs per square mile (17,000/km).
Indianapolis-based Eli Lilly and Company is the city's largest employer. Eli Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.jpg
Indianapolis-based Eli Lilly and Company is the city's largest employer.
FedEx Express cargo plane at Indianapolis International Airport. MD-10 taxi at KIND - panoramio.jpg
FedEx Express cargo plane at Indianapolis International Airport.

In 2015, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $134 billion. The top five industries were: finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing ($30.7B), manufacturing ($30.1B), professional and business services ($14.3B), educational services, health care, and social assistance ($10.8B), and wholesale trade ($8.1B). Government, if it had been a private industry, would have ranked fifth, generating $10.2 billion. [21] Indianapolis is considered a "sufficiency" world city. [136]

Compared to Indiana as a whole, the Indianapolis metropolitan area has a lower proportion of manufacturing jobs and a higher concentration of jobs in wholesale trade; administrative, support, and waste management; professional, scientific, and technical services; and transportation and warehousing. [137] The city's major exports include pharmaceuticals, motor vehicle parts, medical equipment and supplies, engine and power equipment, and aircraft products and parts. [19] According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the region's unemployment rate was 2.8 percent in May 2019. [138]

As of 2019, three Fortune 500 companies were based in the city: health insurance company Anthem Inc. (33); [139] pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly (123); [140] and Simon Property Group (496), the largest real estate investment trust in the U.S. [141] Columbus, Indiana-based Cummins (128) opened its Global Distribution Headquarters in downtown Indianapolis in 2017. [142] [143] The city is home to three Fortune 1000 companies: hydrocarbon manufacturer Calumet Specialty Products Partners (604); automotive transmission manufacturer Allison Transmission (890); and retailer Finish Line (972). Other companies based in the Indianapolis metropolitan area include: real estate investment trust Duke Realty; [144] media conglomerate Emmis Communications; [145] retailer Lids; [146] financial services holding company OneAmerica; [147] airline holding company Republic Airways; [148] truckload carrier Celadon Group; [149] and fast food chains Noble Roman's and Steak 'n Shake.

Like many Midwestern cities, recent deindustrialization trends have had a significant impact on the local economy. Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing in the early 20th century. [59] Between 1990 and 2012, approximately 26,900 manufacturing jobs were lost in the city, including the automotive plant closures of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors. [150] In 2016, Carrier Corporation announced the closure of its Indianapolis plant, moving 1,400 manufacturing jobs to Mexico. [151] Since 1915, Rolls-Royce Holdings has had operations in Indianapolis. [152] It is the third largest manufacturing employer and thirteenth largest employer overall in the city, with a workforce of 4,300 in aircraft engine development and manufacturing. [153]

Biotechnology, life sciences and health care are major sectors of Indianapolis's economy. As of 2016, Eli Lilly and Company was the largest private employer in the city, with more than 11,000 workers. [154] The North American headquarters for Roche Diagnostics and Dow AgroSciences are also in the city. [155] A 2014 report by the Battelle Memorial Institute and Biotechnology Industry Organization indicated that the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson MSA was the only U.S. metropolitan area to have specialized employment concentrations in all five bioscience sectors evaluated in the study: agricultural feedstock and chemicals; bioscience-related distribution; drugs and pharmaceuticals; medical devices and equipment; and research, testing, and medical laboratories. [156] The regional health care providers of Community Health Network, Eskenazi Health, Franciscan Health, Indiana University Health, and St. Vincent Health have a combined workforce of 43,700. [157]

The city's central location and extensive highway and rail infrastructure have positioned Indianapolis as an important logistics center, home to 1,500 distribution firms employing some 100,000 workers. [158] [159] [160] As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, Indianapolis International Airport ranks as the sixth busiest U.S. airport in terms of air cargo transport, handling over 1 million tons and employing 6,600 in 2015. [161] [162] Indianapolis is a hub for CSX Transportation, home to its division headquarters, an intermodal terminal, and classification yard (in the suburb of Avon). [163] Amtrak's Beech Grove Shops, in the enclave of Beech Grove, serve as its primary heavy maintenance and overhaul facility, while the Indianapolis Distribution Center is the company's largest material and supply terminal. [164] [165]

The hospitality industry is an increasingly vital sector to the Indianapolis economy. According to Visit Indy, 28.8 million visitors generated $5.4 billion in 2017, the seventh straight year of record growth. [166] Indianapolis has long been a sports tourism destination, but has more recently relied on conventions. [167] The Indiana Convention Center (ICC) and Lucas Oil Stadium are considered mega convention center facilities, with a combined 750,000 square feet (70,000 m2) of exhibition space. [168] ICC is connected to 12 hotels and 4,700 hotel rooms, the most of any U.S. convention center. [169] In 2008, the facility hosted 42 national conventions with an attendance of 317,815; in 2014, it hosted 106 for an attendance of 635,701. [167] Since 2003, Indianapolis has hosted Gen Con, one of the largest gaming conventions in North America. [170]

According to real estate tracking firm CBRE Group, Indianapolis ranks among the fastest high-tech job growth areas in the U.S. [171] [172] The metropolitan area is home to 28,500 information technology-related jobs at such companies as Angie's List, Appirio, Formstack, Genesys, Infosys, [173] Ingram Micro, and Salesforce Marketing Cloud. [174] [175]

Major shopping malls in the city include Castleton Square, Circle Centre, The Fashion Mall at Keystone, Glendale Town Center, Lafayette Square, and Washington Square.

Culture and contemporary life

Part of the "Month of May" celebrations, the 500 Festival Parade is one of the nation's largest, regularly drawing 300,000 spectators. Race to Indy!.jpg
Part of the "Month of May" celebrations, the 500 Festival Parade is one of the nation's largest, regularly drawing 300,000 spectators.

Seven cultural districts have been designated to capitalize on cultural institutions within historically significant neighborhoods unique to the city's heritage. These include Broad Ripple Village, Canal and White River State Park, Fountain Square, Indiana Avenue, Market East, Mass Ave, and Wholesale. [177] [178]

After 12 years of planning and six years of construction, the Indianapolis Cultural Trail officially opened in 2013. [179] The $62.5 million public-private partnership, spurred by an initial donation of $15 million by philanthropists Gene B. Glick and Marilyn Glick, resulted in 8 miles (13 km) of urban bike and pedestrian corridors linking the city's cultural districts with neighborhoods, IUPUI, and every significant arts, cultural, heritage, sports and entertainment venue downtown. [180] [181] [182] [183] [184]

Indianapolis is home to dozens of annual festivals and events showcasing local culture. Notable events include the "Month of May" (a series of celebrations leading to the Indianapolis 500), Indiana Black Expo, Indiana State Fair, Indy Pride Festival, and Historic Irvington Halloween Festival.

Visual arts

Robert Indiana's iconic LOVE at the Indianapolis Museum of Art. IMA - All you need is rust! (2592098693).jpg
Robert Indiana's iconic LOVE at the Indianapolis Museum of Art.

Founded in 1883, the Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA) is the ninth oldest [185] [note 1] and eighth largest encyclopedic art museum in the U.S. [187] [note 2] The permanent collection has over 54,000 works, including African, American, Asian, and European pieces. [188] In addition to its collections, the Newfields campus consists of The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park: 100 Acres; Oldfields, a restored house museum and estate once owned by Josiah K. Lilly, Jr.; and restored gardens and grounds originally designed by Percival Gallagher of the Olmsted Brothers firm. [189] The IMA also owns the Miller House, a Mid-century modern home designed by Eero Saarinen in Columbus, Indiana. [190] The museum's holdings demonstrate the institution's emphasis on the connections among art, design, and the natural environment. [186]

October Suite: Grand Canyon by Wilson Hurley at the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art. A place for family stories of the Grand Canyon.jpg
October Suite: Grand Canyon by Wilson Hurley at the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art.

The Indianapolis Art Center, in Broad Ripple Village, was founded in 1934 by the Works Project Administration. The center opened at its Michael Graves-designed building in 1996, including three public art galleries, 11 studios, a library, and auditorium. Opened in 2005, the center's ARTSPARK sculpture garden covers 12.5 acres (5.1 ha) along the White River. [191] Indianapolis Contemporary, established in 2001, curates pop-up exhibits at various locations throughout the city. [192]

Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art opened in 1989 at White River State Park as the only Native American art museum in the Midwest. [193] Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) contains the Herron School of Art and Design. Established in 1902, the school's first core faculty included Impressionist painters of the Hoosier Group: T. C. Steele, J. Ottis Adams, William Forsyth, Richard Gruelle, and Otto Stark. The university's public art collection is extensive, with more than 30 works. Other public works can be found in the Eskenazi Health Art Collection and the Indiana Statehouse Public Art Collection.

Performing arts

Indianapolis's most notable performing arts venues are in the Mass Ave cultural district or Downtown. The Indiana Theatre opened as a movie palace on Washington Street in 1927 and houses the Indiana Repertory Theatre, a regional repertory theatre. Located on Monument Circle since 1916, the 1,786-seat Hilbert Circle Theatre is the home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra (ISO). Founded in 1930, the ISO performed 180 concerts to over 275,000 guests during the 2015–2016 season, generating a record $8.5 million in ticket sales. [194] The Indianapolis Opera, founded in 1975, maintains a collaborative relationship with the ISO.

Madam Walker Legacy Center opened on Indiana Avenue in 1927 as a cultural center for the city's African American community. Madame Walker Theatre Center.jpg
Madam Walker Legacy Center opened on Indiana Avenue in 1927 as a cultural center for the city's African American community.

In 1927, Madam Walker Legacy Center opened in the heart of the city's African-American neighborhood on Indiana Avenue. [196] The theater is named for Sarah Breedlove, or Madam C. J. Walker, an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and activist who began her beauty empire in Indianapolis. Indiana Avenue was home to a notable jazz scene from the 1920s through the 1960s, producing greats such as David Baker, Slide Hampton, Freddie Hubbard, J. J. Johnson, James Spaulding, and the Montgomery Brothers (Buddy, Monk, and Wes). [197] Wes Montgomery is considered one of the most influential jazz guitarists of all time, [197] [198] and is credited with popularizing the "Naptown Sound." [199]

Mass Ave is home to the Old National Centre, Phoenix Theatre, and the Athenæum (Das Deutsche Haus). Old National Centre at the Murat Shrine is the oldest stage house in Indianapolis, opened in 1909. [200] The building is a prime example of Moorish Revival architecture and features a 2,600-seat performing arts theatre, 1,800-seat concert hall, and 600-seat multi-functional room, hosting approximately 300 public and private events throughout the year. [200] The nonprofit Phoenix Theatre focuses on contemporary theatrical productions. [201] The Athenæum, houses the American Cabaret Theater and Young Actors Theater.

Other notable venues include the Indianapolis Artsgarden, a performing arts center suspended over the intersection of Washington and Illinois streets, Clowes Memorial Hall on the Butler University campus, Melody Inn in Butler-Tarkington, Rivoli Theater, and The Emerson Theater in Little Flower.

Indianapolis is home to Bands of America (BOA), a nationwide organization of high school marching, concert, and jazz bands, and the headquarters for Drum Corps International (DCI), a professional drum and bugle corps association. [202] Annual music events include the International Violin Competition of Indianapolis, Midwest Music Summit, and Indy Jazz Fest. The Heartland Film Festival, Indianapolis International Film Festival, Indianapolis Jewish Film Festival, Indianapolis Theatre Fringe Festival and the Indianapolis Alternative Media Festival are annual events held in the city.

Literature

A mural memorializing Kurt Vonnegut stands on Mass Ave. The project was completed by local artist Pamela Bliss in 2011. Mass Ave.jpg
A mural memorializing Kurt Vonnegut stands on Mass Ave. The project was completed by local artist Pamela Bliss in 2011.

Indianapolis was at the center of the Golden Age of Indiana Literature from 1870 to 1920. [203] Several notable poets and writers based in the city achieved national prominence and critical acclaim during this period, including James Whitcomb Riley, Booth Tarkington, and Meredith Nicholson. [20] In A History of Indiana Literature, Arthur W. Shumaker remarked on the era's influence: "It was the age of famous men and their famous books. In it Indiana, and particularly Indianapolis, became a literary center which in many ways rivaled the East." [204] A 1947 study found that Indiana authors ranked second to New York in the number of bestsellers produced in the previous 40 years. [203] Located in Lockerbie Square, the James Whitcomb Riley Museum Home has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962.

Perhaps the city's most famous 20th-century writer was Kurt Vonnegut, known for his darkly satirical and controversial bestselling novel Slaughterhouse-Five (1969). The Kurt Vonnegut Museum and Library opened in 2010 downtown. [205] Vonnegut became known for including at least one character in his novels from Indianapolis. [206] Upon returning to the city in 1986, Vonnegut acknowledged the influence the city had on his writings:

Indianapolis is home to bestselling young adult fiction writer John Green, known for his critically acclaimed 2012 novel The Fault in Our Stars , set in the city. [207]

Attractions

Azy, a male orangutan at the Indianapolis Zoo. Azy (orangutan) at the Indianapolis Zoo.jpg
Azy, a male orangutan at the Indianapolis Zoo.
"Bucky," a juvenile Tyrannosaurus specimen at The Children's Museum of Indianapolis. Bucky the T. Rex 1.jpg
"Bucky," a juvenile Tyrannosaurus specimen at The Children's Museum of Indianapolis.
The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site is a National Historic Landmark. Benjamin Harrison Home.jpg
The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site is a National Historic Landmark.
The Canal Walk portion of the Indiana Central Canal and Medal of Honor Memorial at night. Downtown Indy at night from canal walk.jpg
The Canal Walk portion of the Indiana Central Canal and Medal of Honor Memorial at night.

The Children's Museum of Indianapolis is the largest of its kind in the world, offering 433,000 square feet (40,227.02 m2) of exhibit space. [208] The museum holds a collection of over 120,000 artifacts, including the Broad Ripple Park Carousel, a National Historic Landmark. [209] Because of its leadership and innovations, the museum is a world leader in its field. [210] Child and Parents magazine have both ranked the museum as the best children's museum in the U.S. [211] The museum is one of the city's most popular attractions, with 1.2 million visitors in 2014. [212]

The Indianapolis Zoo is home to nearly 1,400 animals of 214 species and 31,000 plants, including many threatened and endangered species. [213] [214] The zoo is a leader in animal conservation and research, recognized for its biennial Indianapolis Prize designation. It is the only American zoo accredited as a zoo, aquarium, and zoological garden by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. [215] It is the largest privately funded zoo in the U.S. and one of the city's most visited attractions, with 1.2 million guests in 2014. [28] [212]

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum exhibits an extensive collection of auto racing memorabilia showcasing various motorsports and automotive history. [216] [217] The museum is the permanent home of the Borg-Warner Trophy, presented to Indianapolis 500 winners. [25] Daily grounds and track tours are also based at the museum. [217] The NCAA Hall of Champions opened in 2000 at White River State Park housing collegiate athletic artifacts and interactive exhibits covering all 23 NCAA-sanctioned sports. [218] [219]

Indianapolis is home to several centers commemorating Indiana history. These include the Indiana Historical Society, Indiana State Library and Historical Bureau, Indiana State Museum, and Indiana Medical History Museum. Indiana Landmarks, the largest private statewide historic preservation organization in the U.S., is also in the city. [220] The former Indiana Central Canal, now called the Canal Walk, offers footpaths and paddle boat rides, linking several museums in downtown's White River State Park. The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, in the Old Northside Historic District, is open for daily tours and includes archives and memorabilia from the 23rd President of the United States. President Harrison is buried about 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the site at Crown Hill Cemetery, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Other notable graves include three U.S. Vice Presidents and notorious American gangster, John Dillinger.

Two museums and several memorials in the city commemorate armed forces or conflict, including the Colonel Eli Lilly Civil War Museum at the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument and Indiana World War Memorial Military Museum at the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza. Outside of Washington, D.C., Indianapolis contains the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the nation. [30] [31] Other notable sites are the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, the Medal of Honor Memorial, Project 9/11 Indianapolis, and the USS Indianapolis National Memorial.

Nearly 1.5 miles (2.4 km) of the former Indiana Central Canal—now known as the Canal Walk—link several downtown museums, memorials, and public art pieces. Flanked by walking and bicycling paths, the Canal Walk also offers gondola rides, pedal boat, kayak, and surrey rentals. The Indiana Central Canal has been recognized by the American Water Works Association as an American Water Landmark since 1971. [221]

Cuisine

Indianapolis City Market was founded in 1821. Indianapolis City Market interior.jpg
Indianapolis City Market was founded in 1821.
Urban agriculture on the campus of IUPUI. IUPUI Urban Garden.jpg
Urban agriculture on the campus of IUPUI.

Indianapolis has an emerging food scene as well as established eateries. [222] Founded in 1821 as the city's public market, the Indianapolis City Market has served the community from its current building since 1886. Prior to World War II, the City Market and neighboring Tomlinson Hall (since demolished) were home to meat and vegetable vendors. As consumer habits evolved and residents moved from the central city, the City Market transitioned from a traditional marketplace to a food court, a function it retains today. [223]

Opened in 1902, St. Elmo Steak House is well known for its signature shrimp cocktail, named by the Travel Channel as the "world's spiciest food". In 2012, it was recognized by the James Beard Foundation as one of "America's Classics". [224] The Slippery Noodle Inn, a blues bar and restaurant, is the oldest continuously operating tavern in Indiana, having opened in 1850. [225] The Jazz Kitchen, opened in 1994, was recognized in 2011 by OpenTable as one the "top 50 late night dining hotspots" in the U.S. [226]

Distinctive local dishes include pork tenderloin sandwiches [227] and sugar cream pie, the latter being the unofficial state pie of Indiana. [228] The beef Manhattan, invented in Indianapolis, can also be found on restaurant menus throughout the city and region. [229]

In 2016, Condé Nast Traveler named Indianapolis the "most underrated food city in the U.S.," while ranking Milktooth as one of the best restaurants in the world. [230] [231] Food & Wine called Indianapolis the "rising star of the Midwest," recognizing Milktooth, Rook, Amelia's, and Bluebeard, all in Fletcher Place. [232] [233] Several Indianapolis chefs and restaurateurs have been semifinalists in the James Beard Foundation Awards in recent years. [234] [235] Microbreweries are quickly becoming a staple in the city, increasing fivefold since 2009. [236] There are now about 50 craft brewers in Indianapolis, with Sun King Brewing being the largest. [237]

For some time, Indianapolis was known as the "100 Percent American City" for its racial and ethnic homogeneity. [238] Historically, these factors, as well as low taxes and wages, provided chain restaurants a relatively stable market to test dining preferences before expanding nationwide. As a result, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the highest concentration of chain restaurants per capita of any market in the U.S. in 2008, with one chain restaurant for every 1,459 people—44% higher than the national average. [239] In recent years, immigrants have opened some 800 ethnic restaurants. [238]

Urban agriculture has become increasingly prevalent throughout the city in an effort to alleviate food deserts. In 2018, the Indy Food Council reported a 272% increase in the number of community and urban gardens between 2011 and 2016. [240]

Sports

Lucas Oil Stadium during Super Bowl XLVI. The stadium is home to the Indianapolis Colts and Indy Eleven. Super Bowl-6 (6833620123).jpg
Lucas Oil Stadium during Super Bowl XLVI. The stadium is home to the Indianapolis Colts and Indy Eleven.
Bankers Life Fieldhouse, home to the Indiana Pacers and Indiana Fever since 1999. Bankers Life Fieldhouse, Indianapolis, Estados Unidos, 2012-10-22, DD 02.jpg
Bankers Life Fieldhouse, home to the Indiana Pacers and Indiana Fever since 1999.
Victory Field, home to the Indianapolis Indians since 1996. Victory Field sunset 2.jpg
Victory Field, home to the Indianapolis Indians since 1996.

Two major league sports teams are based in Indianapolis: the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League (NFL) and the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

Originally the Baltimore Colts, the franchise has been based in Indianapolis since relocating in 1984. The Colts' tenure in Indianapolis has produced 11 division championships, two conference championships, and two Super Bowl appearances. Quarterback Peyton Manning led the team to win Super Bowl XLI in the 2006 NFL season. Lucas Oil Stadium replaced the team's first home, the RCA Dome, in 2008.

Founded in 1967, the Indiana Pacers began in the American Basketball Association (ABA), joining the NBA when the leagues merged in 1976. Prior to joining the NBA, the Pacers won three division titles and three championships (1970, 1972, 1973). Since the merger, the Pacers have won one conference title and six division titles, most recently in 2014.

Founded in 2000, the Indiana Fever of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) have won three conference titles and one championship in 2012. The Fever and Pacers share Bankers Life Fieldhouse, which replaced Market Square Arena in 1999. The Indianapolis Indians of the International League (AAA) is the second oldest minor league franchise in American professional baseball, established in 1902. [241] The Indians have won 25 division titles, 14 league titles, and seven championships, most recently in 2000. Since 1996, the team has played at Victory Field, which replaced Bush Stadium. Of the 160 teams comprising Minor League Baseball, the Indians had the highest attendance during the 2016 season. [242] Established in 2013, Indy Eleven of the United Soccer League (USL) plays from Lucas Oil Stadium. Indy Fuel of the ECHL was founded in 2014 and plays from Indiana Farmers Coliseum.

A Butler Bulldogs men's basketball game at Hinkle Fieldhouse. Austin Etherington reverse layup.jpg
A Butler Bulldogs men's basketball game at Hinkle Fieldhouse.

Butler University and Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) are NCAA Division I schools based in the city. The Butler Bulldogs compete in the Big East Conference, except for Butler Bulldogs football, which plays in the Pioneer Football League FCS. The Butler Bulldogs men's basketball team were runners-up in the 2010 and 2011 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship Games. The IUPUI Jaguars compete in the Summit League.

Traditionally, Indianapolis's Hinkle Fieldhouse was the hub for Hoosier Hysteria, a general excitement for the game of basketball throughout the state, specifically the Indiana High School Boys Basketball Tournament. [243] Hinkle, a National Historic Landmark, was opened in 1928 as the world's largest basketball arena, with seating for 15,000. [244] It is regarded as "Indiana's Basketball Cathedral". Perhaps the most notable game was the 1954 state championship, which inspired the critically acclaimed 1986 film, Hoosiers . [245]

Indianapolis has been called the "Amateur Sports Capital of the World". [45] [246] The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the main governing body for U.S. collegiate sports, and the National Federation of State High School Associations are based in Indianapolis. The city is home to three NCAA athletic conferences: the Horizon League (Division I); the Great Lakes Valley Conference (Division II); and the Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference (Division III). Indianapolis is also home to three national sport governing bodies, as recognized by the United States Olympic Committee: USA Gymnastics; USA Diving; and USA Track & Field. [247]

Indianapolis hosts numerous sporting events annually, including the Circle City Classic (1983–present), NFL Scouting Combine (1987–present), and Big Ten Football Championship Game (2011–present). Indianapolis is tied with New York City for having hosted the second most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships (1980, 1991, 1997, 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015). [248] The city will host the men's Final Four next in 2021. [249] The city has also hosted three NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championships (2005, 2011, and 2016). Notable past events include the NBA All-Star Game (1985), Pan American Games X (1987), US Open Series Indianapolis Tennis Championships (1988–2009), WrestleMania VIII (1992), World Rowing Championships (1994), World Police and Fire Games (2001), FIBA Basketball World Cup (2002), and Super Bowl XLVI (2012).

Indianapolis is home to the OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon, the largest half marathon and seventh largest running event in the U.S. [250] The mini-marathon is held the first weekend of May as part of the 500 Festival, leading up to the Indianapolis 500. As of 2013, it had sold out for 12 consecutive years, with 35,000 participants. [251] Held in autumn, the Monumental Marathon is also among the largest in the U.S., with nearly 14,000 entrants in 2015. [252]

Motorsports

Defense.gov photo essay 120527-A-MG757-086.jpg
Defense.gov photo essay 100903-A-3843C-651.jpg
An Indy car crosses the "Yard of Bricks" practicing for the 2012 Indianapolis 500 (left) and Top Fuel dragsters at the NHRA U.S. Nationals.

Indianapolis is a major center for motorsports. Two auto racing sanctioning bodies are headquartered in the city (INDYCAR and United States Auto Club) along with more than 500 motorsports companies and racing teams, employing some 10,000 people in the region. [253] Indianapolis is so well connected with auto racing that it has inspired the name "Indy car," used for both the competition and type of car used in it. [254]

Since 1911, Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS) (in the enclave of Speedway, Indiana) has been the site of the Indianapolis 500, an open-wheel automobile race held annually on Memorial Day weekend. Considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, the Indianapolis 500 is the world's largest single-day sporting event, hosting more than 257,000 permanent seats. [25] Since 1994, IMS has hosted one of NASCAR's highest attended events, the Monster Energy Cup Series Brickyard 400. [255] IMS has also hosted the NASCAR Xfinity Series Lilly Diabetes 250 since 2012 and the IndyCar Series Grand Prix of Indianapolis since 2014.

Lucas Oil Raceway, in nearby Brownsburg, is home to the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) U.S. Nationals, the most prestigious drag racing event in the world, held annually each Labor Day weekend. [256]

Parks and recreation

A white-tailed deer in Eagle Creek Park, one of the largest municipal parks in the U.S. Reminds me of the bridgestone commercial (2669256227).jpg
A white-tailed deer in Eagle Creek Park, one of the largest municipal parks in the U.S.
Hilbert Conservatory at White River Gardens in White River State Park. White River Gardens Conservatory Exterior.jpg
Hilbert Conservatory at White River Gardens in White River State Park.

Indy Parks and Recreation maintains 211 parks covering 11,254 acres (4,554 ha) and some 99 miles (159 km) of trails and greenways. [257] Eagle Creek Park is the largest and most visited park in the city and ranks among the largest municipal parks in the U.S., covering 4,766 acres (1,929 ha). [258] Fishing, sailing, kayaking, canoeing, and swimming are popular activities at Eagle Creek Reservoir. Notable trails and greenways include Pleasant Run Greenway and the Monon Trail. [259] The Monon is a popular rail trail and part of the United States Bicycle Route System, drawing some 1.3 million people annually. [260] [261] There are 13 public golf courses in the city. [262]

Military Park was established as the city's first public park in 1852. [263] By the 20th century, the city enlisted landscape architect George Kessler to conceive a framework for Indianapolis's modern parks system. [264] Kessler's 1909 Indianapolis Park and Boulevard Plan linked notable parks, such as Brookside, Ellenberger, and Garfield, with a system of parkways following the city's waterways. [265] In 2003, the system's 3,474 acres (1,406 ha) were added to the National Register of Historic Places. [266]

Marion County is home to two of Indiana's 25 state parks: Fort Harrison in Lawrence and White River downtown. Fort Harrison is managed by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. White River is owned and operated by the White River State Park Development Commission, a quasi-governmental agency. [267] Encompassing 250 acres (100 ha), White River is the city's major urban park, home to the Indianapolis Zoo and White River Gardens. [213] Indianapolis lies about 50 miles (80 km) north of two state forests, Morgan–Monroe and Yellowwood, and one national forest, Hoosier. Crown Hill Cemetery, the third largest private cemetery in the U.S., covers 555 acres (225 ha) on the city's north side and is home to more than 250 species of trees and shrubs comprising one of the largest old-growth forests in the Midwest. [268] [269]

According to the Trust for Public Land's 2017 ParkScore Index, Indianapolis tied for last with respect to public park accessibility of the 100 largest U.S. cities evaluated. Some 68% of residents are underserved. The city's large land area and low public funding contributed to the ranking. [270]

Government and politics

The Indiana Statehouse houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government. Indiana State Capitol rect pano.jpg
The Indiana Statehouse houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government.
The Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse is home to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Indiana. Sculptures "Industry," "Science," "Agriculture" and "Literature" at the Birch Bayh Federal Building, Indianapolis, Indiana LCCN2010720547.tif
The Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse is home to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Indiana.

Indianapolis has a consolidated city-county government, a status it has held since 1970 under Indiana Code's Unigov provision. Many functions of the city and county governments are consolidated, though some remain separate. [3] The city has a strong mayor–council form of government.

The executive branch is headed by an elected mayor, who serves as the chief executive of both the city and Marion County. Joe Hogsett, a Democrat, is the 49th mayor of Indianapolis. The mayor appoints deputy mayors, department heads, and members of various boards and commissions. City-County Council is the legislative body and consists of 25 members, all of whom represent geographic districts. The council has the exclusive power to adopt budgets, levy taxes, and make appropriations. It can also enact, repeal, or amend ordinances, and make appointments to certain boards and commissions. According to Moody's, the city maintains a Aaa bond credit rating, with an annual budget of $1.1 billion. [271] [272] The judicial branch consists of a circuit court, a superior court with four divisions and 32 judges, and a small claims court. [3] The three branches, along with most local government departments, are based in the City-County Building.

As the state capital, Indianapolis is the seat of Indiana's state government. The city has hosted the capital since its move from Corydon in 1825. The Indiana Statehouse, located downtown, houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government, including the offices of the Governor of Indiana and Lieutenant Governor of Indiana, the Indiana General Assembly, and the Indiana Supreme Court. Most state departments and agencies are in Indiana Government Centers North and South. The Indiana Governor's Residence is on Meridian Street in the Butler–Tarkington neighborhood, about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of downtown.

Most of Indianapolis is within Indiana's 7th congressional district, represented by André Carson (D–Indianapolis), while the northern fifth is part of Indiana's 5th congressional district, represented by Susan Brooks (R–Carmel). [273] Federal field offices are in the Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse (which houses the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana) and the Minton-Capehart Federal Building, both downtown. The Defense Finance and Accounting Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, is headquartered in nearby Lawrence.

Public safety

Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department interceptor in 2008. Indianapolis Metropolitan police cruiser 2.jpg
Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department interceptor in 2008.

Indianapolis Emergency Medical Services is the largest provider of pre-hospital medical care in the city, responding to 95,000 emergency dispatch calls annually. [274] The agency's coverage area includes six townships within the city (Center, Franklin, Lawrence, Perry, Warren, and Washington) and the town of Speedway. As of 2019, Daniel O'Donnell, MD is the EMS chief. [275]

The Indianapolis Fire Department (IFD) provides fire protection services as the primary emergency response agency for 278 square miles (720 km2) of Marion County. IFD provides automatic and mutual aid to the excluded municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, and Speedway, as well as Decatur, Pike, and Wayne townships who have retained their own fire departments. The fire district comprises seven geographic battalions with 44 fire stations, dual-staffing a forty-fifth station with the City of Lawrence Fire Department. [3] As of 2014, 1,205 sworn firefighters responded to nearly 100,000 incidents annually. [276] As of 2018, Ernest Malone was the fire chief. [277]

Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department (IMPD) is the primary law enforcement agency for the city of Indianapolis. IMPD's jurisdiction covers Marion County, with the exceptions of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, Speedway, and the Indianapolis International Airport, which is served by the Indianapolis Airport Authority Police Department. [278] IMPD was established in 2007 through a merger between the Indianapolis Police Department and the Marion County Sheriff's Office Law Enforcement Division. [279] The Marion County Sheriff's Office maintains and operates Marion County Jails I and II. In 2016, IMPD operated six precincts with 1,640 sworn police personnel and 200 civilian employees. [3] As of 2018, Bryan Roach was the chief of police. [280]

Crime

According to the FBI's 2015 Uniform Crime Report, Indianapolis ranks as the 16th most dangerous city in the U.S., with 17.1 homicides per 100,000 people, compared with the U.S. rate of 4.9 homicides per 100,000 people. [281] [ citation needed ] Between 2012 and 2014, the murder rate rose by 44%. There were 138 homicides in 2014, with 60% of victims and 90% of perpetrators being young black men. [282] With 144 criminal homicides, 2015 surpassed 1998 as the year with the most murder investigations in the city. With 154 criminal homicides, 2017 marked the third consecutive year of record violence. FBI data showed a 7 percent increase in violent crimes committed in Indianapolis, outpacing the rest of the state and country. [283] Law enforcement has blamed increased violence on a combination of root causes, including poverty, substance abuse, mental illness, and availability of firearms. [284]

Politics

U.S. Representative for Indiana's 7th congressional district, Andre Carson (left) with Indianapolis Mayor Joe Hogsett in 2016. Andre Carson and Joe Hogsett.jpg
U.S. Representative for Indiana's 7th congressional district , André Carson (left) with Indianapolis Mayor Joe Hogsett in 2016.
Marion County vote by party in
presidential elections
[285]
Year Republican Democratic Others
2016 35.5% 130,36058.0%212,8996.4% 23,620
2012 37.9% 136,50960.1%216,3362.0% 7,127
2008 35.3% 134,31363.7%241,9871.0% 3,790
2004 48.7% 156,07250.6%162,2490.8% 2,517
2000 49.2%137,81047.9% 134,1892.8% 7,904
1996 47.2%133,32944.1% 124,4488.7% 24,437
1992 43.7%141,36937.8% 122,23418.6% 60,187
1988 58.6%184,51940.8% 128,6270.6% 1,949

Until fairly recently, Indianapolis was considered one of the most conservative major cities in the U.S. [71] Republicans held the mayor's office for 32 years (1967–1999), and controlled the City-County Council from its inception in 1970 to 2003. [71] Since the early-2000s, the city's politics have gradually shifted more toward the Democrats. As of 2014, the city is regarded as politically moderate. [286]

Republican Greg Ballard chose not to run for a third term in the 2015 mayoral election. [287] Republican Chuck Brewer and Democrat Joe Hogsett were the candidates to replace him. Each had similar plans for addressing the city's issues, and the commonality between them contributed to a very low voter turnout. [288] Hogsett previously held public office as Indiana Secretary of State and as U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Indiana, and had served in government for over 30 years, giving him greater name recognition than Brewer, a local restaurateur. [289] Hogsett was elected with 63% of the vote, officially taking office on January 1, 2016. [289]

The 2015 City-County Council elections also left Democrats in control of the council, holding a 13–12 majority over Republicans, only the second time since the creation of Unigov that Democrats controlled both the mayor's office and council. [290]

Recent political issues of local concern have included cutting the city's structural deficit, planning and construction of a new criminal justice center, homelessness, streetlights, and improved mass transit and transportation infrastructure. [291] [272]

Education

Colleges and universities

Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis has the city's largest higher education enrollment. Campus Center - IUPUI - DSC00526.JPG
Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis has the city's largest higher education enrollment.
The Indianapolis Public Library's Central Library is the hub of its 23-branch system. Indianapolis Public Library, Central Library, August 2019.jpg
The Indianapolis Public Library's Central Library is the hub of its 23-branch system.

Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) was founded in 1969 after merging the branch campuses of Indiana University and Purdue University. [292] IUPUI's enrollment is 29,800, the third-largest in the state. [292] IUPUI has two colleges and 18 schools, including the Herron School of Art and Design, Robert H. McKinney School of Law, School of Dentistry, and the Indiana University School of Medicine, the largest medical school in the U.S. [293] [294] The city is home to the largest campus for Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, a state-funded community college serving 77,600 students statewide. [295]

Five private universities are based in Indianapolis. Established in 1855, Butler University is the oldest higher education institution in the city, with a total enrollment of about 5,000. [296] Affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, Marian University was founded in 1936 when St. Francis Normal and Immaculate Conception Junior College merged, moving to Indianapolis in 1937. Marian has an enrollment of about 3,100 students. [297] Founded in 1902, the University of Indianapolis is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. The school's enrollment is 5,700 students. [298] Martin University was founded in 1977 and is the state's only predominately black university. [299] Crossroads Bible College and Indiana Bible College are small Christian colleges in the city. The American College of Education is an accredited online university based in Indianapolis.

Satellite campuses in the city include Ball State University's R. Wayne Estopinal College of Architecture and Planning, Grace College, Indiana Institute of Technology, Indiana Wesleyan University, and Vincennes University.

Schools and libraries

Nine public school districts serve residents of Indianapolis: Franklin Township Community School Corporation, MSD Decatur Township, MSD Lawrence Township, MSD Perry Township, MSD Pike Township, MSD Warren Township, MSD Washington Township, MSD Wayne Township, and Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS). As of 2016, IPS was the second largest public school district in Indiana, serving nearly 30,000 students. [3] [300]

A number of private primary and secondary schools are operated through the Archdiocese of Indianapolis, charters, or other independent organizations. Founded in 1873, the Indianapolis Public Library includes the Central Library and 23 branches throughout Marion County. The Indianapolis Public Library served 4.2 million patrons in 2014, with a circulation of 15.9 million materials. [301]

Media

The Indianapolis Star is the city's daily morning newspaper and leading print media. The Indianapolis Star, 2011.jpg
The Indianapolis Star is the city's daily morning newspaper and leading print media.

Indianapolis is served by various print media. Founded in 1903, The Indianapolis Star is the city's daily morning newspaper. The Star is owned by Gannett Company, with a daily circulation of 127,064. [302] The Indianapolis News was the city's daily evening newspaper and oldest print media, published from 1869 to 1999. Notable weeklies include NUVO , an alternative weekly newspaper, the Indianapolis Recorder , a weekly newspaper serving the local African American community, the Indianapolis Business Journal , reporting on local real estate, and the Southside Times . Indianapolis Monthly is the city's monthly lifestyle publication.

Broadcast television network affiliates include WTTV 4 (CBS), WRTV 6 (ABC), WISH-TV 8 (The CW), WTHR-TV 13 (NBC), WDNI-CD 19 (Telemundo), WFYI-TV 20 (PBS), WNDY-TV 23 (MyNetworkTV), WUDZ-LD 28 (Buzzr), WSDI-LD 30 (Quest), WHMB-TV 40 (Family), WCLJ-TV 42 (Ion Life), WBXI-CD 47 (Decades), WXIN-TV 59 (Fox), WIPX-TV 63 (Ion) and WDTI 69 (Daystar). The majority of commercial radio stations in the city are owned by Cumulus Media, Emmis Communications, iHeartMedia, and Urban One. Popular nationally syndicated radio program The Bob & Tom Show has been based at Indianapolis radio station WFBQ since 1983. [303] As of 2016, the Indianapolis metropolitan area was the 27th largest television market and 39th largest radio market in the U.S. [304] [305]

Indianapolis natives Jane Pauley and David Letterman launched their notable broadcasting careers in local media, Pauley with WISH-TV and Letterman with WTHR-TV, respectively. [306] [307] Motion pictures at least partially filmed in the city include Speedway , [308] To Please a Lady , [309] Winning , [310] Hoosiers , [311] Going All the Way , [312] and Eight Men Out . [313] Television series set in Indianapolis have included One Day at a Time ; Good Morning, Miss Bliss ; Men Behaving Badly ; Cops ; [314] Close to Home ; [315] the second season of anthology drama American Crime , [316] and HGTV's Good Bones . [317]

Transportation

Indianapolis's transportation infrastructure comprises a complex network that includes a local public bus system, several private intercity bus providers, Amtrak passenger rail service via the Cardinal , 282 miles (454 km) of freight rail lines, an Interstate Highway System, two airports, a heliport, carshare and bikeshare systems, 104 miles (167 km) of bike lanes, 34 miles (55 km) of multi-use paths, and 99 miles (159 km) of trails and greenways. [259] The city has also become known for its prevalence of electric scooters. [318]

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 83.7% of working city of Indianapolis residents commuted by driving alone, 8.4% carpooled, 1.5% used public transportation, and 1.8% walked. About 1.5% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 3.1% of working city of Indianapolis residents worked at home. [319] In 2015, 10.5 percent of Indianapolis households lacked a car, which decreased to 8.7 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Indianapolis averaged 1.63 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. [320]

Airports

Satellite image of Indianapolis International Airport. Indianapolis International Airport (USGS).jpg
Satellite image of Indianapolis International Airport.

Indianapolis International Airport (IND) sits on 7,700 acres (3,116 ha) approximately 7 miles (11 km) southwest of downtown Indianapolis. IND is the busiest airport in the state, serving more than 9.4 million passengers annually. [321] Completed in 2008, the Col. H. Weir Cook Terminal contains two concourses and 40 gates, connecting to 51 nonstop domestic and international destinations and averaging 145 daily departures. [322] As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, IND ranked as the seventh busiest U.S. airport in terms of air cargo throughput in 2015. [161] [323]

The Indianapolis Airport Authority is a municipal corporation that oversees operations at five additional airports in the region, two of which are in Indianapolis: Eagle Creek Airpark (EYE), a relief airport for IND, and the Indianapolis Downtown Heliport (8A4). [324]

Roads and highways

Four Interstates intersect the city: Interstate 65, Interstate 69, Interstate 70, and Interstate 74. Two auxiliary Interstate Highways are in the metropolitan area: a beltway (Interstate 465) and connector (Interstate 865). A $3 billion expansion project to extend Interstate 69 from Evansville to Indianapolis is in progress. [325] The Indiana Department of Transportation manages all Interstates, U.S. Highways, and Indiana State Roads within the city.

The city's Department of Public Works manages about 8,175 miles (13,156 km) of street, in addition to 540 bridges, alleys, sidewalks, and curbs. [259] [326]

Public transit

IndyGo Rapid bus at the Red Line Statehouse Station. IndyGo Red Line BRT.jpg
IndyGo Rapid bus at the Red Line Statehouse Station.

The Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation, branded as IndyGo, operates the city's public bus system. In 2016, the Julia M. Carson Transit Center opened, the downtown hub for 27 of its 31 bus routes and operating 9.2 million passenger trips. [327] [259] In 2017, City-County Council approved a voter referendum increasing Marion County's income tax to help fund IndyGo's first major system expansion since its founding in 1975. The Marion County Transit Plan outlines proposed system improvements, including three bus rapid transit (BRT) lines, new buses, sidewalks, and bus shelters, extended hours and weekend schedules, and a 70% increase in service hours on all existing local routes. [328] [329] [330] Phase I of IndyGo's Red Line, the first of the three planned BRT lines, began service on September 1, 2019. [331] The $96.3 million project includes a $75 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration. [332]

The Central Indiana Regional Transportation Authority (CIRTA) is a quasi-governmental agency that organizes regional car and vanpools and operates three public workforce connectors from Indianapolis to employment centers in Plainfield and Whitestown.

Active and shared mobility

Bollore Bluecar's BlueIndy at a charging station in Broad Ripple. BlueIndy carshare car.jpg
Bolloré Bluecar's BlueIndy at a charging station in Broad Ripple.

Reliance on the automobile has affected the city's development patterns, with Walk Score ranking Indianapolis as one of the least walkable large cities in the U.S. [333] The city has enhanced bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure in recent years, with some 104 miles (167 km) of on-street bike lanes, 34 miles (55 km) of multi-use paths, and 99 miles (159 km) of trails and greenways. [334] [259] Indianapolis is designated a "Bronze Level" Bicycle Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists. [335]

The Indianapolis Cultural Trail and BCycle launched Indiana Pacers Bikeshare in April 2014 as the city's bicycle-sharing system, consisting of 525 bicycles at 50 stations. [336] Indianapolis is home to Bolloré Bluecar's BlueIndy, the first electric carsharing service in the U.S., which launched in September 2015. [337] BlueIndy provides 200 electric cars and 92 charging stations throughout the city. [338] Transportation network companies Lyft and Uber are available by mobile app in the city, as well as traditional taxicabs. [339] After negotiations with city officials, Bird and Lime electric scooter-sharing launched in September 2018. [340]

Intercity transit

Amtrak provides intercity rail service to Indianapolis via Union Station, serving about 30,000 passengers in 2015. [165] The Cardinal makes three weekly trips between New York City and Chicago. Several private intercity bus service providers stop in the city. Greyhound Lines operates a bus terminal at Union Station and stop at Indianapolis International Airport's Ground Transportation Center. [341] Barons Bus Lines, Burlington Trailways, and Miller Transportation's Hoosier Ride also stop at Greyhound's Union Station bus terminal. [342] Megabus stops at the corner of North Alabama Street and East Market Street near the Indianapolis City Market. [343] GO Express Travel manages two shuttle services: GO Green Express between downtown Indianapolis and the Indianapolis International Airport and Campus Commute between IUPUI and Indiana University Bloomington. [344] [345] OurBus began daily service between Indianapolis and Chicago, with stops in Zionsville and Lafayette, filling a gap left after Amtrak's Hoosier State was discontinued in July 2019. [346]

Healthcare

LifeLine at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, the largest medical center in Indiana, with 589 beds. LifeLine N192LL.jpg
LifeLine at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, the largest medical center in Indiana, with 589 beds.

Indiana University Health's Academic Health Center encompasses Marion County, with the medical centers of University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, and Riley Hospital for Children. The Academic Health Center is anchored by the Indiana University School of Medicine's principal research and education campus, the largest allopathic medical school in the U.S. [293] [294] Riley Hospital for Children is among the nation's foremost pediatric health centers, recognized in all ten specialties by U.S. News and World Report , including top 25 honors in orthopedics (23), nephrology (22), gastroenterology and GI surgery (16), pulmonology (13), and urology (4). [348] The 430-bed facility also contains Indiana's only Pediatric Level I Trauma Center. [349]

Health & Hospital Corporation of Marion County, a municipal corporation, was formed in 1951 to manage the city's public health facilities and programs, including the Marion County Public Health Department and Eskenazi Health. [350] Eskenazi Health's flagship medical center, the Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital, opened in 2013 after a $754 million project to replace Wishard Memorial Hospital. [351] The hospital includes an Adult Level I Trauma Center, 315 beds, and 275 exam rooms, annually serving about 1 million outpatients. [352] Opened in 1932, the Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center is Indiana's tertiary referral hospital for former armed services personnel, treating more than 60,000 veterans annually. [353]

Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital is the flagship medical center for Indiana's oldest healthcare system, founded in 1859 as Indianapolis City Hospital. Sidney and Lois Eskenazi Hospital, Indianapolis.jpg
Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital is the flagship medical center for Indiana's oldest healthcare system, founded in 1859 as Indianapolis City Hospital.

Located on the city's far north side, St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital is the flagship medical center of St. Vincent Health's 22-hospital system. St. Vincent Indianapolis includes Peyton Manning Children's Hospital, St. Vincent Heart Center of Indiana, St. Vincent Seton Specialty Hospital, and St. Vincent Women's Hospital. Franciscan Health Indianapolis's flagship medical center is on the city's far south side.

Community Health Network contains dozens of specialty hospitals and three emergency medical centers in Marion County, including Community Hospital South, Community Hospital North, and Community Hospital East. Community Hospital East replaced its 60-year-old facility with a $175 million, 150-bed hospital in 2019. [354] The campus also includes a $120 million, 159-bed state-funded psychiatric and chronic addiction treatment facility. The Indiana NeuroDiagnostic Institute and Advanced Treatment Center will replace the antiquated Larue D. Carter Memorial Hospital in 2019. [355]

According to Indianapolis-based American College of Sports Medicine's 2016 American Fitness Index Data Report, the city scored last of the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan areas for health and community fitness. [356] Higher instances of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, smoking, and asthma contributed to the ranking. [357] After the annual listing expanded to the 100 largest U.S. cities in 2019, Indianapolis ranked 96th. [358]

Utilities

Perry K. Generating Station produces steam for the city's district heating system. Citizens Energy Group, Perry K. Generating Station, Indianapolis.jpg
Perry K. Generating Station produces steam for the city's district heating system.

Electricity is provided by Indianapolis Power & Light (IPL), a subsidiary of AES Corporation. [359] Despite a portfolio comprised 100% of nonrenewable energy sources in 2007, IPL ended coal-firing operations at its Harding Street Station in 2016. [360] Today, IPL generates 3,343 MW of electricity at four power stations, two wind farms, [360] and 34 solar farms, [361] covering a service area of 528 square miles (1,370 km2). [362] In 2017, Indianapolis had the fourth highest number of photovoltaics per capita in the U.S. [361]

Citizens Energy Group, the only public charitable trust formed to operate utilities in the U.S., provides residents with natural gas, water, wastewater, and thermal services. [363] [364] [365] Covanta Energy operates a waste-to-energy plant in the city, processing solid waste for steam production. [364] [366] Steam is sold to Citizens' Perry K. Generating Station for the downtown Indianapolis district heating system, the second largest in the U.S. [367] Indianapolis's water is supplied through four surface water treatment plants, drawing from the White River, Fall Creek, and Eagle Creek; and four pumping stations, providing water supply from groundwater aquifers. Additional water supply is ensured by three reservoirs in the region. [221] A fourth reservoir near the northern suburb of Fishers will be completed in 2020. [368]

Eleven solid waste districts are managed by one of three garbage collection providers: the city's Department of Public Works, Republic Services, and Waste Management. Republic Services collects recycling in all 11 districts. [369] The Department of Public Works' Operations Division is responsible for snow and ice removal, with a fleet of more than 70 snow removal trucks plowing approximately 7,300 miles (11,700 km) of public streets after winter weather events. [370] [371]

Notable people

International relations

Sister cities

Indianapolis has seven sister cities and two friendship cities as designated by Sister Cities International. [372] Indianapolis has one former sister city. The partnership with Scarborough, Ontario, Canada lasted from 1996 to 1998, ending when Scarborough was amalgamated into Toronto. [373]

Charter sister cities

Friendship cities

Consulates

As of 2018, Indianapolis contains ten foreign consulates, serving Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and Switzerland. [374]

See also

Notes

  1. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. Official records for Indianapolis kept at downtown from February 1871 to December 1942, and at Indianapolis Int'l since January 1943. For more information, see Threadex
  1. The nine oldest museums in the U.S. are: Peabody Essex Museum, 1799; Wadsworth Atheneum, 1842; Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1870; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1870; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1876; Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio, 1878; Art Institute of Chicago, 1879; Cincinnati Art Museum, 1881; Portland Museum of Art, 1882; Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1883. [186]
  2. At 669,484 square feet (62,197.1 m2), the IMA is eighth largest in the U.S. in Main Museum Building space among the 130 respondents in the Association of Art Museum Directors 2010 Statistical Survey. [187]

Related Research Articles

Marion County, Indiana U.S. county in Indiana

Marion County is a county in the U.S. state of Indiana. Census 2010 recorded a population of 903,393, making it the largest county in the state and 55th most populated county in the country, greater than the population of six states. The county seat is Indianapolis, the state capital and largest city. Marion County is consolidated with Indianapolis through an arrangement known as Unigov.

Lilly Endowment Inc., headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, is one of the world's largest private philanthropic foundations and among the largest endowments in the United States. It was founded in 1937 by Josiah K. Lilly Sr. and his sons, Eli Jr. and Josiah Jr. (Joe), with an initial gift of Eli Lilly and Company stock valued at $280,000 USD. As of 2014 its total assets are worth $9.96 billion.

Josiah K. Lilly Jr. pharmaceutical industrialist

Josiah Kirby "Joe" Lilly Jr. was a businessman and industrialist who served as president and chairman of the board (1953–66) of Eli Lilly and Company, the pharmaceutical firm his grandfather, Colonel Eli Lilly, founded in Indianapolis in 1876. Lilly, the younger son and namesake of Josiah K. Lilly Sr., graduated from the University of Michigan's School of Pharmacy in 1914 and served in the U.S. Army in France during World War I. At Eli Lilly and Company, where his primary focus was marketing and human resources, he served as vice president of marketing, executive vice president of the company, and president of Eli Lilly International Corporation, before succeeded his older brother, Eli Jr., as company president in 1948 and as chairman of the board in 1953.

Downtown Indianapolis Central Business District in Indiana

Downtown Indianapolis is the central business district of Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. Downtown is the location of many corporate or regional headquarters; city, county, state and federal government facilities; several medical centers; Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; sporting venues; performing arts venues; and most of Indianapolis' tourist attractions. Downtown is sometimes called the Mile Square, referencing the city plat developed by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham at Indianapolis' founding. Today, Downtown encompasses about 6.5 square miles (17 km2), as designated by the City of Indianapolis' Regional Center Plan.

History of Indianapolis

The history of Indianapolis spans three centuries. Founded in 1820, the area where the city now stands was originally home to the Lenape. In 1821 a small settlement on the west fork of the White River at the mouth of Fall Creek became the county seat of Marion County, and the state capitol of Indiana, effective January 1, 1825. Initially the availability of federal lands for purchase in central Indiana made it attractive to the new settlement; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area arrived around 1819 or early 1820. In its early years most of the new arrivals to Indianapolis were Europeans and Americans with European ancestry, but later the city attracted other ethnic groups. The city's growth was encouraged by its geographic location, 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of the state's geographic center. In addition to its designation as a seat of government, Indianapolis's flat, fertile soil, and central location within Indiana and Midwest, helped it become an early agricultural center. Its proximity to the White River, which provided power for the town's early mills in the 1820s and 1830s, and the arrival of the railroads, beginning in 1847, established Indianapolis as a manufacturing hub and a transportation center for freight and passenger service. An expanding network of roads, beginning with the early National Road and the Michigan Road, among other routes, connected Indianapolis to other major cities.

Washington Township, Marion County, Indiana Township in Indiana, United States

Washington Township is one of the nine townships of Marion County, Indiana, located in the northern part of the county. The township is entirely within the city of Indianapolis. The population as of the 2010 census was 132,049. The first settlement at Washington Township was made in 1819.

Golden Hill Historic District (Indianapolis, Indiana) United States historic place

Golden Hill is an affluent and historic neighborhood overlooking the White River on the west side of Indianapolis's Center Township, in Marion County, Indiana. The district is bounded on the east by Clifton Street, which is west of Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard ; on the west by the White River and the Central Canal; on the south by Thirty-sixth Street; and on the north by Woodstock Country Club, immediately south of Thirty-eighth Street. Golden Hill is noted for its collection of homes designed by several of the city's prominent architects. The estate homes reflect several styles of period revival architecture. The district is known as for its community planning and remains an exclusive enclave for the city's prominent families. Golden Hill was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991.

Indianapolis Public Library United States historic place

The Indianapolis Public Library is the public library system serving the citizens of Marion County, Indiana, United States and its largest city, Indianapolis. The library was founded in 1873 and has grown to include a Central Library building, located adjacent to the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza, and 23 branch libraries spread throughout the county. The library attracts over four million visitors each year and circulates nearly 16 million items.

Indiana Landmarks

Indiana Landmarks is America's largest private statewide historic preservation organization. Founded in 1960 as Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana by a volunteer group of civic and business leaders led by Indianapolis pharmaceutical executive Eli Lilly, the organization is a private non-governmental organization with nearly 6,000 members and an endowment of over $40-million. The organization simplified its name to Indiana Landmarks in 2010.

H. P. Wasson and Company

H. P. Wasson and Company, aka Wasson's, was an Indianapolis, Indiana, based department store chain founded by Hiram P. Wasson. Its flagship store, the H. P. Wasson & Company Building, was built in 1937 and is listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.

City-County Building (Indianapolis) Government building in Indianapolis, IN, USA

The City–County Building is a 28-story building at 200 East Washington Street in downtown Indianapolis, Indiana, that houses the offices of the consolidated city-county government of Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana, known as Unigov.

Tourism in Indianapolis is a vital sector of the local economy. According to Visit Indy, 28.8 million visitors generated $5.4 billion in 2017, the seventh straight year of record growth. In 2015, the hospitality and tourism industry employed 77,800 people in the region.

During the American Civil War, Indianapolis, the state capital of Indiana, was a major base of supplies for the Union. Governor Oliver P. Morton, a major supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, quickly made Indianapolis a gathering place to organize and train troops for the Union army. The city became a major railroad hub for troop transport to Confederate lands, and therefore had military importance. Twenty-four military camps were established in the vicinity of Indianapolis. Camp Morton, the initial mustering ground to organize and train the state's Union volunteers in 1861, was designated as a major prisoner-of-war camp for captured Confederate soldiers in 1862. In addition to military camps, a state-owned arsenal was established in the city in 1861, and a federal arsenal in 1862. A Soldiers' Home and a Ladies' Home were established in Indianapolis to house and feed Union soldiers and their families as they passed through the city. Indianapolis residents also supported the Union cause by providing soldiers with food, clothing, equipment, and supplies, despite rising prices and wartime hardships, such as food and clothing shortages. Local doctors aided the sick, some area women provided nursing care, and Indianapolis City Hospital tended to wounded soldiers. Indianapolis sent an estimated 4,000 men into military service; an estimated 700 died during the war. Indianapolis's Crown Hill National Cemetery was established as one of two national military cemeteries established in Indiana in 1866.

300 North Meridian

300 North Meridian is a high rise in Indianapolis, Indiana. Construction started in 1987, financed by Browning Investments. The architects, Haldeman Miller Bregman Hamann, built the outside with brownish-reddish granite and black windows, and capped the skyscraper with a copper-colored dome. Only the eastern side rises to the full height of the building; the northern and southern sides rise in a staircase shape toward the east. The architects intended 300 North Meridian's design to echo the adjacent Chamber of Commerce building. It was completed in 1989 and is currently the fifth-tallest building in the city.

Indianapolis is served by many different kinds of transportation.

Bethel A.M.E. Church (Indianapolis, Indiana) United States historic place

The Bethel A.M.E. Church, known in its early years as Indianapolis Station or the Vermont Street Church, is a historic African Methodist Episcopal Church in Indianapolis, Indiana. Organized in 1836, it is the city's oldest African-American congregation. The three-story church on West Vermont Street dates to 1869 and was added to the National Register in 1991. The surrounding neighborhood, once the heart of downtown Indianapolis's African American community, significantly changed with post-World War II urban development that included new hotels, apartments, office space, museums, and the Indiana University–Purdue University at Indianapolis campus. In 2016 the congregation sold their deteriorating church, which will be used in a future commercial development. The congregation built a new worship center at 6417 Zionsville Road in Pike Township, Marion County, Indiana.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Roberts Park Methodist Episcopal Church United States historic place

Roberts Park Methodist Episcopal Church, whose present-day name is Roberts Park United Methodist Church, was dedicated on August 27, 1876, making it the oldest church remaining in downtown Indianapolis. Diedrich A. Bohlen, a German-born architect who immigrated to Indianapolis in the 1850s, designed this early example of Romanesque Revival architecture. The church is considered one of Bohlen's major works. Constructed of Indiana limestone at Delaware and Vermont Streets, it has a rectangular plan and includes a bell tower on the southwest corner. The church is known for its interior woodwork, especially a pair of black-walnut staircases leading to galleries (balconies) surrounding the interior of three sides of its large sanctuary. The church was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 19, 1982. It is home to one of several Homeless Jesus statues around the world, this one located behind the church on Alabama Street.

The Propylaeum United States historic place

The Propylaeum, also known as the John W. Schmidt House or as the Schmidt-Schaf House, is a historic home and carriage house located at 1410 North Delaware Street in Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana. The Propylaeum was named after the Greek word "propýlaion," meaning "gateway to higher culture." The property became the headquarters for the Indianapolis Woman's Club in 1923, as well as the host for several other social and cultural organizations. It was initially built in 1890-1891 as a private residence for John William Schmidt, president of the Indianapolis Brewing Company, and his family. Joseph C. Schaf, president of the American Brewing Company of Indianapolis, and his family were subsequent owners of the home.

1967 Indianapolis mayoral election

The Indianapolis mayoral election of 1967 took place on November 7, 1967. Richard Lugar defeated incumbent Democratic mayor John J. Barton, becoming the first Republican to be elected mayor of Indianapolis in nearly two-decades. Democrats had long dominated mayoral elections before 1967, having won ten of the thirteen mayoral elections since 1930. No Democrat would subsequently recapture the mayoralty until 1999.

References

  1. 1 2 Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 1266–1267. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  2. 1 2 3 4 Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 1479–80.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Unigov Handbook: A Citizen's Guide to Local Government" (PDF). League of Women Voters of Indianapolis. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  4. "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
  5. 1 2 "Indianapolis (city (balance)), Indiana". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  6. "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Indiana's 2010 Census Population Totals". Archived from the original on February 13, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
  7. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  8. "Definition of Indianapolitan". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  9. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  10. Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917]. Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.). English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   3-12-539683-2.
  11. "Indianapolis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary .
  12. "Indianapolis". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.
  13. 1 2 "Indianapolis, IN Metro Area". STATS Indiana. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  14. 1 2 "American FactFinder". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  15. 1 2 "Cumulative Estimates of Resident Population Change and Rankings: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018 - United States -- Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico 2018 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 2019. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  16. 1 2 "American FactFinder". U.S. Census Bureau. July 2019. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  17. 1 2 Bodenhamer, David; Robert Graham Barrows; David Gordon Vanderstel (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Indiana University Press. ISBN   0-253-31222-1. p. 1042
  18. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 190.
  19. 1 2 "Metro Indianapolis Export Plan" (PDF). Indy Chamber. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 22, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  20. 1 2 "Capital at the Crossroads of America–Indianapolis: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary". National Park Service (U.S. Dept. of the Interior). Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  21. 1 2 "Gross domestic product (GDP) by metropolitan area". U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  22. Rick Mattoon; Norman Wang (2014). "Industry clusters and economic development in the Seventh District's largest cities" (PDF). Economic Perspectives. pp. 56–58. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  23. 1 2 3 4 Ted Greene and Jon Sweeney (January 20, 2012). Naptown to Super City (television broadcast). Indianapolis: WFYI-TV (PBS). Retrieved March 26, 2016.
  24. Clark, Andrew (May 21, 2018). "Fortune 500 list: Indiana RV manufacturer makes it for the first time". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  25. 1 2 3 "The Borg-Warner Trophy" (PDF). BorgWarner Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  26. "Lilly Endowment Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Lilly Endowment, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  27. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 914–916.
  28. 1 2 "Annual Reports". Indianapolis Zoological Society. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  29. "About - Indiana Landmarks". Indiana Landmarks. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  30. 1 2 Mitchell, Dawn (May 25, 2015). "Monumental Indianapolis: Touring Indianapolis memorials". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  31. 1 2 "Message from the Executive Director". Indiana War Memorial. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  32. An earlier use of the name dates to the 1760s, when it referenced a tract of land under control of the Commonwealth of Virginia, but the area's name was discarded when it became a part of that state. See Hodgin, Cyrus (1903). "The Naming of Indiana" (pdf transcription). Papers of the Wayne County, Indiana, Historical Society. Wayne County, Indiana, Historical Society. 1 (1): 3–11. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
  33. "Judge Jeremiah Sullivan House". National Park Service (U.S. Dept. of the Interior). Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  34. A plaque at the City-County Building commissioned by the Society of Indiana Pioneers in 1962 lists these as considered names: "IN AN ACT OF JANUARY 6, 1821, THE INDIANA GENERAL ASSEMBLY, THEN MEETING AT CORYDON, NAMED THE NEW CAPITAL OF THE STATE 'INDIANAPOLIS.' JEREMIAH SULLIVAN, LATER AN EMINENT HOOSIER JURIST, ACTING IN COOPERATION WITH SAMUEL MERRILL AND WITH THE APPROVAL OF GOVERNOR JONATHAN JENNINGS, PROPOSED INDIANAPOLIS AS THE NAME WHICH WAS CHOSEN IN PREFERENCE TO TECUMSEH, SUWARROW, AND CONCORD."
  35. A. C. Howard (1857). A. C. Howard's Directory for the City of Indianapolis: Containing a Correct List of Citizens' Names, Their Residence and Place of Business, with a Historical Sketch of Indianapolis from its Earliest History to the Present Day. Indianapolis: A. C. Howard. p. 3. See also Hester Ann Hale (1987). Indianapolis, the First Century. Indianapolis: Marion County Historical Society. p. 9.
  36. Brown, p. 1; Centennial History of Indianapolis, p. 26; and Howard, p. 2.
  37. Baer, p. 10 and 58.
  38. Brown, p. 2; Centennial History of Indianapolis, p. 6; and Hale, p. 8.
  39. Hale, p. 9.
  40. Hyman, p. 10, and William A. Browne Jr. (Summer 2013). "The Ralston Plan: Naming the Streets of Indianapolis". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 25 (3): 8–9. Accessed March 25, 2016.
  41. Brown, pp. 8, 46 and 49; Centennial History of Indianapolis, p. 30; Esarey, v. 3, pp. 42–43 and 201–2; and David J. Bodenhamer and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 1479–80. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  42. Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 967; Hale, p. 13; Howard, p. 26; and W. R. Holloway (1870). Indianapolis: A Historical and Statistical Sketch of the Railroad City, A Chronicle of its Social, Municipal, Commercial and Manufacturing Progress with Full Statistical Tables. Indianapolis: Indianapolis Journal.
  43. Baer, p. 11, and Hyman, p. 34.
  44. 1 2 Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 395–396.
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Indianapolis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  46. "Indianapolis Union Railroad Station". Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
  47. Holliday, p. 24; Dunn, Greater Indianapolis, v. I, p. 217; and Leary, pp. 94–98.
  48. John D. Barnhart (September 1961). "The Impact of the Civil War on Indiana". Indiana Magazine of History. Bloomington: Indiana University. 57 (3): 186. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  49. Joseph A. Parsons, Jr. (March 1958). "Indiana and the Call for Volunteers, April, 1861". Indiana Magazine of History. Bloomington: Indiana University. 54 (1): 5–7. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  50. Emma Lou Thornbrough (1995). Indiana in the Civil War Era, 1850–1880. History of Indiana. III. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. p. 124. ISBN   0-87195-050-2.
  51. Leary, p. 99.
  52. 1 2 Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 443.
  53. Leary, pp. 99, 113–14, and Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., pp. 441, 443.
  54. Thornbrough, p. 202; Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 1121; and Kenneth M. Stampp (1949). Indiana Politics During the Civil War. Indiana Historical Collections. 31. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau. pp. 199–201. OCLC   952264.
  55. Barnhart, pp. 212-13, and John Holliday (1911). Indianapolis and the Civil War. E. J. Hecker. pp. 58–59.
  56. Dunn, v. I, p. 237.
  57. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 1483.
  58. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 23.
  59. 1 2 "Retro Indy: City came close to being "Motor City"". The Indianapolis Star. April 24, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  60. Dunn, Jacob Piatt (1919). Indiana and Indianans. Volume III. Chicago & New York: American Historical Society. p. 1230.
  61. James Philip Fadely (Winter 2006). "The Veteran and the Memorial: George J. Gangsdale and the Soldiers and Sailors Monument". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 18 (1): 33–35. Accessed March 26, 2016.
  62. "Community Profiles: Indianapolis, Indiana". The Great Flood of 1913, 100 Years Later. Silver Jackets. 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  63. Trudy E. Bell (Spring 2006). "Forgotten Waters: Indiana's Great Easter Flood of 1913". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 18 (2): 15.
  64. Unconfirmed deaths numbered as many as twenty-five. See Bodenhamer and Barrows, p. 582.
  65. Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 581–582. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  66. "Indianapolis" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
  67. Morning Edition. "Robert Kennedy: Delivering News of King's Death". NPR. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
  68. Higgins, Will (April 2, 2015). "April 4, 1968: How RFK saved Indianapolis". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
  69. "Top 100 American Speeches of the 20th Century" . Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  70. Cavazos, Shaina (August 17, 2016). "Racial Bias and the Crumbling of a City". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  71. 1 2 3 Bradner, Eric (August 29, 2010). "Indiana Democrats, African-Americans saw diminishing returns in 'Unigov'". Evansville Courier & Press. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
  72. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 1356.
  73. "Table 19. Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1960". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  74. "Table 20. Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1970". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  75. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 1350–1353.
  76. "IND Airport". AirportService.com. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
  77. "About Lucas Oil Stadium". Indiana Convention Center & Lucas Oil Stadium. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
  78. Sikich, Chris (April 19, 2014). "Convention City: Convention Center's growth vaults Indy to upper tier". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  79. Stall, Sam (July 11, 2015). "Go behind the scenes of Indy's $1.9B sewer overhaul". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  80. 1 2 3 "Indiana InDepth Profile: Largest Cities and Towns in Indiana (35,000+)". Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
  81. 1 2 3 Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 1338.
  82. "Ecoregions of Indiana and Ohio" (PDF). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  83. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 1426.
  84. Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 132. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  85. William A. Browne Jr. (Summer 2013). "The Ralston Plan: Naming the Streets of Indianapolis". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 25 (3): 8 and 9.
  86. Browne, p. 11 and 16.
  87. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 1485.
  88. "Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District". U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  89. 1 2 Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 762–763. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  90. 1 2 Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 648. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  91. City of New York Board of Estimate and Apportionment (1916). Commission on Building Districts and Restrictions: Final Report. New York: M. B. Brown Printing & Binding Co. p. 62.
  92. "City-County Building, Indianapolis". Emporis.com. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  93. 1 2 Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 28–37. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  94. "Tallest buildings in Indianapolis". Emporis.com. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  95. "Salesforce Tower, Indianapolis". Emporis.com. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
  96. "2012 Census of Agriculture" (PDF). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
  97. Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 243–244. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  98. "About the Data". Indy Vitals and The Polis Center at IUPUI. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  99. 1 2 3 4 5 Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 132–39. ISBN   0-253-31222-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  100. Olson, Scott (November 15, 2013). "Study: Downtown can sustain huge apartment boom". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  101. Russell, John (February 25, 2015). "Report: Downtown apartment market booming, with more units on the way". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  102. Eason, Brian (August 18, 2015). "Council passes resolution seeking help for owners in gentrifying areas". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  103. Courage, Cara (August 21, 2015). "Why Indianapolis is a test case for a fairer form of gentrification". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  104. Larson, Annika (February 10, 2016). "The rent is too damn high!". NUVO. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  105. Taylor, Emily (December 14, 2016). "Are Indy neighborhoods gentrifying?". NUVO. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  106. "High Income Urban Neighborhoods", higley1000.com, Higley 1000, retrieved September 17, 2017
  107. Kottek, Marcus; Greiser, Jürgen; et al. (June 2006). "World Map of Köppen–Geiger Climate Classification". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. 15 (3): 261. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
  108. "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  109. 1 2 3 4 "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  110. "Total Days With Thunderstorms at US Cities in Summer". Current Results. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  111. 1 2 "Indianapolis Climatological Information". National Weather Service, Weather Forecast Office. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  112. "Average Weather for Indianapolis International Airport, IN — Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  113. "Station Name: IN INDIANAPOLIS". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
  114. "WMO Climate Normals for INDIANAPOLIS/INT'L ARPT IN 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
  115. "American FactFinder – Community Facts". Factfinder2.census.gov. October 5, 2010. Archived from the original on December 10, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  116. "2011 estimate". Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  117. Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  118. "Indianapolis (city (balance)), Indiana". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012.
  119. 1 2 "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012.
  120. 1 2 From 15% sample
  121. 1 2 "Indiana: 2010 – Population and Housing Unit Counts – 2010 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. September 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  122. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 728.
  123. "Historic church at heart of Unigov fight". The Journal Gazette. March 16, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  124. "QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  125. "Indianapolis-Carmel, IN Metro Area". Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
  126. "Indianapolis-Carmel-Muncie, IN Combined Area". Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
  127. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Indianapolis city (balance), Indiana". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  128. The U.S. Census for 2010 reports the female population for Indianapolis as 424,099 (323,845 were age 18 and over) and the male population as 396,346 (291,745 were age 18 and over). See "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Indianapolis city (balance), Indiana". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  129. 1 2 "Selected Economic Characteristics: 2007–2011 American Community Survey". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  130. Leonhardt, David; Cain Miller, Claire (March 20, 2015). "The Metro Areas With the Largest, and Smallest, Gay Populations". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  131. 1 2 3 "Indianapolis, Indiana Religion". Sperling's Best Places. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  132. "American Values Atlas". Public Religion Research Institute. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  133. Barron, James (January 6, 2017). "Cardinal Tobin, New Newark Archbishop, Cites 'Chasm Between Life and Faith'". New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  134. King, Robert; Ryckaert, Vic (June 13, 2017). "Evansville bishop ready for 'daunting task' of following Tobin as Indy's archbishop". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
  135. Klacik, Drew (September 2013). "Why Downtown Indianapolis Matters" (PDF). Indiana University Public Policy Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 3, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  136. "The World According to GaWC 2018". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. November 14, 2018. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  137. "The Indianapolis Metro Area" (PDF). Retrieved July 1, 2010.
  138. "Economy at a Glance". U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  139. "Anthem". Fortune. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  140. "Eli Lilly". Fortune. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  141. "Simon Property Group". Fortune. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  142. Orr, Susan (January 5, 2017). "Cummins unveils downtown Indy office complex, recruiting tool". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
  143. "Cummins". Fortune. Retrieved August 2, 2019.
  144. Olson, Scott (April 19, 2018). "Duke Realty seeks to build headquarters at Keystone at the Crossing". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  145. Holleman, Joe (September 24, 2018). "Longtime Emmis radio exec John Beck buying Arizona stations". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  146. Newman, Jeff (April 30, 2019). "Lids Sports Group leaving Zionsville HQ for smaller office space". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  147. Andrews, Greg (September 21, 2018). "OneAmerica salied through financial crisis but still learned lessons". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  148. Cook, Tony; Lange, Kaitlin (May 31, 2018). "Republic Airways opens pilot school, plans to add 600 jobs". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  149. Orr, Susan (July 5, 2018). "Celadon admits it is under federal criminal investigation". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  150. "Indy FastTrack" (PDF). 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 14, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  151. Schwartz, Nelson (March 19, 2016). "Carrier Workers See Costs, Not Benefits, of Global Trade". New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  152. Turner, Kris (October 8, 2015). "Rolls-Royce celebrates 100 years in Indy". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  153. "2014 Market Overview: Indianapolis & the CBD" (PDF). 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  154. "Key Facts". Eli Lilly and Company. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
  155. "Largest Life Science Companies" (PDF). Indy Chamber. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 8, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  156. "Battelle/BIO State Bioscience Jobs, Investments and Innovation 2014" (PDF). Retrieved October 4, 2014.
  157. "Schedule 12: Principal Employers Current Year and Ten Years Ago" (PDF). December 31, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  158. "Transportation" (PDF). Indy Chamber. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 22, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  159. "Logistics". Indy Chamber. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  160. "Logistics Industry" (PDF). Indy Chamber. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 8, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  161. 1 2 "Qualifying Cargo Airports, Rank Order, and Percent Change from 2013" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  162. "Largest Logistics & Distribution Companies" (PDF). Indy Chamber. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 8, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  163. "CSX in Indiana". CSX Transportation. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  164. "Beech Grove shops". Amtrak. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  165. 1 2 "Amtrak Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2015, State of Indiana" (PDF). Amtrak. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 20, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
  166. Shuey, Mickey (January 23, 2019). "Visit Indy reports seventh straight year of rising visitor spending". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  167. 1 2 Schoettle, Anthony (September 25, 2015). "Expand the Indiana Convention Center again?". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  168. "350 Big Changes at Nation's Biggest Convention Centers" (PDF). Trade Show Executive. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  169. "Connected Hotels in Indianapolis". Visit Indy. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  170. "Gen Con LLC – Gen Con Attributes Record-Breaking 2014 Numbers to Growing Partnership between Gamers and Indianapolis Community". gencon.com.
  171. Council, Jared (November 4, 2016). "Report: Indy ranks fifth in tech-job growth". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  172. Spivack, Miranda (January 17, 2017). "How Indianapolis, Long Known as a Manufacturing Center, Is Luring Tech Talent". The New York Times. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  173. "Infosys Picks Indiana for new U.S. Education Center, an additional 1,000 New Jobs" (Press release). Indianapolis, Indiana: Indianapolis Airport Authority. April 26, 2018. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  174. "Digital Technology". Indy Chamber. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  175. "Largest IT Companies" (PDF). Indy Chamber. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  176. 500 Festival. "Parade history" . Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  177. "Location". The Fountain Square Theatre Building. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  178. "City christens Market East cultural district downtown". Indianapolis Business Journal. April 16, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  179. Simmons, Andrew (March 4, 2014). "In Indianapolis, a Bike Path to Progress". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  180. "Trail Facts". Indianapolis Cultural Trail Inc. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  181. Foxio (June 16, 2013). "Indianapolis Cultural Trail". Indyculturaltrail.org. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  182. "Project for Public Spaces". pps.org. May 10, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  183. Burow, Sue; Majors, Jessica (March 2015). "Assessment of the Impact of the Indianapolis Cultural Trail: A Legacy of Gene and Marilyn Glick" (PDF). Retrieved March 25, 2016.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  184. "The new Indianapolis Cultural Trail is a masterpiece of bike-friendly design Cleveland should emulate". cleveland.com. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  185. "Indianapolis Museum of Art Receives Nation's Highest Award for Community Service". ArtDaily. October 9, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
  186. 1 2 Anne P. Robinson; S.L. Berry (2008). Every Way Possible: 125 Years of the Indianapolis Museum of Art. Indianapolis Museum of Art. ISBN   978-0-936260-85-3.
  187. 1 2 AAMD Statistical Survey 2010. New York: Association of Art Museum Directors. 2010.
  188. Yancey, Kitty B. (May 22, 2009). "Summer travel '09: Freebies across the USA". USA Today .
  189. Brooks, Bradley C. (2004). Oldfields. Indianapolis Museum of Art.
  190. Richardson, Tim (November 2010). "Modern Arcadia". House & Garden : 193–196.
  191. "About". Indianapolis Art Center. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  192. "About — Indianapolis Contemporary". Indianapolis Contemporary. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  193. "About the Museum". Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  194. "2015 - 2016 Annual Report of the Indiana Symphony Society, Inc" (PDF). Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra.
  195. Miller, Paige Putnam (June 4, 1990). "National Historic Landmark Nomination: Madam C.J. Walker Building". National Park Service.
  196. Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 730.
  197. 1 2 Bodenhamer, David; Barrows, Robert, eds. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 840–843.
  198. Tom Moon (Music Reviewer) (May 25, 2015). Review: 'In The Beginning,' Wes Montgomery (Radio). National Public Radio (NPR) All Things Considered. Retrieved October 15, 2017. He was one of the most influential guitarists of all time.
  199. Terri Procopio (August 30, 2016). "Wes Montgomery and the Indy Jazz Fest". Pattern.
  200. 1 2 "Old National Centre". Live Nation Worldwide, Inc. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  201. "About the Phoenix". The Phoenix Theatre. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  202. "Indianapolis: The Center for the Music Arts?". Halftime Magazine. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  203. 1 2 "The Golden Age: Indiana Literature (1880–1920)". Indiana Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2016.