Insulated-gate bipolar transistor

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IGBT schematic symbol IGBT symbol.gif
IGBT schematic symbol

An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching. It consists of four alternating layers (P-N-P-N) that are controlled by a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure without regenerative action. Although the structure of the IGBT is topologically the same as a thyristor with a 'MOS' gate (MOS gate thyristor), the thyristor action is completely suppressed and only the transistor action is permitted in the entire device operation range. It switches electric power in many applications: variable-frequency drives (VFDs), electric cars, trains, variable speed refrigerators, lamp ballasts, air-conditioners and even stereo systems with switching amplifiers.

A power semiconductor device is a semiconductor device used as a switch or rectifier in power electronics. Such a device is also called a power device or, when used in an integrated circuit, a power IC.

Thyristor semiconductor device with three or more p-n junctions, having two steady states: off (non-conducting) and on (conducting)

A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials. It acts exclusively as a bistable switch, conducting when the gate receives a current trigger, and continuing to conduct until the voltage across the device is reversed biased, or until the voltage is removed. A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of the Anode to Cathode path by controlling that current with the smaller current of its other lead, known as its Gate. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to switch on if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large.

Transistor semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.


Since it is designed to turn on and off rapidly, amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with pulse-width modulation and low-pass filters. In switching applications modern devices feature pulse repetition rates well into the ultrasonic range—frequencies which are at least ten times the highest audio frequency handled by the device when used as an analog audio amplifier.

Amplifier electronic device that can increase the power of a signal

An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal. It is a two-port electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater amplitude signal at its output. The amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain: the ratio of output voltage, current, or power to input. An amplifier is a circuit that has a power gain greater than one.

Pulse-width modulation modulation technique

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a method of reducing the average power delivered by an electrical signal, by effectively chopping it up into discrete parts. The average value of voltage fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast rate. The longer the switch is on compared to the off periods, the higher the total power supplied to the load. Along with MPPT maximum power point tracking, it is one of the primary methods of reducing the output of solar panels to that which can be utilized by a battery. PWM is particularly suited for running inertial loads such as motors, which are not as easily affected by this discrete switching. Because they have inertia they react slower. The PWM switching frequency has to be high enough not to affect the load, which is to say that the resultant waveform perceived by the load must be as smooth as possible.

A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a selected cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The exact frequency response of the filter depends on the filter design. The filter is sometimes called a high-cut filter, or treble-cut filter in audio applications. A low-pass filter is the complement of a high-pass filter.

IGBT comparison table [1]

Device characteristicPower bipolarPower MOSFETIGBT
Voltage ratingHigh <1kVHigh <1kVVery high >1kV
Current ratingHigh <500AHigh > 500AHigh >500A
Input driveCurrent ratio hFE
Voltage VGS
3-10 V
Voltage VGE
4-8 V
Input impedanceLowHighHigh
Output impedanceLowMediumLow
Switching speedSlow (µs)Fast (ns)Medium

Device structure

Cross-section of a typical IGBT showing internal connection of MOSFET and bipolar device IGBT Cross Section.jpg
Cross-section of a typical IGBT showing internal connection of MOSFET and bipolar device

An IGBT cell is constructed similarly to a n-channel vertical-construction power MOSFET, except the n+ drain is replaced with a p+ collector layer, thus forming a vertical PNP bipolar junction transistor. This additional p+ region creates a cascade connection of a PNP bipolar junction transistor with the surface n-channel MOSFET.

Power MOSFET power MOS field-effect transistor

A power MOSFET is a specific type of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) designed to handle significant power levels.

Bipolar junction transistor transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers.In contrast,unipolar transistors such as field-effect transistors,only use one kind of charge carrier.For their operation,BJTs use 2 junctions between 2 semiconductor types,n-type and p-type

A bipolar junction transistor is a type of transistor that uses both electron and hole charge carriers. In contrast, unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistors, only use one kind of charge carrier. For their operation, BJTs use two junctions between two semiconductor types, n-type and p-type.

MOSFET transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals

The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon. It has an insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device. This ability to change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. A metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor or MISFET is a term almost synonymous with MOSFET. Another synonym is IGFET for insulated-gate field-effect transistor.


The first-generation IGBTs of the 1980s and early 1990s were prone to failure through effects such as latchup (in which the device will not turn off as long as current is flowing) and secondary breakdown (in which a localized hotspot in the device goes into thermal runaway and burns the device out at high currents). Second-generation devices were much improved. The current third-generation IGBTs are even better, with speed rivaling MOSFETs, and excellent ruggedness and tolerance of overloads. [2] Extremely high pulse ratings of second and third-generation devices also make them useful for generating large power pulses in areas including particle and plasma physics, where they are starting to supersede older devices such as thyratrons and triggered spark gaps. High pulse ratings and low prices on the surplus market also make them attractive to the high-voltage hobbyists for controlling large amounts of power to drive devices such as solid-state Tesla coils and coilguns.

Thermal runaway situation where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result

Thermal runaway occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result. It is a kind of uncontrolled positive feedback.

Particle physics branch of physics

Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects, particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions, e.g. to the newest "known" particle, the Higgs boson, or even to the oldest known force field, gravity.

Thyratron type of gas filled tube

A thyratron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a high-power electrical switch and controlled rectifier. Thyratrons can handle much greater currents than similar hard-vacuum tubes. Electron multiplication occurs when the gas becomes ionized, producing a phenomenon known as Townsend discharge. Gases used include mercury vapor, xenon, neon, and hydrogen. Unlike a vacuum tube (valve), a thyratron cannot be used to amplify signals linearly.

Static characteristic of an IGBT IvsV IGBT.png
Static characteristic of an IGBT

IGBT mode of operation was first proposed by Yamagami in his Japanese patent S47-21739, which was filed in 1968. This mode of operation was first experimentally reported in the lateral four-layer device (SCR) by B. W. Scharf and J. D. Plummer in 1978. [3] This mode of operation was also experimentally discovered in vertical device in 1979 by B. Jayant Baliga. [4] The device structure was referred to as a "V-groove MOSFET device with the drain region replaced by a p-type anode region" in this paper and subsequently as "the insulated-gate rectifier" (IGR), [5] the insulated-gate transistor (IGT), [6] the conductivity-modulated field-effect transistor (COMFET) [7] and "bipolar-mode MOSFET". [8]

B. Jayant Baliga is an Indian electrical engineer best known for his work in power semiconductor devices, and particularly the invention of the insulated gate bipolar transistor(IGBT).

Plummer filed a patent application for IGBT mode of operation in the four-layer device (SCR) in 1978. USP No. 4199774 was issued in 1980, and B1 Re33209 [9] was reissued in 1995 for the IGBT mode operation in the four-layer device (SCR).

The IGBT mode of operation in the four-layer device (SCR) switched to thyristor operation if the collector current exceeded the latch-up current, which is called as "holding current" in the well known theory of the thyristor. The development of IGBT was characterized by the efforts to completely suppress the thyristor operation or the latch-up in the four-layer device because the latch-up caused the fatal device failure. The technology of IGBT had, thus, been established when the complete suppression of the latch-up of the parasitic thyristor was achieved as described in the following.

Hans W. Becke and Carl F. Wheatley invented a similar device, for which they filed a patent application in 1980, and which they referred to as "power MOSFET with an anode region". [10] This patent has been called "the seminal patent of the insulated gate bipolar transistor". [11] The patent claimed that "no thyristor action occurs under any device operating conditions". This substantially means that the device exhibits non-latch-up IGBT operation over the entire device operation range.

A. Nakagawa et. al. invented the device design concept of non-latch-up IGBTs in 1984. [12] The invention [13] is characterized by the device design setting the device saturation current below the latch-up current, which triggers the parasitic thyristor. This invention realized complete suppression of the parasitic thyristor action, for the first time, because the maximal collector current was limited by the saturation current and never exceeded the latch-up current. After the invention of the device design concept of non-latch-up IGBTs, IGBTs evolved rapidly, and the design of non-latch-up IGBTs became a de facto standard and the patent of non-latch-up IGBTs became the basic IGBT patent of actual devices.

There are two important device concepts concerning IGBTs. First one is the device concept discovered by J. D. Plummer in 1978. US Patent Re.33209 was issued for the device concept. The device proposed by J. D. Plummer is the same structure as a thyristor with a MOS gate. J. D. Plummer discovered and proposed that the device can be used as a transistor although the device operates as a thyristor in higher current density level. J. D. Plummer reported this fact in his technical paper: "A MOS-Controlled Triac Devices" B.W. Scharf and J.D. Plummer, 1978 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, SESSION XVI FAM 16.6. [14] The device proposed by J. D. Plummer is referred, here, as “Plummer’s device.” On the other hand, Hans W. Becke invented and proposed, in 1980, another new device in which the thyristor action is completely eliminated under any device operating conditions although the basic device structure is the same as that proposed by J. D. Plummer. The device invented by Hans W. Becke is referred, here, as “Becke’s device” and is described in US Patent 4364073. The difference between “Plummer’s device” and “Becke’s device” is that “Plummer’s device” has the mode of thyristor action in its operation range and “Becke’s device” never has the mode of thyristor action in its entire operation range. This is a critical point, because the thyristor action is the same as so-called “latch-up.” “Latch-up” is the main cause of fatal device failure. Thus, theoretically, “Plummer’s device” never realizes a rugged or strong power device which has a large safe operating area. The large safe operating area can be achieved only after “latch-up” is completely suppressed and eliminated in the entire device operation range. Hence, the invention of the device by Hans W. Becke is decisively more important. And, this is the real IGBT. However, the Becke's patent (US Patent 4364073) did not disclose any measures to realize actual devices.

In the early development stage of IGBT, all the researchers tried to increase the latch-up current itself in order to suppress the latch-up of the parasitic thyristor. However, all these efforts failed because IGBT could conduct enormously large current. Successful suppression of the latch-up was made possible by limiting the maximal collector current, which IGBT could conduct, below the latch-up current by controlling/reducing the saturation current of the inherent MOSFET. This was the concept of non-latch-up IGBT. “Becke’s device” was made possible by the non-latch-up IGBT.

The IGBT is characterized by its ability to simultaneously handle a high voltage and a large current. The product of the voltage and the current density that the IGBT can handle reached more than 5×105 W/cm2, [2] [15] which far exceeded the value, 2×105 W/cm2, of existing power devices such as bipolar transistors and power MOSFETs. This is a consequence of the large safe operating area of the IGBT. The IGBT is the most rugged and the strongest power device that ever developed, thus, providing users with easy use of the device and displaced bipolar transistors and even GTOs. This excellent feature of the IGBT had suddenly emerged when the non-latch-up IGBT was established in 1984 by solving the problem of so-called “latch-up,” which is the main cause of device destruction or device failure. Before that, the developed devices were very weak and were easy to be destroyed because of “latch-up.”

IGBT is defined as a transistor. Thus, the device, which operates in IGBT-mode and switches to thyristor operation in higher current, should not be called as IGBT. Thus, the invention of Plummer, USP No. 419977, Re33209, which is cited above, is not IGBT. MOS gate thyristor is not IGBT, either. Even "IGT" is not actual IGBT, because the switching safe operation area is narrow and limited by latch-up and because the allowable maximal collector current could not be turned-off due to thyristor action of "latch-up." The detailed discussions will be necessary.

Patent issues in the development of IGBT

IGBT manufacturers paid the license fee of Becke’s patent. [10] Toshiba commercialized “non-latch-up IGBT” in 1985. Stanford University insisted in 1991 that Toshiba’s device infringed US Patent Re. 33209 of “Plummer’s device.” Toshiba answered that “non-latch-up IGBTs” never latched up in the entire device operation range and thus did not infringe US Patent Re. 33209 of “Plummer’s patent.” Stanford University never responded after Nov. 1992. Toshiba purchased the license of “Becke’s patent” but never paid any license fee for “Plummer’s device.” Other IGBT manufacturers also paid the license fee for Becke’s patent.

Practical devices

Practical devices capable of operating over an extended current range were first reported by Baliga et al. in 1982. [5] A similar paper was also submitted by J. P. Russel et al. to IEEE Electron Device Letter in 1982. [7] The applications for the device were initially regarded by the power electronics community to be severely restricted by its slow switching speed and latch-up of the parasitic thyristor structure inherent within the device. However, it was demonstrated by Baliga and also by A. M. Goodman et al. in 1983 that the switching speed could be adjusted over a broad range by using electron irradiation. [6] [16] This was followed by demonstration of operation of the device at elevated temperatures by Baliga in 1985. [17] Successful efforts to suppress the latch-up of the parasitic thyristor and the scaling of the voltage rating of the devices at GE allowed the introduction of commercial devices in 1983, [18] which could be utilized for a wide variety of applications. The electrical characteristics of GE's device, IGT D94FQ/FR4, were reported in detail by Marvin W. Smith in the proceedings of PCI April 1984. [19] Marvin W. Smith showed in Fig.12 of the proceedings that turn-off above 10 amperes for gate resistance of 5kOhm and above 5 amperes for gate resistance of 1kOhm was limited by switching safe operating area although IGT D94FQ/FR4 was able to conduct 40 amperes of collector current. Marvin W. Smith also stated that the switching safe operating area was limited by the latch-up of the parasitic thyristor.

Complete suppression of the parasitic thyristor action and the resultant non-latch-up IGBT operation for the entire device operation range was achieved by A. Nakagawa et al. in 1984. [20] The non-latch-up design concept was filed for US patents. [21] To test the lack of latch-up, the prototype 1200 V IGBTs were directly connected without any loads across a 600 V constant voltage source and were switched on for 25 microseconds. The entire 600 V was dropped across the device and a large short circuit current flowed. The devices successfully withstood this severe condition. This was the first demonstration of so-called "short-circuit-withstanding-capability" in IGBTs. Non-latch-up IGBT operation was ensured, for the first time, for the entire device operation range. [15] In this sense, the non-latch-up IGBT proposed by Hans W. Becke and Carl F. Wheatley was realized by A. Nakagawa et al. in 1984. Products of non-latch-up IGBTs were first commercialized by Toshiba in 1985. This was the real birth of the present IGBT.

Once the non-latch-up capability was achieved in IGBTs, it was found that IGBTs exhibited very rugged and a very large safe operating area. It was demonstrated that the product of the operating current density and the collector voltage exceeded the theoretical limit of bipolar transistors, 2×105 W/cm2, and reached 5×105 W/cm2. [2] [15]

The insulating material is typically made of solid polymers which have issues with degradation. There are developments that use an ion gel to improve manufacturing and reduce the voltage required. [22]

Applications and advantages

The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of MOSFETs with the high-current and low-saturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors. The IGBT combines an isolated-gate FET for the control input and a bipolar power transistor as a switch in a single device. The IGBT is used in medium- to high-power applications like switched-mode power supplies, traction motor control and induction heating. Large IGBT modules typically consist of many devices in parallel and can have very high current-handling capabilities in the order of hundreds of amperes with blocking voltages of 6500 V . These IGBTs can control loads of hundreds of kilowatts.

Comparison with power MOSFETs

An IGBT features a significantly lower forward voltage drop compared to a conventional MOSFET in higher blocking voltage rated devices, although, MOSFETS exhibit much lower forward voltage at lower current densities due to the absence of a diode Vf in the IGBT's output BJT. As the blocking voltage rating of both MOSFET and IGBT devices increases, the depth of the n- drift region must increase and the doping must decrease, resulting in roughly square relationship decrease in forward conduction versus blocking voltage capability of the device. By injecting minority carriers (holes) from the collector p+ region into the n- drift region during forward conduction, the resistance of the n- drift region is considerably reduced. However, this resultant reduction in on-state forward voltage comes with several penalties:

In general, high voltage, high current and low switching frequencies favor the IGBT while low voltage, low current and high switching frequencies are the domain of the MOSFET.

IGBT models

Circuits with IGBTs can be developed and modeled with various circuit simulating computer programs such as SPICE, Saber, and other programs. To simulate an IGBT circuit, the device (and other devices in the circuit) must have a model which predicts or simulates the device's response to various voltages and currents on their electrical terminals. For more precise simulations the effect of temperature on various parts of the IGBT may be included with the simulation. Two common methods of modeling are available: device physics-based model, equivalent circuits or macromodels. SPICE simulates IGBTs using a macromodel that combines an ensemble of components like FETs and BJTs in a Darlington configuration.[ citation needed ] An alternative physics-based model is the Hefner model, introduced by Allen Hefner of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Hefner's model is fairly complex that has shown very good results. Hefner's model is described in a 1988 paper and was later extended to a thermo-electrical model which include the IGBT's response to internal heating. This model has been added to a version of the Saber simulation software. [23]


IGBT module (IGBTs and freewheeling diodes) with a rated current of 1,200 A and a maximum voltage of 3,300 V IGBT 3300V 1200A Mitsubishi.jpg
IGBT module (IGBTs and freewheeling diodes) with a rated current of 1,200 A and a maximum voltage of 3,300 V
Opened IGBT module with four IGBTs (half of H-bridge) rated for 400 A 600 V IGBT 2441.JPG
Opened IGBT module with four IGBTs (half of H-bridge) rated for 400 A600 V
Small IGBT module, rated up to 30 A, up to 900 V Igbt.jpg
Small IGBT module, rated up to 30 A, up to 900 V
Mitsubishi Electric CM600DU-24NFH IGBT module rated for 600 A 1200 V, with the cover removed to show the IGBT dies and freewheeling diodes. CM600DU-24NFH.jpg
Mitsubishi Electric CM600DU-24NFH IGBT module rated for 600 A1200 V, with the cover removed to show the IGBT dies and freewheeling diodes.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Silicon controlled rectifier semiconductor electronic device with three p-n junctions, mainly used in devices where the control of high power is demanded

A silicon controlled rectifier or semiconductor controlled rectifier is a four-layer solid-state current-controlling device. The principle of four-layer p–n–p–n switching was developed by Moll, Tanenbaum, Goldey and Holonyak of Bell Laboratories in 1956. The practical demonstration of silicon controlled switching and detailed theoretical behavior of a device in agreement with the experimental results was presented by Dr Ian M. Mackintosh of Bell Laboratories in January 1958. The name "silicon controlled rectifier" is General Electric's trade name for a type of thyristor. The SCR was developed by a team of power engineers led by Gordon Hall and commercialized by Frank W. "Bill" Gutzwiller in 1957.

Safe operating area

For power semiconductor devices, the safe operating area (SOA) is defined as the voltage and current conditions over which the device can be expected to operate without self-damage.

MOS composite static induction thyristor is a combination of a MOS transistor connected in cascode relation to the SI-thyristor.
The SI thyristor (SITh) unit has a gate to which a source of MOS transistor is connected through a voltage regulation element. The low conduction loss and rugged structure MCS make it more favorable than conversional IGBT transistors.

The floating-gate MOSFET (FGMOS) is a field-effect transistor, whose structure is similar to a conventional MOSFET. The gate of the FGMOS is electrically isolated, creating a floating node in DC, and a number of secondary gates or inputs are deposited above the floating gate (FG) and are electrically isolated from it. These inputs are only capacitively connected to the FG. Since the FG is completely surrounded by highly resistive material, the charge contained in it remains unchanged for long periods of time. Usually Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and hot-carrier injection mechanisms are used to modify the amount of charge stored in the FG.

In the field of electronics, a bootstrap circuit is one where part of the output of an amplifier stage is applied to the input, so as to alter the input impedance of the amplifier. When applied deliberately, the intention is usually to increase rather than decrease the impedance. Generally, any technique where part of the output of a system is used at startup is described as bootstrapping.

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Gate turn-off thyristor

A gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) is a special type of thyristor, which is a high-power semiconductor device. It was invented at General Electric. GTOs, as opposed to normal thyristors, are fully controllable switches which can be turned on and off by their third lead, the gate lead.

MOS-controlled thyristor

An MOS-controlled thyristor (MCT) is a voltage-controlled fully controllable thyristor. It was invented by V.A.K. Temple. MCTs are similar in operation to GTO thyristors, but have voltage controlled insulated gates. They have two MOSFETs of opposite conductivity types in their equivalent circuits. One is responsible for turn-on and the other for turn-off. A thyristor with only one MOSFET in its equivalent circuit, which can only be turned on, is called an MOS-gated thyristor.


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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to electronics:

The field-effect transistor (FET) is an electronic device which uses an electric field to control the flow of current. This is achieved by the application of a voltage to the gate terminal, which in turn alters the conductivity between the drain and source terminals.


  1. Basic Electronics Tutorials.
  2. 1 2 3 A. Nakagawa et al., "Safe operating area for 1200-V non-latch-up bipolar-mode MOSFETs", IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, ED-34, pp. 351–355 (1987).
  3. B. W. Scharf and J. D. Plummer, 1978 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, SESSION XVI FAM 16.6 "A MOS-Controlled Triac Devices".
  5. 1 2 B. J. Baliga, et al., "The insulated gate rectifier (IGR): A new power switching device", IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Abstract 10.6, pp. 264–267 (1982).
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  7. 1 2 J.P. Russel et al., "The COMFET—A new high conductance MOS-gated device", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. EDL-4, pp. 63–65, 1983
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  9. B1 Re33209 is attached in the pdf file of Re 33209.
  10. 1 2 U. S. Patent No. 4,364,073, Power MOSFET with an Anode Region, issued December 14, 1982 to Hans W. Becke and Carl F. Wheatley.
  11. "C. Frank Wheatley, Jr., BSEE". Innovation Hall of Fame at A. James Clark School of Engineering.
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  14. "A MOS-Controlled Triac Devices" B.W. Scharf and J.D. Plummer, 1978 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, SESSION XVI FAM 16.6
  15. 1 2 3 A. Nakagawa et al., "Experimental and numerical study of non-latch-up bipolar-mode MOSFET characteristics", IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, pp. 150–153, 1985
  16. A. M. Goodman et al., "Improved COMFETs with fast switching speed and high-current capability", IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, pp. 79–82,1983
  17. B. J. Baliga, "Temperature behavior of insulated gate transistor characteristics", Solid State Electronics, Vol. 28, pp. 289–297, 1985.
  18. Product of the Year Award: "Insulated Gate Transistor", General Electric Company, Electronics Products, 1983.
  19. Marvin W. Smith, "APPLICATIONS OF INSULATED GATE TRANSISTORS" PCI April 1984 PROCEEDINGS, pp. 121-131, 1984
  20. A. Nakagawa et al., "Non-latch-up 1200 V 75 A bipolar-mode MOSFET with large ASO", IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, pp.860-861,1984.
  21. A.Nakagawa, H. Ohashi, Y. Yamaguchi, K. Watanabe and T. Thukakoshi, "Conductivity modulated MOSFET" US Patent No.6025622(Feb.15, 2000), No.5086323 (Feb.4, 1992) and No.4672407(Jun.9, 1987)
  22. "Ion Gel as a Gate Insulator in Field Effect Transistors". Archived from the original on 2011-11-14.
  23. Hefner Jr., Allen R Jr; Diebolt, DM (1994). "An experimentally verified IGBT model implemented in the Saber circuit simulator". 9 (5). IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics: 532–542. Retrieved January 2016.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

Further reading