Indre

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Indre
Chateauroux - Prefecture - 1.jpg
Prefecture building of the Indre department, in Châteauroux
Drapeau departement fr Indre.svg
Blason departement fr Indre.svg
Indre-Position.svg
Location of Indre in France
Coordinates: 46°46′N1°36′E / 46.767°N 1.600°E / 46.767; 1.600 Coordinates: 46°46′N1°36′E / 46.767°N 1.600°E / 46.767; 1.600
CountryFrance
Region Centre-Val de Loire
Prefecture Châteauroux
Subprefectures Le Blanc
La Châtre
Issoudun
Government
   President of the Departmental Council Marc Fleuret [1] (UDI)
Area
1
  Total6,791 km2 (2,622 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019) [2]
  Total219,316
  Rank 88th
  Density32/km2 (84/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 36
Arrondissements 4
Cantons 13
Communes 241
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Indre (French pronunciation:  [ɛ̃dʁ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Occitan : Endre) is a landlocked department in central France named after the river Indre. The inhabitants of the department are known as the Indriens (masculine; pronounced  [ɛ̃dʁijɛ̃] ) and Indriennes (feminine; [ɛ̃dʁijɛn] ). Indre is part of the current administrative region of Centre-Val de Loire and is bordered by the departments of Indre-et-Loire to the west, Loir-et-Cher to the north, Cher to the east, Creuse, and Haute-Vienne to the south, and Vienne to the southwest. The préfecture (capital) is Châteauroux and there are three subpréfectures at Le Blanc, La Châtre and Issoudun. It had a population of 219,316 in 2019. [3]

Contents

History

Indre is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, by order of the National Constituent Assembly. [4] The new departments were to be uniformly administered and approximately equal in size and population to one another. The department was created from parts of the former provinces of Berry, [4] Orléanais, La Marche and Touraine. [5]

Before the Roman conquest, the Celtic Bituriges tribe occupied an area that included Indre, Cher, and part of Limousin. Their capital was Avaricum (Bourges), and another important settlement was at Argenton-sur-Creuse. The area then became part of Roman Gaul after its conquest by Julius Caesar around 58 BC, and enjoyed a period of stability. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West, the Frankish tribes living in Gaul were united under the Merovingians, and succeeded in conquering most of the country in the sixth century AD. From this time, the Franks controlled most of Gaul and the Carolingian Empire was the last stage of their rule. The Carolingian dynasty reached its peak with the crowning of Charlemagne and after his death in 814, it began to fragment. The Carolingian territories were divided into three sections in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun, and the area that is now the department of Indre, became part of West Francia. In 869, the king of Middle Francia died without leaving a legitimate heir, and eventually part of that kingdom was added to West Francia to effectively form the medieval Kingdom of France. [6]

A castle was built at Châteauroux in the late tenth century. In the eleventh century, the lords of Châteauroux were powerful in the region; their "principality" covered two thirds of the current Department of Indre and they had their own coinage. [7]

Geography

Indre is a department in central France and is part of the region of Centre-Val de Loire. The capital and largest town in the department is Châteauroux. To the north of Indre lies Loir-et-Cher, to the east Cher, to the south lies Creuse and Haute-Vienne, to the southwest lies Vienne, and to the northwest lies Indre-et-Loire. Most of the department is relatively level plains in the broad Loire Valley. [8]

The area of the department is 5,880 km2 (2,270 sq mi) and it is some 100 km (62 mi) from north to south and some 90 km (56 mi) wide. The land is undulating and slopes gently towards the northwest. The main rivers are the Creuse, the Claise and the Indre. [9] The Creuse, a tributary of the Vienne, is 264 kilometres (164 mi) long and has been impounded in several places; at the time it was built in 1926, the Eguzon Dam was the largest dam in Europe. [10] The Claise is 88 kilometres (55 mi) long and is a tributary of the Creuse. The Indre is a longer waterway and flows centrally through the department from south to north, through the major towns of La Châtre, Châteauroux and Loches. It is a tributary of the Loire, joining it at Chinon in the neighbouring department of Loir-et-Cher. [9]

Indre is divided into four natural regions; North Boischaut is undulating land with an altitude between 80 and 215 m (260 and 710 ft) and occupies the northeast of the department, South Boischaut is hilly and lies in the south and southeast, a marshy tract of land known as Brenne is in the southwestern part of the department, and the flat, dry, flinty limestone plateau of Champagne berrichonne is in the east and continues into Cher. The highest point of the department is near the town of Pouligny-Notre-Dame where the land rises to 459 m (1,506 ft) above sea level. [8] The department is made up of 680,910 ha (1,682,600 acres) of land of which 401,535 ha (992,210 acres) are under arable cropping, 85,305 ha (210,790 acres) are grassland, 67,423 ha (166,610 acres) are woodland, 18,110 ha (44,800 acres) are under grapes and 18,273 ha (45,150 acres) are gardens and orchards. The remaining land is heathland, urban land and waterways. [9]

The economy is mostly agricultural. In the past many sheep were raised in the department and woollen yarn was the main manufactured product. There is also a linen industry as well as the manufacture of hosiery and paper. The department has some minerals in the form of coal, iron, stone, marble and clay. [9]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1791229,768    
1801205,628−1.10%
1806204,721−0.09%
1821230,273+0.79%
1831245,289+0.63%
1841253,076+0.31%
1851271,938+0.72%
1861270,054−0.07%
1872277,693+0.25%
1881287,705+0.39%
1891292,868+0.18%
1901288,788−0.14%
1911287,673−0.04%
1921260,535−0.99%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1931247,912−0.50%
1936245,622−0.19%
1946252,075+0.26%
1954247,436−0.23%
1962251,432+0.20%
1968247,178−0.28%
1975248,523+0.08%
1982243,191−0.31%
1990237,510−0.30%
1999231,139−0.30%
2006232,959+0.11%
2011230,175−0.24%
2016223,505−0.59%
Sources: [11] [12]

Principal towns

The most populous commune is Châteauroux, the prefecture. As of 2019, there are 5 communes with more than 5,000 inhabitants: [3]

CommunePopulation (2019)
Châteauroux 43,122
Issoudun 11,477
Déols 7,609
Le Blanc 6,250
Le Poinçonnet 5,820

Politics

The President of the Departmental Council is Marc Fleuret of the Union of Democrats and Independents.

Partyseats
Miscellaneous Right 9
Union for a Popular Movement 8
Socialist Party 7
New Centre 2

Current National Assembly Representatives

ConstituencyMember [13] Party
Indre's 1st constituency François Jolivet La République En Marche!
Indre's 2nd constituency Nicolas Forissier The Republicans

Tourism

Châteauroux, the capital of the department, is a historic town. It was originally called "Château Raoul", the present day château which now houses the préfecture being built on the site of a castle constructed in the tenth century by Raoul le Large, lord of Déols. In 1188 the castle was held by Philippe Auguste who was concerned in protecting the drapery business centred in the town and along the banks of the River Indre from fraud. From 1612 to 1736 it was a duchy of the House of Condé and from 1742 to 1744 was under the control of the Marquise de la Tournelle. [14] The Indre department has two villages which have been classified among the most beautiful villages of France: Saint-Benoît-du-Sault and Gargilesse-Dampierre.

See also

Related Research Articles

Indre-et-Loire Department of France in Centre-Val de Loire

Indre-et-Loire is a department in west-central France named after the Indre River and Loire River. In 2019, it had a population of 610,079. Sometimes referred to as Touraine, the name of the historic region, it nowadays is part of the Centre-Val de Loire region. Its prefecture is Tours and subprefectures are Chinon and Loches. Indre-et-Loire is a touristic destination for its numerous monuments that are part of the Châteaux of the Loire Valley.

Cher (department) Department of France

Cher is a department in the administrative region of Centre-Val de Loire, France. It is named after the river Cher. In 2019, it had a population of 302,306.

Loir-et-Cher Department of France

Loir-et-Cher is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France. Its name is originated from two rivers which cross it, the Loir in its northern part and the Cher in its southern part. Its prefecture is Blois. The INSEE and La Poste gave it the number 41. It had a population of 329,470 in 2019.

Loiret Department in Centre-Val de Loire, France

Loiret is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of north-central France. It takes its name from the river Loiret, which is contained wholly within the department. In 2019, Loiret had a population of 680,434.

Sarthe Department of France

Sarthe is a department of the French region of Pays de la Loire, and the province of Maine, situated in the Grand-Ouest of the country. It is named after the river Sarthe, which flows from east of Le Mans to just north of Angers. It had a population of 566,412 in 2019.

Communes of the Indre department

The following is a list of the 241 communes of the Indre department of France.

Centre-Val de Loire Administrative region of France

Centre-Val de Loire or Centre Region, as it was known until 2015, is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France. It straddles the middle Loire Valley in the interior of the country, with a population of 2,572,853 as of 2018. Its prefecture is Orléans.

Saint-Hilaire may refer to:

Moutiers and Les Moutiers may refer to the following places in France :

Indre (river) River in France

The Indre is a 279.3 km (173.5 mi) long river in central France, a left tributary to the Loire.

Saint-Christophe may refer to:

Yzeures-sur-Creuse Commune in Centre-Val de Loire, France

Yzeures-sur-Creuse is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department, central France.

Argenton-sur-Creuse Commune in Centre-Val de Loire, France

Argenton-sur-Creuse is a commune in the Indre department in central France.

Arrondissement of Châteauroux Arrondissement in Centre-Val de Loire, France

The arrondissement of Châteauroux is a district (arrondissement) of France in the Indre department in the administrative region of Centre-Val de Loire. It has 84 communes. Its population is 129,106 (2016), and its area is 2,621.9 km2 (1,012.3 sq mi).

A20 autoroute

The A20 autoroute or L'Occitane is a highway through central France. A part of France's national network of autoroutes, it is 427 kilometres (265 mi) long.

Tournon-Saint-Martin Commune in Centre-Val de Loire, France

Tournon-Saint-Martin is a commune in the Indre department in central France.

The canton of Argenton-sur-Creuse is an administrative division of the Indre department, central France. Its borders were modified at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Argenton-sur-Creuse.

Argenton-sur-Creuse station Railway station in Argenton-sur-Creuse, France

Argenton-sur-Creuse station is a railway station in France on the Orléans–Montauban railway, located within the commune of Argenton-sur-Creuse, in the département of Indre, in the Centre-Val de Loire region. It is an SNCF train station served by trains of the Intercités and TER Centre-Val de Loire networks.

Claise River in France

The Claise is a 86.5 km (53.7 mi) long river in west-central France located in the departments of Indre and Indre-et-Loire. It is a tributary of the river Creuse on the right side, and so is a sub-tributary of the Loire by Creuse and Vienne. It flows into the Creuse near Abilly.

References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les conseillers départementaux". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 4 May 2022.
  2. "Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. 1 2 Populations légales 2019: 36 Indre, INSEE
  4. 1 2 Schama, Simon (1989). Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Knopf.
  5. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Indre"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 501.
  6. Nelson, Janet L. (1996). The Frankish World, 750–900. A&C Black. pp. 133–144. ISBN   978-1-85285-105-7.
  7. Archives départementales de l’Indre, Berry médiéval : à la découverte de l’Indre au Moyen Âge, catalogue d’exposition, Châteauroux, Archives départementales de l’Indre, 2009.
  8. 1 2 Philips' Modern School Atlas. George Philip and Son, Ltd. 1973. pp. 42–43. ISBN   0-540-05278-7.
  9. 1 2 3 4 The Encyclopædia Britannica, or, Dictionary of arts, sciences, and general literature. Adam & Charles Black. 1856. pp. 376–377.
  10. "Eguzon: Creuse's River Valley". L'Ecole Buissonniaire. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  11. "Historique de l'Indre". Le SPLAF.
  12. "Évolution et structure de la population en 2016". INSEE.
  13. Nationale, Assemblée. "Assemblée nationale ~ Les députés, le vote de la loi, le Parlement français". Assemblée nationale.
  14. Scholastic Library Publishing (2005). Encyclopedia Americana: Cathedrals to Civil War . Scholastic Library Pub. p.  334. ISBN   978-0-7172-0138-9.

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