Insulated-gate bipolar transistor

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IGBT schematic symbol IGBT symbol.gif
IGBT schematic symbol

An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching. It consists of four alternating layers (P-N-P-N) that are controlled by a metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) gate structure without regenerative action. Although the structure of the IGBT is topologically the same as a thyristor with a 'MOS' gate (MOS gate thyristor), the thyristor action is completely suppressed and only the transistor action is permitted in the entire device operation range. It is used in switching power supplies in high power applications: variable-frequency drives (VFDs), electric cars, trains, variable speed refrigerators, lamp ballasts, and air-conditioners.

Contents

Since it is designed to turn on and off rapidly, the IGBT can synthesize complex waveforms with pulse-width modulation and low-pass filters, so it is also used in switching amplifiers in sound systems and industrial control systems. In switching applications modern devices feature pulse repetition rates well into the ultrasonic range—frequencies which are at least ten times the highest audio frequency handled by the device when used as an analog audio amplifier. As of 2010, the IGBT is the second most widely used power transistor, after the power MOSFET.

IGBT comparison table [1]

Device characteristicPower bipolar Power MOSFET IGBT
Voltage ratingHigh <1kVHigh <1kVVery high >1kV
Current ratingHigh <500AHigh >500AHigh >500A
Input driveCurrent ratio hFE
20-200
Voltage VGS
3-10 V
Voltage VGE
4-8 V
Input impedanceLowHighHigh
Output impedanceLowMediumLow
Switching speedSlow (µs)Fast (ns)Medium
CostLowMediumHigh

Device structure

Cross-section of a typical IGBT showing internal connection of MOSFET and bipolar device IGBT Cross Section.jpg
Cross-section of a typical IGBT showing internal connection of MOSFET and bipolar device

An IGBT cell is constructed similarly to a n-channel vertical-construction power MOSFET, except the n+ drain is replaced with a p+ collector layer, thus forming a vertical PNP bipolar junction transistor. This additional p+ region creates a cascade connection of a PNP bipolar junction transistor with the surface n-channel MOSFET.

History

Static characteristic of an IGBT IvsV IGBT.png
Static characteristic of an IGBT

The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. [2] The basic IGBT mode of operation, where a pnp transistor is driven by a MOSFET, was first proposed by K. Yamagami and Y. Akagiri of Mitsubishi Electric in the Japanese patent S47-21739, which was filed in 1968. [3]

Following the commercialization of power MOSFETs in the 1970s, B. Jayant Baliga submitted a patent disclosure at General Electric (GE) in 1977 describing a power semiconductor device with the IGBT mode of operation, including the MOS gating of thyristors, a four-layer VMOS (V-groove MOSFET) structure, and the use of MOS-gated structures to control a four-layer semiconductor device. He began fabricating the IGBT device with the assistance of Margaret Lazeri at GE in 1978 and successfully completed the project in 1979. [4] The results of the experiments were reported in 1979. [5] [6] The device structure was referred to as a "V-groove MOSFET device with the drain region replaced by a p-type anode region" in this paper and subsequently as "the insulated-gate rectifier" (IGR), [7] the insulated-gate transistor (IGT), [8] the conductivity-modulated field-effect transistor (COMFET) [9] and "bipolar-mode MOSFET". [10]

An MOS-controlled triac device was reported by B. W. Scharf and J. D. Plummer with their lateral four-layer device (SCR) in 1978. [11] Plummer filed a patent application for this mode of operation in the four-layer device (SCR) in 1978. USP No. 4199774 was issued in 1980, and B1 Re33209 was reissued in 1996. [12] The IGBT mode of operation in the four-layer device (SCR) switched to thyristor operation if the collector current exceeded the latch-up current, which is known as "holding current" in the well known theory of the thyristor.[ citation needed ]

The development of IGBT was characterized by the efforts to completely suppress the thyristor operation or the latch-up in the four-layer device because the latch-up caused the fatal device failure. The technology of IGBT had, thus, been established when the complete suppression of the latch-up of the parasitic thyristor was achieved as described in the following.

Hans W. Becke and Carl F. Wheatley developed a similar device, for which they filed a patent application in 1980, and which they referred to as "power MOSFET with an anode region". [13] [14] The patent claimed that "no thyristor action occurs under any device operating conditions". The device had an overall similar structure to Baliga's earlier IGBT device reported in 1979, as well as a similar title. [4]

A. Nakagawa et. al. invented the device design concept of non-latch-up IGBTs in 1984. [15] The invention [16] is characterized by the device design setting the device saturation current below the latch-up current, which triggers the parasitic thyristor. This invention realized complete suppression of the parasitic thyristor action, for the first time, because the maximal collector current was limited by the saturation current and never exceeded the latch-up current. After the invention of the device design concept of non-latch-up IGBTs, IGBTs evolved rapidly, and the design of non-latch-up IGBTs became a de facto standard and the patent of non-latch-up IGBTs became the basic IGBT patent of actual devices.

In the early development stage of IGBT, all the researchers tried to increase the latch-up current itself in order to suppress the latch-up of the parasitic thyristor. However, all these efforts failed because IGBT could conduct enormously large current. Successful suppression of the latch-up was made possible by limiting the maximal collector current, which IGBT could conduct, below the latch-up current by controlling/reducing the saturation current of the inherent MOSFET. This was the concept of non-latch-up IGBT. “Becke’s device” was made possible by the non-latch-up IGBT.

The IGBT is characterized by its ability to simultaneously handle a high voltage and a large current. The product of the voltage and the current density that the IGBT can handle reached more than 5×105 W/cm2, [17] [18] which far exceeded the value, 2×105 W/cm2, of existing power devices such as bipolar transistors and power MOSFETs. This is a consequence of the large safe operating area of the IGBT. The IGBT is the most rugged and the strongest power device that ever developed, thus, providing users with easy use of the device and displaced bipolar transistors and even GTOs. This excellent feature of the IGBT had suddenly emerged when the non-latch-up IGBT was established in 1984 by solving the problem of so-called “latch-up,” which is the main cause of device destruction or device failure. Before that, the developed devices were very weak and were easy to be destroyed because of “latch-up.”

Practical devices

Practical devices capable of operating over an extended current range were first reported by B. Jayant Baliga et al. in 1982. [7] The first experimental demonstration of a practical discrete vertical IGBT device was reported by Baliga at the IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) that year. [19] [7] General Electric commercialized Baliga's IGBT device the same year. [4] Baliga was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for the invention of the IGBT. [20]

A similar paper was also submitted by J. P. Russel et al. to IEEE Electron Device Letter in 1982. [9] The applications for the device were initially regarded by the power electronics community to be severely restricted by its slow switching speed and latch-up of the parasitic thyristor structure inherent within the device. However, it was demonstrated by Baliga and also by A. M. Goodman et al. in 1983 that the switching speed could be adjusted over a broad range by using electron irradiation. [8] [21] This was followed by demonstration of operation of the device at elevated temperatures by Baliga in 1985. [22] Successful efforts to suppress the latch-up of the parasitic thyristor and the scaling of the voltage rating of the devices at GE allowed the introduction of commercial devices in 1983, [23] which could be utilized for a wide variety of applications. The electrical characteristics of GE's device, IGT D94FQ/FR4, were reported in detail by Marvin W. Smith in the proceedings of PCI April 1984. [24] Marvin W. Smith showed in Fig.12 of the proceedings that turn-off above 10 amperes for gate resistance of 5kOhm and above 5 amperes for gate resistance of 1kOhm was limited by switching safe operating area although IGT D94FQ/FR4 was able to conduct 40 amperes of collector current. Marvin W. Smith also stated that the switching safe operating area was limited by the latch-up of the parasitic thyristor.

Complete suppression of the parasitic thyristor action and the resultant non-latch-up IGBT operation for the entire device operation range was achieved by A. Nakagawa et al. in 1984. [25] The non-latch-up design concept was filed for US patents. [26] To test the lack of latch-up, the prototype 1200 V IGBTs were directly connected without any loads across a 600 V constant voltage source and were switched on for 25 microseconds. The entire 600 V was dropped across the device and a large short circuit current flowed. The devices successfully withstood this severe condition. This was the first demonstration of so-called "short-circuit-withstanding-capability" in IGBTs. Non-latch-up IGBT operation was ensured, for the first time, for the entire device operation range. [18] In this sense, the non-latch-up IGBT proposed by Hans W. Becke and Carl F. Wheatley was realized by A. Nakagawa et al. in 1984. Products of non-latch-up IGBTs were first commercialized by Toshiba in 1985. This was the real birth of the present IGBT.

Once the non-latch-up capability was achieved in IGBTs, it was found that IGBTs exhibited very rugged and a very large safe operating area. It was demonstrated that the product of the operating current density and the collector voltage exceeded the theoretical limit of bipolar transistors, 2×105 W/cm2, and reached 5×105 W/cm2. [17] [18]

The insulating material is typically made of solid polymers which have issues with degradation. There are developments that use an ion gel to improve manufacturing and reduce the voltage required. [27]

The first-generation IGBTs of the 1980s and early 1990s were prone to failure through effects such as latchup (in which the device will not turn off as long as current is flowing) and secondary breakdown (in which a localized hotspot in the device goes into thermal runaway and burns the device out at high currents). Second-generation devices were much improved. The current third-generation IGBTs are even better, with speed rivaling power MOSFETs, and excellent ruggedness and tolerance of overloads. [17] Extremely high pulse ratings of second and third-generation devices also make them useful for generating large power pulses in areas including particle and plasma physics, where they are starting to supersede older devices such as thyratrons and triggered spark gaps. High pulse ratings and low prices on the surplus market also make them attractive to the high-voltage hobbyists for controlling large amounts of power to drive devices such as solid-state Tesla coils and coilguns.

Patent issues

The device proposed by J. D. Plummer in 1978 (US Patent Re.33209) is the same structure as a thyristor with a MOS gate. Plummer discovered and proposed that the device can be used as a transistor although the device operates as a thyristor in higher current density level. J. D. Plummer reported this fact in his technical paper: "A MOS-Controlled Triac Devices" B.W. Scharf and J.D. Plummer, 1978 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, SESSION XVI FAM 16.6. [28] The device proposed by J. D. Plummer is referred here as “Plummer’s device.” On the other hand, Hans W. Becke proposed, in 1980, another device in which the thyristor action is completely eliminated under any device operating conditions although the basic device structure is the same as that proposed by J. D. Plummer. The device developed by Hans W. Becke is referred here as “Becke’s device” and is described in US Patent 4364073. The difference between “Plummer’s device” and “Becke’s device” is that “Plummer’s device” has the mode of thyristor action in its operation range and “Becke’s device” never has the mode of thyristor action in its entire operation range. This is a critical point, because the thyristor action is the same as so-called “latch-up.” “Latch-up” is the main cause of fatal device failure. Thus, theoretically, “Plummer’s device” never realizes a rugged or strong power device which has a large safe operating area. The large safe operating area can be achieved only after “latch-up” is completely suppressed and eliminated in the entire device operation range.[ citation needed ] However, the Becke's patent (US Patent 4364073) did not disclose any measures to realize actual devices.

Despite Becke’s patent describing a similar structure to Baliga's earlier IGBT device, [4] several IGBT manufacturers paid the license fee of Becke’s patent. [13] Toshiba commercialized “non-latch-up IGBT” in 1985. Stanford University insisted in 1991 that Toshiba’s device infringed US Patent RE33209 of “Plummer’s device.” Toshiba answered that “non-latch-up IGBTs” never latched up in the entire device operation range and thus did not infringe US Patent RE33209 of “Plummer’s patent.” Stanford University never responded after Nov. 1992. Toshiba purchased the license of “Becke’s patent” but never paid any license fee for “Plummer’s device.” Other IGBT manufacturers also paid the license fee for Becke’s patent.

Applications

As of 2010, the IGBT is the second most widely used power transistor, after the power MOSFET. The IGBT accounts for 27% of the power transistor market, second only to the power MOSFET (53%), and ahead of the RF amplifier (11%) and bipolar junction transistor (9%). [29] The IGBT is widely used in consumer electronics, industrial technology, the energy sector, aerospace electronic devices, and transportation.

Advantages

The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of power MOSFETs with the high-current and low-saturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors. The IGBT combines an isolated-gate FET for the control input and a bipolar power transistor as a switch in a single device. The IGBT is used in medium- to high-power applications like switched-mode power supplies, traction motor control and induction heating. Large IGBT modules typically consist of many devices in parallel and can have very high current-handling capabilities in the order of hundreds of amperes with blocking voltages of 6500 V . These IGBTs can control loads of hundreds of kilowatts.

Comparison with power MOSFETs

An IGBT features a significantly lower forward voltage drop compared to a conventional MOSFET in higher blocking voltage rated devices, although MOSFETS exhibit much lower forward voltage at lower current densities due to the absence of a diode Vf in the IGBT's output BJT. As the blocking voltage rating of both MOSFET and IGBT devices increases, the depth of the n- drift region must increase and the doping must decrease, resulting in roughly square relationship decrease in forward conduction versus blocking voltage capability of the device. By injecting minority carriers (holes) from the collector p+ region into the n- drift region during forward conduction, the resistance of the n- drift region is considerably reduced. However, this resultant reduction in on-state forward voltage comes with several penalties:

In general, high voltage, high current and low switching frequencies favor the IGBT while low voltage, medium current and high switching frequencies are the domain of the MOSFET.

IGBT models

Circuits with IGBTs can be developed and modeled with various circuit simulating computer programs such as SPICE, Saber, and other programs. To simulate an IGBT circuit, the device (and other devices in the circuit) must have a model which predicts or simulates the device's response to various voltages and currents on their electrical terminals. For more precise simulations the effect of temperature on various parts of the IGBT may be included with the simulation. Two common methods of modeling are available: device physics-based model, equivalent circuits or macromodels. SPICE simulates IGBTs using a macromodel that combines an ensemble of components like FETs and BJTs in a Darlington configuration.[ citation needed ] An alternative physics-based model is the Hefner model, introduced by Allen Hefner of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Hefner's model is fairly complex that has shown very good results. Hefner's model is described in a 1988 paper and was later extended to a thermo-electrical model which include the IGBT's response to internal heating. This model has been added to a version of the Saber simulation software. [30]

IGBT failure mechanisms

The failure mechanisms of IGBTs includes overstress (O) and wearout(wo) separately.

The wearout failures mainly include bias temperature instability (BTI), hot carrier injection (HCI), time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB), electromigration (ECM), solder fatigue, material reconstruction, corrosion. The overstress failure mainly include electrostatic discharge (ESD), latch-up, avalanche, secondary breakdown, wire-bond liftoff and burnout. [31]

IGBT modules

IGBT module (IGBTs and freewheeling diodes) with a rated current of 1,200 A and a maximum voltage of 3,300 V IGBT 3300V 1200A Mitsubishi.jpg
IGBT module (IGBTs and freewheeling diodes) with a rated current of 1,200 A and a maximum voltage of 3,300 V
Opened IGBT module with four IGBTs (half of H-bridge) rated for 400 A 600 V IGBT 2441.JPG
Opened IGBT module with four IGBTs (half of H-bridge) rated for 400 A600 V
Small IGBT module, rated up to 30 A, up to 900 V Igbt.jpg
Small IGBT module, rated up to 30 A, up to 900 V
Mitsubishi Electric CM600DU-24NFH IGBT module rated for 600 A 1200 V, with the cover removed to show the IGBT dies and freewheeling diodes. CM600DU-24NFH.jpg
Mitsubishi Electric CM600DU-24NFH IGBT module rated for 600 A1200 V, with the cover removed to show the IGBT dies and freewheeling diodes.

See also

Related Research Articles

Transistor Basic electronics component

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

A semiconductor device is an electronic component that relies on the electronic properties of a semiconductor material for its function. Semiconductor devices have replaced vacuum tubes in most applications. They use electrical conduction in the solid state rather than the gaseous state or thermionic emission in a vacuum.

MOSFET Transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals.

The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor (IGFET) that is fabricated by the controlled oxidation of a semiconductor, typically silicon. The voltage of the covered gate determines the electrical conductivity of the device; this ability to change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. The MOSFET was invented by Egyptian engineer Mohamed M. Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in November 1959. It is the basic building block of modern electronics, and the most frequently manufactured device in history, with an estimated total of 13 sextillion (1.3 × 1022) MOSFETs manufactured between 1960 and 2018.

N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type (-) MOSFETs to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. These nMOS transistors operate by creating an inversion layer in a p-type transistor body. This inversion layer, called the n-channel, can conduct electrons between n-type "source" and "drain" terminals. The n-channel is created by applying voltage to the third terminal, called the gate. Like other MOSFETs, nMOS transistors have four modes of operation: cut-off, triode, saturation, and velocity saturation.

CMOS Technology for constructing integrated circuits

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of MOSFET fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions. CMOS technology is used for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips, including microprocessors, microcontrollers, memory chips, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, RF circuits, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication.

Thyristor semiconductor device with three p-n junctions, having two steady states: off (non-conducting) and on (conducting) and three terminals.

A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials. It acts exclusively as a bistable switch, conducting when the gate receives a current trigger, and continuing to conduct until the voltage across the device is reversed biased, or until the voltage is removed. There are two designs, differing in what triggers the conducting state. In a three-lead thyristor, a small current on its Gate lead controls the larger current of the Anode to Cathode path. In a two-lead thyristor, conduction begins when the potential difference between the Anode and Cathode themselves is sufficiently large.

A power semiconductor device is a semiconductor device used as a switch or rectifier in power electronics. Such a device is also called a power device or, when used in an integrated circuit, a power IC.

A MESFET is a field-effect transistor semiconductor device similar to a JFET with a Schottky (metal-semiconductor) junction instead of a p-n junction for a gate.

High-electron-mobility transistor

A high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT), also known as heterostructure FET (HFET) or modulation-doped FET (MODFET), is a field-effect transistor incorporating a junction between two materials with different band gaps as the channel instead of a doped region. A commonly used material combination is GaAs with AlGaAs, though there is wide variation, dependent on the application of the device. Devices incorporating more indium generally show better high-frequency performance, while in recent years, gallium nitride HEMTs have attracted attention due to their high-power performance. Like other FETs, HEMTs are used in integrated circuits as digital on-off switches. FETs can also be used as amplifiers for large amounts of current using a small voltage as a control signal. Both of these uses are made possible by the FET’s unique current–voltage characteristics. HEMT transistors are able to operate at higher frequencies than ordinary transistors, up to millimeter wave frequencies, and are used in high-frequency products such as cell phones, satellite television receivers, voltage converters, and radar equipment. They are widely used in satellite receivers, in low power amplifiers and in the defense industry.

Power MOSFET power MOS field-effect transistor

A power MOSFET is a specific type of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) designed to handle significant power levels. Compared to the other power semiconductor devices, such as an insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) or a thyristor, its main advantages are high switching speed and good efficiency at low voltages. It shares with the IGBT an isolated gate that makes it easy to drive. They can be subject to low gain, sometimes to a degree that the gate voltage needs to be higher than the voltage under control.

Depletion-load NMOS logic form of nMOS logic family

In integrated circuits, depletion-load NMOS is a form of digital logic family that uses only a single power supply voltage, unlike earlier nMOS logic families that needed more than one different power supply voltage. Although manufacturing these integrated circuits required additional processing steps, improved switching speed and the elimination of the extra power supply made this logic family the preferred choice for many microprocessors and other logic elements.

VMOS

A VMOS transistor is a type of MOSFET. VMOS is also used for describing the V-groove shape vertically cut into the substrate material. VMOS is an acronym for "vertical metal oxide semiconductor", or "V-groove MOS".

In electronics, a self-aligned gate is a transistor manufacturing feature whereby a refractory gate electrode region of a MOSFET is used as a mask for the doping of the source and drain regions. This technique ensures that the gate will slightly overlap the edges of the source and drain.

Gate turn-off thyristor

A gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) is a special type of thyristor, which is a high-power semiconductor device. It was invented by General Electric. GTOs, as opposed to normal thyristors, are fully controllable switches which can be turned on and off by their third lead, the gate lead.

MOS-controlled thyristor type of thyristor

An MOS-controlled thyristor (MCT) is a voltage-controlled fully controllable thyristor, controlled by MOSFETs. It was invented by V.A.K. Temple in 1984, and was principally similar to the earlier insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). MCTs are similar in operation to GTO thyristors, but have voltage controlled insulated gates. They have two MOSFETs of opposite conductivity types in their equivalent circuits. One is responsible for turn-on and the other for turn-off. A thyristor with only one MOSFET in its equivalent circuit, which can only be turned on, is called an MOS-gated thyristor.

A transistor is a semiconductor device with at least three terminals for connection to an electric circuit. The vacuum-tube triode, also called a (thermionic) valve, was the transistor's precursor, introduced in 1907. The principle of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925.

The current injection technique is a technique developed to reduce the turn-OFF switching transient of power bipolar semiconductor devices. It was developed and published by Dr S. Eio of Staffordshire University in 2007.

Bantval Jayant Baliga is an Indian electrical engineer best known for his work in power semiconductor devices, and particularly the invention of the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

Field-effect transistor transistor that uses an electric field to control its electrical behaviour

The field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor which uses an electric field to control the flow of current. FETs are devices with three terminals: source, gate, and drain. FETs control the flow of current by the application of a voltage to the gate, which in turn alters the conductivity between the drain and source.

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Further reading