Insulator (electricity)

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An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and conductors, which conduct electric current more easily. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors.

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charge: positive and negative. Like charges repel and unlike attract. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects.

An electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge past a point or region. An electric current is said to exist when there is a net flow of electric charge through a region. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by electrons moving through a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionized gas (plasma).

An electric field surrounds an electric charge, and exerts force on other charges in the field, attracting or repelling them. Electric field is sometimes abbreviated as E-field. The electric field is defined mathematically as a vector field that associates to each point in space the force per unit of charge exerted on an infinitesimal positive test charge at rest at that point. The SI unit for electric field strength is volt per meter (V/m). Newtons per coulomb (N/C) is also used as a unit of electric field strength. Electric fields are created by electric charges, or by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in electrical technology. On an atomic scale, the electric field is responsible for the attractive force between the atomic nucleus and electrons that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause chemical bonding. Electric fields and magnetic fields are both manifestations of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature.

Contents

A perfect insulator does not exist, because even insulators contain small numbers of mobile charges (charge carriers) which can carry current. In addition, all insulators become electrically conductive when a sufficiently large voltage is applied that the electric field tears electrons away from the atoms. This is known as the breakdown voltage of an insulator. Some materials such as glass, paper and Teflon, which have high resistivity, are very good electrical insulators. A much larger class of materials, even though they may have lower bulk resistivity, are still good enough to prevent significant current from flowing at normally used voltages, and thus are employed as insulation for electrical wiring and cables. Examples include rubber-like polymers and most plastics which can be thermoset or thermoplastic in nature.

In physics, a charge carrier is a particle or quasiparticle that is free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors. Examples are electrons, ions and holes. In a conducting medium, an electric field can exert force on these free particles, causing a net motion of the particles through the medium; this is what constitutes an electric current. In conducting media, particles serve to carry charge:

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol
e
or
β
, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure. The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ. Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. The wave properties of electrons are easier to observe with experiments than those of other particles like neutrons and protons because electrons have a lower mass and hence a longer de Broglie wavelength for a given energy.

The breakdown voltage of an insulator is the minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive.

Insulators are used in electrical equipment to support and separate electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves. An insulating material used in bulk to wrap electrical cables or other equipment is called insulation. The term insulator is also used more specifically to refer to insulating supports used to attach electric power distribution or transmission lines to utility poles and transmission towers. They support the weight of the suspended wires without allowing the current to flow through the tower to ground.

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of charge in one or more directions. Materials made of metal are common electrical conductors. Electrical current is generated by the flow of negatively charged electrons, positively charged holes, and positive or negative ions in some cases.

Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers. Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2 kV and 35 kV with the use of transformers. Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution transformers located near the customer's premises. Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage used by lighting, industrial equipment or household appliances. Often several customers are supplied from one transformer through secondary distribution lines. Commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary distribution lines through service drops. Customers demanding a much larger amount of power may be connected directly to the primary distribution level or the subtransmission level.

Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is known as the "power grid" in North America, or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, India, Tanzania, Myanmar, Malaysia and New Zealand, the network is known as the "National Grid".

Physics of conduction in solids

Electrical insulation is the absence of electrical conduction. Electronic band theory (a branch of physics) said that a charge flows if states are available into which electrons can be excited. This allows electrons to gain energy and thereby move through a conductor such as a metal. If no such states are available, the material is an insulator.

In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure of a solid describes the range of energies an electron within the solid may have and ranges of energy that it may not have.

A metal is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Metals are typically malleable or ductile. A metal may be a chemical element such as iron; an alloy such as stainless steel; or a molecular compound such as polymeric sulfur nitride.

Most (though not all, see Mott insulator) insulators have a large band gap. This occurs because the "valence" band containing the highest energy electrons is full, and a large energy gap separates this band from the next band above it. There is always some voltage (called the breakdown voltage) that gives electrons enough energy to be excited into this band. Once this voltage is exceeded the material ceases being an insulator, and charge begins to pass through it. However, it is usually accompanied by physical or chemical changes that permanently degrade the material's insulating properties.

Mott insulators are a class of materials that should conduct electricity under conventional band theories, but are in fact insulators when measured. This effect is due to electron–electron interactions, which are not considered in conventional band theory.

In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist. In graphs of the electronic band structure of solids, the band gap generally refers to the energy difference between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band in insulators and semiconductors. It is the energy required to promote a valence electron bound to an atom to become a conduction electron, which is free to move within the crystal lattice and serve as a charge carrier to conduct electric current. It is closely related to the HOMO/LUMO gap in chemistry. If the valence band is completely full and the conduction band is completely empty, then electrons cannot move in the solid; however, if some electrons transfer from the valence to the conduction band, then current can flow. Therefore, the band gap is a major factor determining the electrical conductivity of a solid. Substances with large band gaps are generally insulators, those with smaller band gaps are semiconductors, while conductors either have very small band gaps or none, because the valence and conduction bands overlap.

Materials that lack electron conduction are insulators if they lack other mobile charges as well. For example, if a liquid or gas contains ions, then the ions can be made to flow as an electric current, and the material is a conductor. Electrolytes and plasmas contain ions and act as conductors whether or not electron flow is involved.

An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly through the solvent. Electrically, such a solution is neutral. If an electric potential is applied to such a solution, the cations of the solution are drawn to the electrode that has an abundance of electrons, while the anions are drawn to the electrode that has a deficit of electrons. The movement of anions and cations in opposite directions within the solution amounts to a current. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological and synthetic polymers, termed "polyelectrolytes", which contain charged functional groups. A substance that dissociates into ions in solution acquires the capacity to conduct electricity. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes.

Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s. It consists of a gas of ions, atoms which have some of their orbital electrons removed, and free electrons. Plasma can be artificially generated by heating or subjecting a neutral gas to a strong electromagnetic field to the point where an ionized gaseous substance becomes increasingly electrically conductive, and long-range electromagnetic fields dominate the behaviour of the matter.

Breakdown

When subjected to a high enough voltage, insulators suffer from the phenomenon of electrical breakdown. When the electric field applied across an insulating substance exceeds in any location the threshold breakdown field for that substance, the insulator suddenly becomes a conductor, causing a large increase in current, an electric arc through the substance. Electrical breakdown occurs when the electric field in the material is strong enough to accelerate free charge carriers (electrons and ions, which are always present at low concentrations) to a high enough velocity to knock electrons from atoms when they strike them, ionizing the atoms. These freed electrons and ions are in turn accelerated and strike other atoms, creating more charge carriers, in a chain reaction. Rapidly the insulator becomes filled with mobile charge carriers, and its resistance drops to a low level. In a solid, the breakdown voltage is proportional to the band gap energy. When corona discharge occurs, the air in a region around a high-voltage conductor can break down and ionise without a catastrophic increase in current. However, if the region of air breakdown extends to another conductor at a different voltage it creates a conductive path between them, and a large current flows through the air, creating an electric arc . Even a vacuum can suffer a sort of breakdown, but in this case the breakdown or vacuum arc involves charges ejected from the surface of metal electrodes rather than produced by the vacuum itself.

In addition, all insulators become conductors at very high temperatures as the thermal energy of the valence electrons is sufficient to put them in the conduction band. [1] [2]

In certain capacitors, shorts between electrodes formed due to dielectric breakdown can disappear when the applied electric field is reduced. [3] [4] [5] [ relevant? ]

Uses

A very flexible coating of an insulator is often applied to electric wire and cable, this is called insulated wire. Wires sometimes don't use an insulating coating, just air, since a solid (e.g. plastic) coating may be impractical. However, wires that touch each other produce cross connections, short circuits, and fire hazards. In coaxial cable the center conductor must be supported exactly in the middle of the hollow shield to prevent EM wave reflections. Finally, wires that expose voltages higher than 60 V[ citation needed ] can cause human shock and electrocution hazards. Insulating coatings help to prevent all of these problems.

Some wires have a mechanical covering with no voltage rating[ citation needed ]—e.g.: service-drop, welding, doorbell, thermostat wire. An insulated wire or cable has a voltage rating and a maximum conductor temperature rating. It may not have an ampacity (current-carrying capacity) rating, since this is dependent upon the surrounding environment (e.g. ambient temperature).

In electronic systems, printed circuit boards are made from epoxy plastic and fibreglass. The nonconductive boards support layers of copper foil conductors. In electronic devices, the tiny and delicate active components are embedded within nonconductive epoxy or phenolic plastics, or within baked glass or ceramic coatings.

In microelectronic components such as transistors and ICs, the silicon material is normally a conductor because of doping, but it can easily be selectively transformed into a good insulator by the application of heat and oxygen. Oxidised silicon is quartz, i.e. silicon dioxide, the primary component of glass.

In high voltage systems containing transformers and capacitors, liquid insulator oil is the typical method used for preventing arcs. The oil replaces air in spaces that must support significant voltage without electrical breakdown. Other high voltage system insulation materials include ceramic or glass wire holders, gas, vacuum, and simply placing wires far enough apart to use air as insulation.

Telegraph and power transmission insulators

Overhead conductors for high-voltage electric power transmission are bare, and are insulated by the surrounding air. Conductors for lower voltages in distribution may have some insulation but are often bare as well. Insulating supports called insulators are required at the points where they are supported by utility poles or transmission towers. Insulators are also required where the wire enters buildings or electrical devices, such as transformers or circuit breakers, to insulate the wire from the case. These hollow insulators with a conductor inside them are called bushings.

Material

Insulators used for high-voltage power transmission are made from glass, porcelain or composite polymer materials. Porcelain insulators are made from clay, quartz or alumina and feldspar, and are covered with a smooth glaze to shed water. Insulators made from porcelain rich in alumina are used where high mechanical strength is a criterion. Porcelain has a dielectric strength of about 4–10 kV/mm. [6] Glass has a higher dielectric strength, but it attracts condensation and the thick irregular shapes needed for insulators are difficult to cast without internal strains. [7] Some insulator manufacturers stopped making glass insulators in the late 1960s, switching to ceramic materials.

Recently, some electric utilities have begun converting to polymer composite materials for some types of insulators. These are typically composed of a central rod made of fibre reinforced plastic and an outer weathershed made of silicone rubber or ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM). Composite insulators are less costly, lighter in weight, and have excellent hydrophobic capability. This combination makes them ideal for service in polluted areas. However, these materials do not yet have the long-term proven service life of glass and porcelain.

Design

The electrical breakdown of an insulator due to excessive voltage can occur in one of two ways:

• A puncture arc is a breakdown and conduction of the material of the insulator, causing an electric arc through the interior of the insulator. The heat resulting from the arc usually damages the insulator irreparably. Puncture voltage is the voltage across the insulator (when installed in its normal manner) that causes a puncture arc.
• A flashover arc is a breakdown and conduction of the air around or along the surface of the insulator, causing an arc along the outside of the insulator. Insulators are usually designed to withstand flashover without damage. Flashover voltage is the voltage that causes a flash-over arc.

Most high voltage insulators are designed with a lower flashover voltage than puncture voltage, so they flash over before they puncture, to avoid damage.

Dirt, pollution, salt, and particularly water on the surface of a high voltage insulator can create a conductive path across it, causing leakage currents and flashovers. The flashover voltage can be reduced by more than 50% when the insulator is wet. High voltage insulators for outdoor use are shaped to maximise the length of the leakage path along the surface from one end to the other, called the creepage length, to minimise these leakage currents. [8] To accomplish this the surface is moulded into a series of corrugations or concentric disc shapes. These usually include one or more sheds; downward facing cup-shaped surfaces that act as umbrellas to ensure that the part of the surface leakage path under the 'cup' stays dry in wet weather. Minimum creepage distances are 20–25 mm/kV, but must be increased in high pollution or airborne sea-salt areas.

Types of insulators

These are the common classes of insulator:[ citation needed ]

• Pin type insulator - As the name suggests, the pin type insulator is mounted on a pin on the cross-arm on the pole. There is a groove on the upper end of the insulator. The conductor passes through this groove and is tied to the insulator with annealed wire of the same material as the conductor. Pin type insulators are used for transmission and distribution of communications, and electric power at voltages up to 33 kV. Insulators made for operating voltages between 33 kV and 69 kV tend to be very bulky and have become uneconomical in recent years.
• Post insulator - A type of insulator in the 1930s that is more compact than traditional pin-type insulators and which has rapidly replaced many pin-type insulators on lines up to 69 kV and in some configurations, can be made for operation at up to 115 kV.
• Suspension insulator - For voltages greater than 33 kV, it is a usual practice to use suspension type insulators, consisting of a number of glass or porcelain discs connected in series by metal links in the form of a string. The conductor is suspended at the bottom end of this string while the top end is secured to the cross-arm of the tower. The number of disc units used depends on the voltage.
• Strain insulator - A dead end or anchor pole or tower is used where a straight section of line ends, or angles off in another direction. These poles must withstand the lateral (horizontal) tension of the long straight section of wire. To support this lateral load, strain insulators are used. For low voltage lines (less than 11 kV), shackle insulators are used as strain insulators. However, for high voltage transmission lines, strings of cap-and-pin (suspension) insulators are used, attached to the crossarm in a horizontal direction. When the tension load in lines is exceedingly high, such as at long river spans, two or more strings are used in parallel.
• Shackle insulator - In early days, the shackle insulators were used as strain insulators. But nowaday, they are frequently used for low voltage distribution lines. Such insulators can be used either in a horizontal position or in a vertical position. They can be directly fixed to the pole with a bolt or to the cross arm.
• Bushing - enables one or several conductors to pass through a partition such as a wall or a tank, and insulates the conductors from it. [9]
• Line post insulator
• Station post insulator
• Cut-out

Suspension insulators

Pin-type insulators are unsuitable for voltages greater than about 69 kV line-to-line. Higher transmission voltages use suspension insulator strings, which can be made for any practical transmission voltage by adding insulator elements to the string. [10]

Higher voltage transmission lines usually use modular suspension insulator designs. The wires are suspended from a 'string' of identical disc-shaped insulators that attach to each other with metal clevis pin or ball and socket links. The advantage of this design is that insulator strings with different breakdown voltages, for use with different line voltages, can be constructed by using different numbers of the basic units. Also, if one of the insulator units in the string breaks, it can be replaced without discarding the entire string.

Each unit is constructed of a ceramic or glass disc with a metal cap and pin cemented to opposite sides. To make defective units obvious, glass units are designed so that an overvoltage causes a puncture arc through the glass instead of a flashover. The glass is heat-treated so it shatters, making the damaged unit visible. However the mechanical strength of the unit is unchanged, so the insulator string stays together.

Standard suspension disc insulator units are 25 centimetres (9.8 in) in diameter and 15 cm (6 in) long, can support a load of 80-120 kN (18-27 klbf), have a dry flashover voltage of about 72 kV, and are rated at an operating voltage of 10-12 kV. [11] However, the flashover voltage of a string is less than the sum of its component discs, because the electric field is not distributed evenly across the string but is strongest at the disc nearest to the conductor, which flashes over first. Metal grading rings are sometimes added around the disc at the high voltage end, to reduce the electric field across that disc and improve flashover voltage.

In very high voltage lines the insulator may be surrounded by corona rings. [12] These typically consist of toruses of aluminium (most commonly) or copper tubing attached to the line. They are designed to reduce the electric field at the point where the insulator is attached to the line, to prevent corona discharge, which results in power losses.

Typical number of disc insulator units for standard line voltages [13]
Line voltage
(kV)
Discs
34.53
694
1156
1388
16111
23014
28715
34518
36023
40024
50034
60044
75059
76560

History

The first electrical systems to make use of insulators were telegraph lines; direct attachment of wires to wooden poles was found to give very poor results, especially during damp weather.

The first glass insulators used in large quantities had an unthreaded pinhole. These pieces of glass were positioned on a tapered wooden pin, vertically extending upwards from the pole's crossarm (commonly only two insulators to a pole and maybe one on top of the pole itself). Natural contraction and expansion of the wires tied to these "threadless insulators" resulted in insulators unseating from their pins, requiring manual reseating.

Amongst the first to produce ceramic insulators were companies in the United Kingdom, with Stiff and Doulton using stoneware from the mid-1840s, Joseph Bourne (later renamed Denby) producing them from around 1860 and Bullers from 1868. Utility patent number 48,906 was granted to Louis A. Cauvet on 25 July 1865 for a process to produce insulators with a threaded pinhole: pin-type insulators still have threaded pinholes.

The invention of suspension-type insulators made high-voltage power transmission possible. As transmission line voltages reached and passed 60,000 volts, the insulators required become very large and heavy, with insulators made for a safety margin of 88,000 volts being about the practical limit for manufacturing and installation. Suspension insulators, on the other hand, can be connected into strings as long as required for the line's voltage.

A large variety of telephone, telegraph and power insulators have been made; some people collect them, both for their historic interest and for the aesthetic quality of many insulator designs and finishes. One collectors organisation is the US National Insulator Association, which has over 9,000 members. [14]

Insulation of antennas

Often a broadcasting radio antenna is built as a mast radiator, which means that the entire mast structure is energised with high voltage and must be insulated from the ground. Steatite mountings are used. They have to withstand not only the voltage of the mast radiator to ground, which can reach values up to 400 kV at some antennas, but also the weight of the mast construction and dynamic forces. Arcing horns and lightning arresters are necessary because lightning strikes to the mast are common.

Guy wires supporting antenna masts usually have strain insulators inserted in the cable run, to keep the high voltages on the antenna from short circuiting to ground or creating a shock hazard. Often guy cables have several insulators, placed to break up the cable into lengths that prevent unwanted electrical resonances in the guy. These insulators are usually ceramic and cylindrical or egg-shaped (see picture). This construction has the advantage that the ceramic is under compression rather than tension, so it can withstand greater load, and that if the insulator breaks, the cable ends are still linked.

These insulators also have to be equipped with overvoltage protection equipment. For the dimensions of the guy insulation, static charges on guys have to be considered. For high masts, these can be much higher than the voltage caused by the transmitter, requiring guys divided by insulators in multiple sections on the highest masts. In this case, guys which are grounded at the anchor basements via a coil - or if possible, directly - are the better choice.

Feedlines attaching antennas to radio equipment, particularly twin lead type, often must be kept at a distance from metal structures. The insulated supports used for this purpose are called standoff insulators.

Insulation in electrical apparatus

The most important insulation material is air. A variety of solid, liquid, and gaseous insulators are also used in electrical apparatus. In smaller transformers, generators, and electric motors, insulation on the wire coils consists of up to four thin layers of polymer varnish film. Film insulated magnet wire permits a manufacturer to obtain the maximum number of turns within the available space. Windings that use thicker conductors are often wrapped with supplemental fiberglass insulating tape. Windings may also be impregnated with insulating varnishes to prevent electrical corona and reduce magnetically induced wire vibration. Large power transformer windings are still mostly insulated with paper, wood, varnish, and mineral oil; although these materials have been used for more than 100 years, they still provide a good balance of economy and adequate performance. Busbars and circuit breakers in switchgear may be insulated with glass-reinforced plastic insulation, treated to have low flame spread and to prevent tracking of current across the material.

In older apparatus made up to the early 1970s, boards made of compressed asbestos may be found; while this is an adequate insulator at power frequencies, handling or repairs to asbestos material can release dangerous fibers into the air and must be carried cautiously. Wire insulated with felted asbestos was used in high-temperature and rugged applications from the 1920s. Wire of this type was sold by General Electric under the trade name "Deltabeston." [15]

Live-front switchboards up to the early part of the 20th century were made of slate or marble. Some high voltage equipment is designed to operate within a high pressure insulating gas such as sulfur hexafluoride. Insulation materials that perform well at power and low frequencies may be unsatisfactory at radio frequency, due to heating from excessive dielectric dissipation.

Electrical wires may be insulated with polyethylene, crosslinked polyethylene (either through electron beam processing or chemical crosslinking), PVC, Kapton, rubber-like polymers, oil impregnated paper, Teflon, silicone, or modified ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). Larger power cables may use compressed inorganic powder, depending on the application.

Flexible insulating materials such as PVC (polyvinyl chloride) are used to insulate the circuit and prevent human contact with a 'live' wire – one having voltage of 600 volts or less. Alternative materials are likely to become increasingly used due to EU safety and environmental legislation making PVC less economic.

Class I and Class II insulation

All portable or hand-held electrical devices are insulated to protect their user from harmful shock.

Class I insulation requires that the metal body and other exposed metal parts of the device be connected to earth via a grounding wire that is earthed at the main service panel—but only needs basic insulation on the conductors. This equipment needs an extra pin on the power plug for the grounding connection.

Class II insulation means that the device is double insulated. This is used on some appliances such as electric shavers, hair dryers and portable power tools. Double insulation requires that the devices have both basic and supplementary insulation, each of which is sufficient to prevent electric shock. All internal electrically energized components are totally enclosed within an insulated body that prevents any contact with "live" parts. In the EU, double insulated appliances all are marked with a symbol of two squares, one inside the other. [16]

Notes

1. S. L. Kakani (1 January 2005). Electronics Theory and Applications. New Age International. p. 7. ISBN   978-81-224-1536-0.
2. Adrian Waygood (19 June 2013). An Introduction to Electrical Science. Routledge. p. 41. ISBN   1-135-07113-6.
3. Klein, N.; Gafni, H. (1966). "The maximum dielectric strength of thin silicon oxide films". IEEE Trans. Electron Devices. 13.
4. Inuishi, Y.; Powers, D.A. (1957). "Electric breakdown and conduction through Mylar films". J. Appl. Phys. 58. Bibcode:1957JAP....28.1017I. doi:10.1063/1.1722899.
5. Belkin, A.; et., al. (2017). "Recovery of Alumina Nanocapacitors after High Voltage Breakdown". Scientific Reports. 7. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7..932B. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01007-9. PMC  .
6. "Electrical Porcelain Insulators" (PDF). Product spec sheet. Universal Clay Products, Ltd. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
7. Cotton, H. (1958). The Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy. London: English Univ. Press. copied on Insulator Usage, A.C. Walker's Insulator Information page
8. Holtzhausen, J.P. "High Voltage Insulators" (PDF). IDC Technologies. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
9. IEC 60137:2003. 'Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1,000 V.' IEC, 2003.
10. Donald G. Fink, H. Wayne Beaty (ed).,Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, 11th Edition,McGraw-Hill, 1978, ISBN   0-07-020974-X, pages 14-153, 14-154
11. Grigsby, Leonard L. (2001). The Electric Power Engineering Handbook. USA: CRC Press. ISBN   0-8493-8578-4.
12. Bakshi, M (2007). Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution. Technical Publications. ISBN   978-81-8431-271-3.
13. Diesendorf, W. (1974). Insulation Coordination in High Voltage Power Systems. UK: Butterworth & Co. ISBN   0-408-70464-0.
15. Bernhard, Frank; Frank H. Bernhard (1921). EMF Electrical Year Book. Electrical Trade Pub. Co. p. 822.
16. "Understanding IEC Appliance Insulation Classes: I, II and III". Fidus Power. 6 July 2018.

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A transmission tower or power tower is a tall structure, usually a steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line.

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A guy-wire, guy-line, or guy-rope, also known as simply a guy, is a tensioned cable designed to add stability to a free-standing structure. They are used commonly in ship masts, radio masts, wind turbines, utility poles, fire service extension ladders used in church raises and tents. A thin vertical mast supported by guy wires is called a guyed mast. Structures that support antennas are frequently of a lattice construction and are called "towers". One end of the guy is attached to the structure, and the other is anchored to the ground at some distance from the mast or tower base. The tension in the diagonal guy-wire, combined with the compression and buckling strength of the structure, allows the structure to withstand lateral loads such as wind or the weight of cantilevered structures. They are installed radially, usually at equal angles about the structure, in trios and quads. As the tower leans a bit due to the wind force, the increased guy tension is resolved into a compression force in the tower or mast and a lateral force that resists the wind load. For example, antenna masts are often held up by three guy-wires at 120° angles. Structures with predictable lateral loads, such as electrical utility poles, may require only a single guy-wire to offset the lateral pull of the electrical wires, at a spot where the wires change direction.

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A power cable is an electrical cable, an assembly of one or more electrical conductors, usually held together with an overall sheath. The assembly is used for transmission of electrical power. Power cables may be installed as permanent wiring within buildings, buried in the ground, run overhead, or exposed.

In electric power, a bushing is an insulated device that allows an electrical conductor to pass safely through a grounded conducting barrier such as the case of a transformer or circuit breaker. Bushings are typically made from porcelain; though other insulating materials are also possible, generally porcelain is used.

Arcing horns are projecting conductors used to protect insulators or switch hardware on high voltage electric power transmission systems from damage during flashover. Overvoltages on transmission lines, due to atmospheric electricity, lightning strikes, or electrical faults, can cause arcs across insulators (flashovers) that can damage them. Alternately, atmospheric conditions or transients that occur during switching can cause an arc to form in the breaking path of a switch during its operation. Arcing horns provide a path for flashover to occur that bypasses the surface of the protected device. Horns are normally paired on either side of an insulator, one connected to the high voltage part and the other to ground, or at the breaking point of a switch contact. They are frequently to be seen on insulator strings on overhead lines, or protecting transformer bushings.

Magnet wire or enameled wire is a copper or aluminium wire coated with a very thin layer of insulation. It is used in the construction of transformers, inductors, motors, generators, speakers, hard disk head actuators, electromagnets, and other applications that require tight coils of insulated wire.

A strain insulator is an electrical insulator that is designed to work in mechanical tension (strain), to withstand the pull of a suspended electrical wire or cable. They are used in overhead electrical wiring, to support radio antennas and overhead power lines. A strain insulator may be inserted between two lengths of wire to isolate them electrically from each other while maintaining a mechanical connection, or where a wire attaches to a pole or tower, to transmit the pull of the wire to the support while insulating it electrically. Strain insulators were first used in telegraph systems in the mid 19th century.

In the electric power distribution industry, a hot stick is an insulated pole, usually made of fiberglass, used by electric utility workers when engaged on live-line working on energized high-voltage electric power lines, to protect them from electric shock. Depending on the tool attached to the end of the hot stick, it is possible to test for voltage, tighten nuts and bolts, apply tie wires, open and close switches, replace fuses, lay insulating sleeves on wires, and perform various other tasks while not exposing the crew to a large risk of electric shock.

An aerial cable or air cable is an insulated cable usually containing all conductors required for an electrical distribution system or a telecommunication line, which is suspended between utility poles or electricity pylons. As aerial cables are completely insulated there is no danger of electric shock when touching them and there is no requirement for mounting them with insulators on pylons and poles. A further advantage is they require less right of way than overhead lines for the same reason. They can be designed as shielded cables for telecommunication purposes. If the cable falls, it may still operate if its insulation is not damaged.

A high-voltage cable is a cable used for electric power transmission at high voltage. A cable includes a conductor and insulation, and is suitable for being run underground or underwater. This is in contrast to an overhead line, which does not have insulation. High-voltage cables of differing types have a variety of applications in instruments, ignition systems, and alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) power transmission. In all applications, the insulation of the cable must not deteriorate due to the high-voltage stress, ozone produced by electric discharges in air, or tracking. The cable system must prevent contact of the high-voltage conductor with other objects or persons, and must contain and control leakage current. Cable joints and terminals must be designed to control the high-voltage stress to prevent breakdown of the insulation. Often a high-voltage cable will have a metallic shield layer over the insulation, connected to the ground and designed to equalize the dielectric stress on the insulation layer.

A corona ring, also called an anti-corona ring, is a toroid of conductive material, usually metal, which is attached to a terminal or other irregular hardware piece of high voltage equipment. The role of the corona ring is to distribute the electric field gradient and lower its maximum values below the corona threshold, either preventing corona discharge entirely or transferring its destructive effects from the valuable hardware to the expendable ring. Corona rings are used on very high voltage power transmission insulators and switchgear, and on scientific research apparatus that generates high voltages. A very similar related device, the grading ring is used around insulators.