IntelDX4 is a clock-tripled i486 microprocessor with 16-kB Level 1 cache. Intel named it DX4 (rather than DX3) as a consequence of litigation with AMD over trademarks. The product was officially named IntelDX4, but OEMs continued using the i486 naming convention.
Intel produced IntelDX4s with two clock speed steppings: A 75-MHz version (3× 25 MHz multiplier), and a 100-MHz version (3× 33.3 MHz). Both chips were released in March 1994. A version of IntelDX4 featuring write-back cache was released in October 1994. The original write-through versions of the chip are marked with a laser-embossed “&E,” while the write-back-enabled versions are marked “&EW.” i486 OverDrive editions of IntelDX4 had locked multipliers, and therefore can only run at 3× the external clock speed. The 100-MHz model of the processor had an iCOMP rating of 435, while the 75-MHz processor had a rating of 319. IntelDX4 was an OEM-only product, but the DX4 Overdrive could be purchased at a retail store.
The IntelDX4 microprocessor is mostly pin-compatible with the 80486, but requires a lower 3.3-V supply. Normal 80486 and DX2 processors use a 5-V supply; plugging a DX4 into an unmodified socket will destroy the processor. Motherboards lacking support for the 3.3-V CPUs can sometimes make use of them using a voltage regulator (VRM) that fits between the socket and the CPU.
|Processor speed (MHz)||Input clock (MHz) and multiplier||Voltage (nominal) (V)||Voltage range (V)||Part number||S-spec number|
|75||25 × 3||3.3||3.1–3.6||FC80486DX4-75||SK052, SX883|
|75||25 × 3||3.3||3.1–3.6||A80486DX4-75||SK047, SX884|
|75||25 × 3||3.3||3.1–3.5||A80486DX4WB-75||SK102|
|75||25 × 3||3.3||3.1–3.5||FC80486DX4WB-75||SK100|
|100||33 × 3||3.3, 3.45||3.1–3.6||FC80486DX4-100||SX906|
|100||33 × 3||3.45||3.3–3.6||A80486DX4-100||SK051, SX900|
|100||33 × 3||3.45||3.3–3.6||A80486DX4WB-100||SK096|
|100||33 × 3, 50 × 2||3.45||3.3–3.6||FC80486DX4-100||SX876|
|100||33 × 3, 50 × 2||3.3, 3.45||3.1–3.6||FC80486DX4-100||SK053|
|100||33 × 3, 50 × 2||3.45||3.3–3.6||A80486DX4-100||SX877|
|100||33 × 3, 50 × 2||3.3||3.1–3.6||A80486DX4-100||SK050|
|100||33 × 3, 50 × 2||3.3||3.1–3.6||A80486DX4WB-100||Limited availability|
|100||33 × 3, 50 × 2||3.3||3.1–3.6||FC80486DX4WB-100||SK099|
Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). The original Athlon was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and was the first desktop processor to reach speeds of one gigahertz (GHz). It made its debut as AMD's high-end processor brand on June 23, 1999. Over the years AMD has used the Athlon name with the 64-bit Athlon 64 architecture, the Athlon II, and Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) chips targeting the Socket AM1 desktop SoC architecture, and Socket AM4 Zen microarchitecture. The modern Zen-based Athlon with a Radeon Graphics processor was introduced in 2019 as AMD's highest-performance entry-level processor.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985. The first versions had 275,000 transistors and were the CPU of many workstations and high-end personal computers of the time. As the original implementation of the 32-bit extension of the 80286 architecture, the 80386 instruction set, programming model, and binary encodings are still the common denominator for all 32-bit x86 processors, which is termed the i386-architecture, x86, or IA-32, depending on context.
The Intel 80486, also known as the i486 or 486, is a higher performance follow-up to the Intel 80386 microprocessor. The 80486 was introduced in 1989 and was the first tightly pipelined x86 design as well as the first x86 chip to use more than a million transistors, due to a large on-chip cache and an integrated floating-point unit. It represents a fourth generation of binary compatible CPUs since the original 8086 of 1978.
The original Pentium microprocessor was introduced by Intel on March 22, 1993. As a direct extension of the 80486 architecture, it was the first superscalar x86 microarchitecture and included dual integer pipelines, a faster floating-point unit, wider data bus, separate code and data caches as well as features for further reduced address calculation latency.
The Intel i486DX2, rumored as 80486DX2 is a CPU produced by Intel that was introduced in 1992. The i486DX2 was nearly identical to the i486DX, but it had additional clock multiplier circuitry. It was the first chip to use clock doubling, whereby the processor runs two internal logic clock cycles per external bus cycle. An i486 DX2 was thus significantly faster than an i486 DX at the same bus speed thanks to the 8K on-chip cache shadowing the slower clocked external bus.
Cyrix Corporation was a microprocessor developer that was founded in 1988 in Richardson, Texas, as a specialist supplier of math coprocessors for 286 and 386 microprocessors. The company was founded by Tom Brightman and Jerry Rogers. Cyrix founder, president, and CEO Jerry Rogers aggressively recruited engineers and pushed them, eventually assembling a design team of 30 people.
The Pentium II brand refers to Intel's sixth-generation microarchitecture ("P6") and x86-compatible microprocessors introduced on May 7, 1997. Containing 7.5 million transistors, the Pentium II featured an improved version of the first P6-generation core of the Pentium Pro, which contained 5.5 million transistors. However, its L2 cache subsystem was a downgrade when compared to the Pentium Pros.
The Pentium III brand refers to Intel's 32-bit x86 desktop and mobile microprocessors based on the sixth-generation P6 microarchitecture introduced on February 26, 1999. The brand's initial processors were very similar to the earlier Pentium II-branded microprocessors. The most notable differences were the addition of the SSE instruction set, and the introduction of a controversial serial number embedded in the chip during the manufacturing process.
The Cyrix 5x86 was a x86 microprocessor designed by Cyrix. Released in August 1995, four months before the more famous Cyrix 6x86, the Cyrix 5x86 was one of the fastest CPUs ever produced for Socket 3 computer systems. With better performance in most applications than an Intel Pentium processor at 75 MHz, the Cyrix Cx5x86 filled a gap by providing a medium-performance processor option for 486 Socket 3 motherboards.
The Am5x86 processor is an x86-compatible CPU introduced in 1995 by AMD for use in 486-class computer systems. It was one of the fastest, and most universally compatible upgrade paths for users of 486 systems.
The Pentium OverDrive was a microprocessor marketing brand name used by Intel, to cover a variety of consumer upgrade products sold in the mid-1990s. It was originally released for 486 motherboards, and later some Pentium sockets. Intel dropped the brand, as it failed to appeal to corporate buyers, and discouraged new system sales.
Intel's i486 OverDrive processors are a category of various Intel 80486s that were produced with the designated purpose of being used to upgrade personal computers. The OverDrives typically possessed qualities different from 'standard' i486s with the same speed steppings. Those included built-in voltage regulators, different pin-outs, write-back cache instead of write-through cache, built-in heatsinks, and fanless operation — features that made them more able to work where an ordinary edition of a particular model would not.
The Am486 is a 80486-class family of computer processors that was produced by AMD in the 1990s. Intel beat AMD to market by nearly four years, but AMD priced its 40 MHz 486 at or below Intel's price for a 33 MHz chip, offering about 20% better performance for the same price.
The Am386 CPU is a 100%-compatible clone of the Intel 80386 design released by AMD in March 1991. It sold millions of units, positioning AMD as a legitimate competitor to Intel, rather than being merely a second source for x86 CPUs.
The Cyrix Cx486DLC was an early 486 CPU from Cyrix, intended to compete with the Intel 486SX and DX. Texas Instruments, who manufactured the 486DLC for Cyrix, later released its own version of the chip, the TI486SXL, with 8 kB internal cache vs 1 kB of the original Cyrix design. The similarly named IBM 486DLC, 486DLC2, 486DLC3 are often confused with the Cyrix chips, but are not related and are instead based on Intel's i486 design.
RapidCAD is a specially packaged Intel 486DX and a dummy floating point unit (FPU) designed as pin-compatible replacements for an Intel 80386 processor and 80387 FPU. Because the i486DX has a working on-chip FPU, a dummy FPU package is supplied to go in the Intel 387 FPU socket. The dummy FPU is used to provide the FERR signal, necessary for compatibility purposes.
In computing, the clock multiplier sets the ratio of an internal CPU clock rate to the externally supplied clock. A CPU with a 10x multiplier will thus see 10 internal cycles for every external clock cycle. For example, a system with an external clock of 100 MHz and a 36x clock multiplier will have an internal CPU clock of 3.6 GHz. The external address and data buses of the CPU also use the external clock as a fundamental timing base; however, they could also employ a (small) multiple of this base frequency to transfer data faster.
Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993. In their form as of November 2011, Pentium processors are considered entry-level products that Intel rates as "two stars", meaning that they are above the low-end Atom and Celeron series, but below the faster Intel Core lineup, and workstation Xeon series.
The UMC Green CPU was an x86-compatible microprocessor produced by UMC, a Taiwanese semiconductor company, in the early- to mid-1990s. It was offered as an alternative to the Intel 80486 with which it was pin compatible, enabling it to be installed in most 80486 motherboards. All models had power management features intended to reduce electricity consumption.
The Cyrix Cx486 was an x86 microprocessor designed by Cyrix. It primarily competed with the Intel 486 with which it was software compatible, would operate in the same motherboards provided proper support by the BIOS was available and generally showed comparable performance. The chip also competed with parts from AMD and UMC.