Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC; Khmer : វិទ្យាស្ថានប៉ាស្ទ័រកម្ពុជា) is a medical research centre and public health institute in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. It is part of the Pasteur Institute's international network of health centres and is partnered with the Ministry of Health. It was first established in 1953 and reopened in 1992 after the 1991 Paris Peace Agreements.[ citation needed ]
Since 1998, IPC has been the only source of post-exposure prophylaxis vaccinations in the prevention of rabies in Cambodia.The Institute has rabies prevention centres in Phnom Penh, Battambang and Kampong Cham.
From 2020, IPC has been part of the national committee involved in the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Cambodiaas well as conducting research into SARS-CoV-2. Researchers at IPC found through sequencing research that viruses from Cambodian horseshoe bats shared 97% similarity with SARS-CoV-2, providing knowledge into possible origins of COVID-19. IPC also conduct research on future emerging zoonoses.
A zoonosis is an infectious disease caused by a pathogen that has jumped from an animal to a human. Typically, the first infected human transmits the infectious agent to at least one other human, who, in turn, infects others.
The Pasteur Institute is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. It is named after Louis Pasteur, who invented pasteurization and vaccines for anthrax and rabies. The institute was founded on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888.
Professor Malik Peiris FRS, d'Honneur, is a Sri Lankan pathologist and virologist. He has been long based in Hong Kong. His research interests include ecology, evolution, pathogenesis, epidemiology of animal-human influenza and other human respiratory viral infections, authoring over 320 research publications. Peiris is most notable for being the first person to isolate SARS virus.
The rabies vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent rabies. There are a number of rabies vaccines available that are both safe and effective. They can be used to prevent rabies before, and for a period of time after, exposure to the rabies virus, which is commonly caused by a dog bite or a bat bite.
Walter Ian Lipkin is the John Snow Professor of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University and a professor of Neurology and Pathology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University. He is also director of the Center for Infection and Immunity, an academic laboratory for microbe hunting in acute and chronic diseases. Lipkin is internationally recognized for his work with West Nile virus, SARS and COVID-19.
The Pasteur Institute of Nha Trang is one of two Institut Pasteur in Vietnam. Located in Nha Trang, it was established during the French colonization of Vietnam. It operates directly under the authority of the Vietnamese Ministry of Health.
Pasteur Institute of India, Coonoor is one of the pioneer Institute in India in the production of Anti Rabies Vaccine and DPT vaccine for the Expanded Programme of Immunization of Government of India. This institute started functioning as Pasteur Institute of Southern India, on 6 April 1907 and was officially opened by H. E. Sir Arthur Lawley, Governor of Madras, on 25 April 1907. The first President of the Society is Surgeon-General W.R. Browne, C.I.E., I.M.S., Surgeon-General with the Government of Madras. The first Honorary Secretary cum Director is Captain J.W. Cornwall, I.M.S., in his remembrance, the road starting from the adjacent area of main gate of the Pasteur Institute of India to Alwarpet named as Cornwall Road. The Institute later re-named as Pasteur Institute of India and started functioning as an autonomous body under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, from 10 February 1977. The affairs of the Institute are managed by a governing body.
Oriol Mitjà i Villar is a Catalan-born Spanish researcher and consultant physician in internal medicine and infectious diseases with expertise in poverty-related tropical diseases. He has conducted research at the Lihir Medical Centre in Papua New Guinea since 2010 on new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to eradicate yaws. He was awarded the Princess of Girona Award in the scientific research category. Currently at the Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute, Mitjà is conducting research on SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and strategies to control the infection at a community level.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) is the virus that causes COVID-19, the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Also colloquially known simply as the coronavirus, it was previously referred to by its provisional name, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and has also been called human coronavirus 2019. The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. SARS‑CoV‑2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that is contagious in humans. As described by the US National Institutes of Health, it is the successor to SARS-CoV-1, the virus that caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak.
The Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences is a research institute on virology administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which reports to the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The institute is one of nine independent organisations in the Wuhan Branch of the CAS. Located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, it opened mainland China's first biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratory. The institute has collaborated with the Galveston National Laboratory in the United States, the Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie in France, and the National Microbiology Laboratory in Canada. The institute has been an active research center for the study of coronaviruses.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic in Cambodia is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The first imported case in Cambodia was detected in Sihanoukville on 27 January 2020. Although a number of imported cases and transmission to direct contacts were confirmed throughout 2020, no community transmission was detected until 29 November 2020.
Christian Heinrich Maria Drosten is a German virologist whose research focus is on novel viruses (emergent viruses). During the COVID-19 pandemic, Drosten came to national prominence as an expert on the implications and actions required to combat the illness in Germany.
Maria DeJoseph Van Kerkhove is an American infectious disease epidemiologist. With a background in high-threat pathogens, Van Kerkhove specializes in emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and is based in the Health Emergencies Program at the World Health Organization (WHO). She is the technical lead of COVID-19 response and the head of emerging diseases and zoonosis unit at WHO.
Allison McGeer is a Canadian infectious disease specialist in the Sinai Health System, a Professor at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health and a Senior Clinician Scientist at the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute. McGeer has led investigations into the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Toronto and worked alongside Donald Low. During the COVID-19 pandemic, McGeer has studied how SARS-CoV-2 survives in the air.
Peter Daszak is a British zoologist, consultant and public expert on disease ecology, in particular on zoonosis. He is a president of EcoHealth Alliance, a nonprofit non-governmental organization that supports various programs on global health and pandemic prevention. This organization administered more than $100 million in U.S. federal grants to fund overseas laboratory experiments. He is also a member of the Center for Infection and Immunity at the Columbia University Maillman School of Public Health. Daszak was involved in investigations into the initial outbreak which eventually developed into the COVID-19 pandemic and became a member of the WHO team sent to investigate the origin of COVID-19 in China.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected animals directly and indirectly. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is zoonotic, which likely to have originated from animals such as bats and pangolins. Human impact on wildlife and animal habitats may be causing such spillover events to become much more likely. The largest incident to date was the culling of 14 to 17 million mink in Denmark after it was discovered that they were infected with a mutant strain of the virus.
There are several ongoing efforts by scientists, governments, international organisations, and others to determine the origin of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Most scientists say that the virus is likely of zoonotic origin in a natural setting, from bats or another closely-related mammal. Several other explanations, including many conspiracy theories, have been proposed about the origins of the virus.