| Imperial, royal, noble,|
gentry and chivalric ranks
|Emperor / Empress|
|King / Queen|
|Archduke / Archduchess|
| Grand prince / Grand princess |
Grand duke / Grand duchess
|Prince / Princess / Infante / Infanta / Królewicz / Królewna|
|Duke / Duchess|
| Sovereign prince / Sovereign princess |
/ Fürst / Fürstin
| Marquess /Marquis / Marchioness /|
Margrave / Landgrave /
|Count / Countess / Earl / Châtelain / Castellan|
| Viscount / Viscountess / Vidame / |
|Baron / Baroness|
|Baronet / Baronetess|
|Knight / Chevalier / Ritter / Ridder / Lady / Dame|
|Gentleman / Gentry / Esquire / Laird / Edler / Jonkheer / Junker / Younger / Maid|
Infante (Spanish: [iɱˈfante] , Portuguese: [ĩˈfɐ̃t(ɨ)] ; f. infanta), also anglicised as Infant or translated as Prince, is the title and rank given in the Iberian kingdoms of Spain (including the predecessor kingdoms of Aragon, Castile, Navarre, and León) and Portugal to the sons and daughters (infantas) of the king, regardless of age, sometimes with the exception of the [male] heir apparent to the throne who usually bears a unique princely or ducal title. The wife of a male infante was accorded the title of infanta if the marriage was dynastically approved (e.g., Princess Alicia of Bourbon-Parma), although since 1987 this is no longer automatically the case in Spain (e.g., Princess Anne d'Orléans). Husbands of born infantas did not obtain the title of infante through marriage (unlike most hereditary titles of Spanish nobility), although occasionally elevated to that title de gracia ("by grace") at the sovereign's command.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs. This system is used in approximately one quarter of the world's languages. In these languages, most or all nouns inherently carry one value of the grammatical category called gender; the values present in a given language are called the genders of that language. According to one definition: "Genders are classes of nouns reflected in the behaviour of associated words."
The Crown of Aragon was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy and parts of Greece. The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715.
While the title belonged by right to all sons and daughters of a monarch (even when they ceased to be children of the reigning sovereign), it was also often accorded to sons-in-law and male-line grandchildren of the sovereign (e.g., Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria, Infante Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal), sometimes to other agnates of the ruling dynasty (e.g., Infante Enrique, Duke of Seville), and to female-line relatives of the monarch (e.g. Infante Sebastian of Portugal and Spain, Infante Alfonso de Orléans-Borbón).
Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria was a Spanish prince, the eldest son and child of Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria and his wife, Infanta María de la Paz of Spain. Ferdinand became an Infante of Spain on 20 October 1905 and renounced his rights to the throne of the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1914.
Don Pedro Carlos was an Infante of Spain and Portugal.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, rights, names or titles by persons related through male kin.
Although the title is derived from the same root as "infant", in Romance languages the term may be more broadly interpreted to mean "child" (cfr. French enfants de France ), and historically indicated that the infante or infanta was the child of the nation's monarch.
The Romance languages are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries and that form a subgroup of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Fils de France was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. A daughter was known as a fille de France.
Like the enfants de France , all infantes in the various Iberian kingdoms were princes of the blood royal, although since 1987 the Spanish sovereign may also confer the title infantado by decree upon a person (typically the spouse of an infante or infanta) who is not of royal descent.
A prince du sang is a person legitimately descended in dynastic line from any of a realm's hereditary monarchs. Historically, the term has been used to refer to men and women descended in the male line from a sovereign, although as absolute primogeniture has become more common in monarchies, those with succession rights through female descent are more likely than in the past to be accorded the princely title.
Infante had no feminine form at first in Portugal and may be compared to the infanções of the lower Portuguese nobility, who were also cadets of their families with no prospect of inheriting the main possessions of the noble families to which they belonged, being distinguished in law by some prerogatives, but little patrimony.
The Portuguese nobility was the class of legally privileged and titled persons (nobility) recognized by the Kingdom of Portugal. During the absolute monarchy, nobles enjoyed the most privileged status and held the most important offices after members of the ruling dynasty and major hierarchs of the Roman Catholic Church.
In genealogy, a cadet is a younger son, as opposed to the firstborn heir. Compare puisne.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the context of this article, it is one or more components, whether physical or incorporeal, of a person's estate; or so belonging to, as in being owned by, a person or jointly a group of people or a legal entity like a corporation or even a society. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property has the right to consume, alter, share, redefine, rent, mortgage, pawn, sell, exchange, transfer, give away or destroy it, or to exclude others from doing these things, as well as to perhaps abandon it; whereas regardless of the nature of the property, the owner thereof has the right to properly use it, or at the very least exclusively keep it.
Later, the word infanta emerged in Portugal as a feminised form applied to Portuguese princesses after the 16th and 17th centuries. Also, after Edward, King of Portugal, in the 15th century, the heir apparent and his eldest son, or daughter if there was no son, came to be styled "prince" or "princess". The first prince in Portugal was the future Afonso V, his eldest son, maybe adopting the French royal style by an English influence imported by Philippa of Lancaster's retinue.
Duarte, known in English as Edward and called the Philosopher or the Eloquent, was King of Portugal from 1433 until his death. He was born in Viseu, the son of John I of Portugal and his wife, Philippa of Lancaster. Edward was the oldest member of the "Illustrious Generation" of accomplished royal children who contributed to the development of Portuguese civilization during the 15th century. As a cousin of several English kings, he became a Knight of the Garter.
Afonso V, called the African, was King of Portugal. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa.
Philippa of Lancaster was Queen of Portugal from 1387 until 1415 by marriage to King John I. Born into the royal family of England, her marriage secured the Treaty of Windsor and produced several children who became known as the "Illustrious Generation" in Portugal.
After the accession of the House of Braganza to the throne, the honorific of "Most Serene" (Sereníssimo) was prefixed to the title of infante (Sereníssima for an infanta), since the complete appellation of this dynasty was "Most Serene House of Braganza" (Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), a style granted by the Pope. The style, however, does not seem to have been used with the title of Prince Royal.
In current use, the title is often accorded in Portugal (presently a republic) to close relatives of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, head of the Portuguese Royal House:
Afonso, Prince of Beira, Duarte Pio's eldest son, as heir apparent to the Portuguese Royal House, is styled Prince of Beira, not infante.
In the Spanish royal family, the dynastic children of the monarch and of the heir apparent are entitled to the designation and rank of infante with the style of Royal Highness (infantes by birth). A second category of infantes may be granted that title by royal decree (infantes by grace), but only bear the style of Highness.Previously, the title and rank of infante of Spain was often granted to relatives and in-laws of Spain's monarchs, but unlike those created under the 1987 decree, their dynastic wives were automatically infantas and bearers of the title were Royal Highnesses.
In addition, some distant relatives of Spanish sovereigns, usually children of infantes by grace, were accorded the "honours and treatment" of infante or infanta, but were not granted the title itself,Included in this category were the children of Infante Carlos de Borbón-Dos Sicilias' second marriage to Princess Louise d'Orléans, those of Infante Fernando de Bavaria y Borbón's marriage with Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain, and those of Infante Alfonso de Orléans-Borbón's marriage to Princess Beatrice of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (e.g., Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Countess of Barcelona, Prince Alvaro de Orléans-Borbón, Duke di Galliera).
The current infantes of Spain (by rank) are:
Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza is a claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as the head of the House of Braganza. The Miguelist Braganzas, to whom Duarte Pio belongs as great-grandson of King Miguel I, is a cadet branch of the House of Braganza. With the extinction of male-line dynasts descended from Queen Maria II in 1932, King Miguel's descendants became the only male-line Braganzas left and the closest male-line heirs to the Portuguese throne.
The Most Serene House of Braganza, or the Brigantine Dynasty, also known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza, is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin, a cadet branch of the House of Aviz.
Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança, also known by her literary pseudonym Hilda de Toledano, was a Portuguese writer and journalist who claimed to be the bastard daughter of King Carlos I of Portugal. From 1932 she also claimed the right to the title of Duchess of Braganza and to be the rightful heiress to the throne of Portugal.
Prince of Beira is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent of the heir apparent to the throne of Portugal. The title's original use that it be granted on the eldest daughter of the reigning monarch of Portugal. Tied with the title of Prince of Beira, is Duke of Barcelos, as heir to the Duke of Braganza and Prince of Brazil. The current Prince of Beira is Prince Afonso, the eldest son of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza.
Dom Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza was the claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as both the Miguelist successor of his father, Miguel, Duke of Braganza, and later as the head of the only Brigantine house, after the death of the last Legitimist Braganza, King Manuel II of Portugal. In 1952, when the Portuguese Laws of Banishment were repealed, the Duke moved his family to Portugal, thus returning the Miguelist Braganzas to their homeland and becoming the first of the former Portuguese royal dynasty to live in Portugal since the deposition of the monarchy, in 1910.
Infanta Margarita of Spain, Duchess of Soria, 2nd Duchess of Hernani, Grandee of Spain, is the younger sister of King Juan Carlos and aunt of the reigning King Felipe VI of Spain.
The House of Bourbon-Anjou is the reigning royal house of the Kingdom of Spain. The current Spanish royal family consists of the present king, the queen consort, their children and the king's parents. The House of Bourbon-Anjou is a branch of the House of Bourbon that descends from Philip V of Spain.
A substantive title is a title of nobility or royalty acquired either by individual grant or inheritance. It is to be distinguished from a title shared among cadets, borne as a courtesy title by a peer's relatives, or acquired through marriage.
Infanta Maria Teresa of Braganza was the firstborn child of John VI of Portugal and Carlota Joaquina of Spain, and heir presumptive to the throne of Portugal between 1793 and 1795, until her short-lived brother António Pio was born.
Duke of Loulé is a Portuguese title that was originally granted to the family of Folque Mendoça de Moura Barreto.
Dom Sebastian Gabriel of Bourbon and Braganza, Infante of Portugal and Spain, was an Iberian prince of the 19th century, progenitor of the Spanish ducal lines of Hernani, Ansola, Dúrcal and Marchena, and Carlist army commander in the First Carlist War.
Infanta María Luisa Fernanda of Spain, Duchess of Montpensier was Infanta of Spain and Duchess of Montpensier. She was the youngest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain and his fourth wife Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, the queen-regent, who was also his niece.
The Portuguese monarchy was abolished on 5 October 1910, when King Manuel II was deposed following a republican revolution. The present head of the House of Braganza, the former ruling house, is Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, a position he has held since the death of his father, Duarte Nuno, in 1976. The succession law for the former Portuguese throne was male-preference cognatic primogeniture.
Infanta Dona Maria Francisca, Duchess of Coimbra is an Infanta of Portugal as a member of the Portuguese Royal Family. The second child of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the current pretender to the defunct throne of Portugal, and Dª. Isabel de Castro Curvello de Herédia, Infanta Maria Francisca is third in the line of succession to the former Portuguese throne, after her two brothers, D. Afonso, Prince of Beira, and Infante D. Diniz, Duke of Porto.
Infante Dom Miguel, Duke of Viseu is a member of the Portuguese royal family, as the second child of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza, and Princess Maria Francisca of Orléans-Braganza. The Duke of Viseu is fourth in the Line of succession to the former Portuguese throne, behind his elder brother, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, and his three children.
D. Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra was an Infante of Portugal and a member of the former Portuguese Royal Family as the youngest son of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza, and Princess Maria Francisca of Orléans-Braganza. Infante Henrique was fifth in the line of succession to the former Portuguese throne at the time of his death. His elder brother, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, is head of the House of Braganza, which ruled Portugal until 1910.
Marie Isabelle d’Orléans was born an infanta of Spain and a Princess of Orléans and became the Countess of Paris by marriage.
The House of Bourbon-Braganza was an Iberian noble house that had its origins in a royal marriage arranged in 1785 between Infante Gabriel of Spain (1752–1788) and Infanta Mariana Victoria of Portugal (1768–1788). It was a short marriage: they both died three years later, in Madrid, with smallpox.
Infanta Alicia of Spain, Duchess of Calabria was a daughter of Elias, Duke of Parma, and Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria. Alicia was Duchess of Calabria through her marriage to Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria (1901–1964). She bore the title of Infanta of Spain from 1936, and took part in some of the activities that the Spanish Royal Family organises. Through marriage, she was maternal half-aunt of Juan Carlos I of Spain. She was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, and died in Madrid, Spain. She was paternal first cousin of Boris III of Bulgaria, and paternal half-first cousin of Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Otto, Crown Prince of Austria and Queen Anne of Romania.
Prince Antoine of Bourbon-Two Sicilies is a member of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies which ruled the defunct Kingdom of the Two Sicilies until 1860. By profession he is an engineer specializing in radar technology.