Intercontinental Cup (football)

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Intercontinental Cup
European/South American Cup
Toyota Cup
Intercontinental cup.png
The trophy given to champions
Organising body UEFA & CONMEBOL
Founded 1960
1980 (in its last format)
Abolished 2004
Region Europe
South America
Number of teams2
Last champions Flag of Portugal.svg Porto
(2nd title)
Most successful club(s) Flag of Uruguay.svg Peñarol
Flag of Uruguay.svg Nacional
Flag of Italy.svg Milan
Flag of Spain.svg Real Madrid
Flag of Argentina.svg Boca Juniors

(3 titles each)

The Intercontinental Cup, also known as European/South American Cup, and also Toyota Cup from 1980 to 2004 for commercial reasons by agreement with the automaker, was an official international football competition endorsed by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and the Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL), [1] [2] contested between representative clubs from these confederations (representatives of most developed continents in the football world), usually the winners of the European Champions' Cup (now known as the UEFA Champions League) and the South American Copa Libertadores. The competition has since been replaced by the FIFA Club World Cup.

Toyota automotive brand manufacturer

Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi, Japan. In 2017, Toyota's corporate structure consisted of 364,445 employees worldwide and, as of September 2018, was the sixth-largest company in the world by revenue. As of 2017, Toyota is the world's second-largest automotive manufacturer. Toyota was the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it also reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. As of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization and by revenue.

Association football Team field sport

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.

UEFA international sport governing body

The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football, futsal and beach soccer in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of 55 national association members.

Contents

From its formation in 1960 to 1979, the competition was contested over a two legged tie, with a playoff if necessary until 1968, and penalty kicks later. During the 1970s, European participation in the Intercontinental Cup became a running question due to controversial events in the 1969 final, [3] and some European Champions Club' winner teams withdrew. [4] From 1980 until 2004, the competition was contested over a single match held in Japan and sponsored by multinational automaker Toyota, which offered a secondary trophy, the Toyota Cup. [5]

Penalty kick (association football) type of direct free kick in association football

A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in his or her own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards (11 m) from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.

The 1969 Intercontinental Cup was a two-legged football match contested between 1968–69 European Cup champions Milan and 1969 Copa Libertadores winners Estudiantes. It was the 10th edition of the competition.

Multinational corporation large corporation doing business in many countries

A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization which owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's Law Dictionary suggests that a company or group should be considered a multinational corporation if it derives 25% or more of its revenue from out-of-home-country operations. A multinational corporation can also be referred to as a multinational enterprise (MNE), a transnational enterprise (TNE), a transnational corporation (TNC), an international corporation, or a stateless corporation. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise.

All the winning teams were regarded by worldwide mass media and football's community de facto as "world champions" [6] [7] [8] until 2017 when FIFA officially ( de jure ) recognized all of them as club world champions with the same status to the FIFA Club World Cup winners. [9] [10] [11] [12] The first winner of the cup was Spanish side Real Madrid, defeating Uruguayan side Peñarol in 1960. The last winner was Portuguese side Porto, defeating Colombian side Once Caldas in a penalty shoot-out in 2004.

The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets.

In law and government, de facto describes practices that exist in reality, even if not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure, which refers to things that happen according to law. Unofficial customs that are widely accepted are sometimes called de facto standards.

In law and government, de jure describes practices that are legally recognised, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, de facto describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised. The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios: for a colloquial example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it's a de facto swimming pool". To further explain, even if the signs around the flooded parking lot say "Parking Lot" it is "in fact" a swimming pool.

History

Beginnings

According to Brazilian newspaper Tribuna de Imprensa, the idea for the Intercontinental Cup rose in 1958 in a conversation between the then president of the Brazilian FA João Havelange and French journalist Jacques Goddet. [13] The first mention of the creation of the Intercontinental and Libertadores Cups was published by Brazilian and Spanish newspapers on 9 October 1958, referring to Havelange's announcement of the project to create such competitions, which he uttered during a UEFA meeting he attended as an invitee. [14] [15] [16] [17] Prior to this announcement, the reigning European champions Real Madrid C.F. had already played two intercontinental club competitions, the 1956 Pequeña Copa del Mundo de Clubes and the 1957 Tournoi de Paris. [18] According to a French video record of the highlights of the latter match, between Real Madrid C.F. and CR Vasco da Gama, this was the first match ever dubbed as "the best team of Europe vs. the best team of South America". [19] [20] It was described as "being like a club world cup match" by the Brazilian press [21] [22] , as was a June 1959 friendly between Real Madrid and Torneio Rio – São Paulo champions Santos FC, which Real Madrid won 5-3. [23] [24]

João Havelange President of FIFA

Jean-Marie Faustin Godefroid "João" de Havelange was a Brazilian lawyer, businessman, athlete and centenarian who served as the seventh President of FIFA from 1974 to 1998. His tenure as President is the second longest in FIFA's history, behind only that of Jules Rimet. He received the title of Honorary President when leaving office, but resigned in April 2013. He succeeded Stanley Rous and was succeeded by Sepp Blatter. João Havelange served as a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1963 to 2011. He was the longest-serving active member upon his resignation. In July 2012 a Swiss prosecutor's report revealed that, during his tenure on FIFA's Executive Committee, he and his son-in-law Ricardo Teixeira took more than $41 million in bribes in connection with the award of World Cup marketing rights.

Jacques Goddet French sports journalist

Jacques Goddet was a French sports journalist and director of the Tour de France road cycling race from 1936 to 1986.

Copa Libertadores South American association football tournament for clubs

The CONMEBOL Libertadores, named as Copa Libertadores de América, is an annual international club football competition organized by CONMEBOL since 1960. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in South American football. The tournament is named in honor of the Libertadores, the main leaders of the South American wars of independence, so a literal translation of its name into English would be "America's Liberators Cup".

Created in 1960 at the initiative of the European confederation (UEFA), with CONMEBOL's support, the European/South American Cup, known also as the Intercontinental Cup, was contested by the holders of the European Champion Clubs’ Cup and the winners of its newly established South American equivalent, the Copa Libertadores. The competition was not officially endorsed by FIFA, [25] and in 1961 they refused to allow it to take place unless the participants gave it a "private friendly match" status. [26] However, the competition went on regardless, with the endorsement of UEFA and CONMEBOL; both federations consider all editions of the tournament to have been official, and include them in their records. [27] [28] [29] It was the brainchild of UEFA president Henri Delaunay, who also helped Jules Rimet in the realization of the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930. [30] [31] Initially played over two legs, with a third match if required in the early years (when goal difference did not count), the competition had a rather turbulent existence. The first winners of the competition were Spanish club Real Madrid. Real Madrid managed to hold Uruguayan side Peñarol 0-0 in Montevideo and trounce the South Americans 5-1 in Madrid to win. [32] [33] [34] After the victory of Real Madrid in the first edition of the Intercontinental Cup, Barcelona newspaper El Mundo Deportivo hailed the Madrid team as the First World Champion Club, on the one hand pointing out that the competition "did not include Africans, Asians and other countries part to FIFA", on the other hand expressing doubt that these regions might present football of the same high quality of Europe and South America. [35] The Spaniards titled themselves world champions until FIFA stepped in and objected; citing that the competition did not include any other champions from the other confederations, FIFA stated that they can only claim to be intercontinental champions of a competition played between two organizations. [36] Peñarol would appear again the following year and come out victorious after beating Portuguese club Benfica on the playoff; after a 1-0 win by the Europeans in Lisboa and a 5-0 trashing by the South Americans, a playoff at the Estadio Centenario saw the home side squeeze a 2-1 win to become the first South American side to win the competition. [37] [38] [39]

Henri Delaunay French football administrator

Henri Delaunay was a French football administrator.

Jules Rimet founders of association football institution

Jules Rimet was a French football administrator who was the 3rd President of FIFA, serving from 1921 to 1954. He is FIFA's longest-serving president, in office for 33 years. He also served as the president of the French Football Federation from 1919 to 1942.

FIFA World Cup association football competition for mens national teams

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. The current champion is France, which won its second title at the 2018 tournament in Russia.

In 1962 the tournament grew more in worldwide attention after it was swept through the sublime football of a Santos team led by Pelé, considered by some the best club team of all times. [40] Os Santásticos , also known as O Balé Branco (or white ballet), which dazzled the world during that time and containing stars such as Gilmar, Mauro, Mengálvio, Coutinho, and Pepe, won the title after defeating Benfica 3-2 in Rio de Janeiro and thrashing the Europeans 2-5 in their Estádio da Luz. [41] [42] [43] Santos would successfully defend the title in 1963 after being pushed all the way by Milan. After each side won 4-2 at their respective home legs, a playoff match at the Maracanã saw Santos keep the title after a tight 1-0 victory. [41] [44] The competition had attracted the interest of other continents. The North and Central America confederation, CONCACAF, had asked, unsuccessfully, to participate. [43] [45] Milan's fierce rivals, Internazionale, would go on to win the 1964 and 1965 editions, beating Argentine club Independiente on both occasions. [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] Peñarol gained revenge for their loss in 1960 by crushing Real Madrid 4-0 in aggregate in 1966. [39] [51] [52]

The 1962 Intercontinental Cup was a football tie held over two legs between Brazilian club Santos, winners of the 1962 Copa Libertadores, and Portuguese club Benfica, winners of the 1961–62 European Cup. Santos won the Intercontinental Cup for the first time.

Santos FC Brazilian professional association football club based in Vila Belmiro, Santos

Santos Futebol Clube, commonly known simply as Santos, is a Brazilian sports club based in Vila Belmiro, a bairro in the city of Santos. It plays in the Paulistão, the State of São Paulo's premier state league, as well as the Brasileirão, the top tier of the Brazilian football league system.

Pelé Brazilian retired footballer

Edson Arantes do Nascimento, known as Pelé, is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as a forward. He is regarded by many in the sport, including football writers, players, and fans, as the greatest player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS), and was one of the two joint winners of the FIFA Player of the Century award. That same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful domestic league goal-scorer in football history scoring 650 goals in 694 League matches, and in total 1281 goals in 1363 games, which included unofficial friendlies and is a Guinness World Record. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world.

Rioplatense violence

However, as a result of the violence often practised in the Copa Libertadores by Argentine and Uruguayan clubs during the 1960s, [53] disagreements with CONMEBOL, the lack of financial incentives and the violent, brutal and controversial way the Brazilian national team was treated in the 1966 FIFA World Cup by European teams, Brazilian football—including its club sides—declined to participate in international competitions in the late 1960s, including the Copa Libertadores and consequently the Intercontinental Cup. During this time, the competition became dogged by foul play. [54] Calendar problems, acts of brutality, even on the pitch, and boycotts tarnished its image, to the point of bringing into question the wisdom of organizing it at all.

The 1967 edition between Argentina's Racing Club and Scotland's Celtic was a violent affair, with the third decisive game being dubbed "The Battle of Montevideo" after three players from the Scottish side and two from the Argentine side were sent off. A fourth Celtic player was also dismissed, but amid the chaos he got away with staying on. [55] [56] [57] [58]

A.C. Milan's Nestor Combin was left bloodied and unconscious after a brutal series against Estudiantes de La Plata. Nestor Combin 1969.jpeg
A.C. Milan's Néstor Combin was left bloodied and unconscious after a brutal series against Estudiantes de La Plata.

The following season, Argentine side Estudiantes de La Plata faced England's Manchester United in which the return leg saw Estudiantes come out on top of a bad-tempered series. [59] [60] [61] But it was the events of 1969 which damaged the competition's integrity. [62] After a 3-0 win at San Siro, Milan went to Buenos Aires to play Estudiantes at La Bombonera. [63] [64] [65] Estudiantes' players booted balls at the Milan team as they warmed up and hot coffee was poured on the Italians as they emerged from the tunnel by Estudiantes' fans. Estudiantes resorted to inflicting elbows and allegedly even needles at the Milanese team in order to intimidate them. Pierino Prati was knocked unconscious and continued for a further 20 minutes despite suffering from a mild concussion. Estudiantes goalkeeper Alberto Poletti also punched Gianni Rivera, but the most vicious treatment was reserved for Néstor Combin, an Argentinean-born striker, who had faced accusations of being a traitor as he was on the opposite side of the intercontinental match. [62] [66] [67]

Combin was kicked in the face by Poletti and later had his nose and cheekbone broken by the elbow of Ramón Aguirre Suárez. Bloodied and broken, Combin was asked to return to the pitch by the referee but fainted. While unconscious, Combin was arrested by Argentine police on a charge of draft dodging, having not undertaken military service in the country. The player was forced to spend a night in the cells, eventually being released after explaining he had fulfilled national service requirements as a French citizen. [62] Estudiantes won the game 2-1 but Milan took the title on aggregate. [62] [65] [66] [67]

Italian newspaper Gazzetta dello Sport dubbed it "Ninety minutes of a man-hunt". The Argentinean press responded with "The English were right" – a reference to Alf Ramsey's famous description of the Argentina national football team as "animals" during the 1966 FIFA World Cup. [62] [66] [67] The Argentinean Football Association (AFA), under heavy international pressure, took stern action. Argentina's President, military dictator Juan Carlos Onganía, summoned Estudiantes delegate Oscar Ferrari and demanded "the severest appropriate measures in defence of the good name of the national sport. [It was a] lamentable spectacle which breached most norms of sporting ethics". [62] [66] [67] Poletti was banned from the sport for life, Suárez was banned for 30 games, and Eduardo Manera for 20 with the former and latter serving a month in jail. [62]

Degradation

Due to the brutality in these editions, FIFA was called into providing penalties and regulating the tournament. However, FIFA stated that it could not stipulate regulations in a competition that it did not organize. Though the competition was endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL as an official competition, René Courte, FIFA's General Sub-Secretary, wrote an article shortly afterwards stating that FIFA viewed the competition as a "European-South American friendly match". [68] Courte's statement was endorsed by then–FIFA president Sir Stanley Rous, who then stated that FIFA saw the Intercontinental Cup as a friendly match. [69] [70] [71] [72] Madrid newspaper ABC then pointed out that, though the Intercontinental Cup was not officially endorsed by FIFA, it was endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL, therefore being an "intercontinental jurisdiction" cup. [73] However, with the Asian and North-Central American club competitions in place, FIFA opened the idea of supervising the competition if it included those confederations, which was met with a negative response from its participating confederations, UEFA and CONMEBOL. According to Stanley Rous, CONCACAF and the Asian Football Confederation had requested their participation in the Intercontinental Cup, which was rejected by UEFA and CONMEBOL. [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] Nevertheless, some European champions started to decline participation in the tournament after the events of 1969. [80]

Estudiantes would face Dutch side Feyenoord the following season, which saw the Europeans victorious. Oscar Malbernat ripped off Joop van Daele's glasses and trampled on them claiming that he was "not allowed to play with glasses". [81] [82] [83] [84] Dutch side Ajax, European champions of 1971, would decline to face Uruguay's Nacional due to the latter side's reputation for violent play, which resulted in European Cup runners-up, Greek side Panathinaikos, participating. [85] [86] [87] Nacional's Luis Artime ended up breaking Yiannis Tomaras' leg in two places in the first leg as Nacional won the series 3-2 on aggregate. [85] [86] [87] [88]

Dutch team Ajax won the 1972 series v. Argentine club Independiente. Ajax-selectie presenteert zich aan de pers, staand v.l.n. Suurbier, Stuy, Keizer, Bestanddeelnr 925-7435.jpg
Dutch team Ajax won the 1972 series v. Argentine club Independiente.

Ajax participated in 1972 against Independiente. [89] [90] [91] The team's arrival at Buenos Aires was extremely hostile: Johan Cruyff received several death threats from Independiente's local fan firms. [92] Due to the indifference from the Argentine police, Ajax manager Ştefan Kovács appointed an organized emergency security detail for the Nederlandse meester, headed by himself and team member Barry Hulshoff, described as a big and burly man. [92] In the first leg, Cruyff opened the scoring in Avellaneda at the 5th minute. As a result, Dante Mircoli retaliated with a vicious tackle a couple of minutes later; Cruyff was too injured to continue and the Dutch team found themselves being assaulted with tackles and punches. [89] [90] [91] Kovács had to convince his team to play on during half-time as his players wanted to withdraw. [89] [90] [91] Ajax squeezed a 1-1 tie and followed up with a 3-0 trounce in Amsterdam to win the Cup. [89] [90] [91] [93] Although Ajax were the defending champions, they again declined to participate a year later after Independiente won the Libertadores again, leaving it to Juventus, European Cup runners-up, to play a single-match final won by the Argentines. [90] [91] [94] [95]

Also in 1973, French newspaper L'Equipe , which helped to bring about the birth of the European Cup, volunteered to sponsor a Club World Cup contested by the champions of Europe, South America, Central and North America and Africa, the only continental club tournaments in existence at the time; the competition was to potentially take place in Paris between September and October 1974 with an eventual final to be held at the Parc des Princes. [80] [80] [96] [97] [98] The proposal, supported by the South Americans, [80] was dismissed due to the negativity of the Europeans. [98]

West German club Bayern Munich also declined to play in 1974 as Independiente again qualified to participate. [99] [100] [101] [102] European Cup runners-up Atlético Madrid from Spain won the competition 2-1 on aggregate. [99] [100] Once again, Independiente qualified to participate in 1975; this time, both finalists of the European Cup declined to participate and the competition was not played. [103] That same year, L'Equipe tried, once again, to create a Club World Cup, in which the participants would have been: the four semifinalists of the European Cup, both finalists of the Copa Libertadores, as well as the African and Asian champions. However, UEFA declined once again and the proposal failed. [104]

In 1976, when Brazilian side Cruzeiro won the Copa Libertadores, the European champions Bayern Munich willingly participated, with the Bavarians winning 2–0 on aggregate. In an interview with Jornal do Brasil , Bayern's manager Dettmar Cramer denied that Bayern's refusal to dispute the 1974 and 1975 Intercontinental Cups were a result of the rivals being Argentine teams. He claimed it was a scheduling impossibility, rather, which kept the Germans from participating. He also stated that the competition was not economically rewarding due to the team's fan base's disinterest in the Cup. To cover the costs of playing the first leg in Munich's Olympiastadion, the organizers needed to have a minimum of 25,000 spectators. However, due to heavy snow and cold weather, only 18,000 showed up. Because of this deficit, Cramer stated that if Bayern were to win the European Cup again, they would decline to participate as it held no assurances of income. [105]

Argentine Boca Juniors played West German Borussia Monchengladbach after European champions Liverpool declined to participate in the 1977 edition. Boca borussia 1978.jpg
Argentine Boca Juniors played West German Borussia Mönchengladbach after European champions Liverpool declined to participate in the 1977 edition.

Argentine side Boca Juniors qualified for the 1977 and 1978 editions, for which the European champions, English club Liverpool, declined to participate on both occasions. In 1977, Boca Juniors defeated European Cup runners-up, German club Borussia Mönchengladbach, 5-2 on aggregate. [106] [107] [108] [109] Boca Juniors declined to face Belgian club Brugge in 1978 leaving that edition undisputed. [103] Paraguay's Olimpia won the 1979 edition against European Cup runners-up, Swedish side Malmö FF, after winning both legs. [110] [111] [112] [113] However, the competition had greatly declined in prestige. After the 0-1 win of the South Americans in the first leg at Malmö, which saw fewer than 5,000 Swedish fans turn up, Spanish newspaper El Mundo Deportivo called the Cup "a dog without an owner". [80]

The truth is that the Intercontinental Cup is an adventitious competition without foundation.[ clarification needed ] It has no known owner, it depends on a strange consensus and the interested clubs are not tempted to risk much for so little money, as evidenced by the attendance at the game in Malmö, played, of course, in absence of this year's champion, Nottingham Forest, by the Swedish team, finalist in one of the most boring and worst games played to cap off the European Cup since 1956.

Spanish newspaper El Mundo Deportivo [80]

According to Brazilian newspaper O Estado de São Paulo , the deal for the establishment of the Interamerican Cup was made in 1968 by CONMEBOL and CONCACAF, and established that the Interamerican Cup champion club would be entitled to represent the American continent in the Intercontinental Cup. [114] According to the Mexican newspapers, after winning the 1977 and 1980 editions of the Interamerican Cup, Mexican clubs América and PUMAS Unam, and the Mexican Football Association, demanded, unsuccessfully, to participate in the Intercontinental Cup. [115] [116] [117]

Rebirth in Japan

Uruguayan club Nacional won the first edition held in Japan, 1980. Club Nacional de Football del ano 1980.jpg
Uruguayan club Nacional won the first edition held in Japan, 1980.

Seeing the deterioration of the Intercontinental Cup, Japanese motor corporation Toyota took the competition under its wing. It created contractual obligations to have the Intercontinental Cup played in Japan once a year in which every club participating were obliged to participate or face legal consequences. This modern format breathed new air into the competition which saw a new trophy handed out along with the Intercontinental Cup, the Toyota Cup.

To protect themselves against the possibility of European withdrawals, Toyota, UEFA and every European Cup participant signed annual contracts requiring the eventual winners of the European Cup to participate at the Intercontinental Cup—as a condition UEFA stipulated to the clubs' participation in the European Cup—or risk facing an international lawsuit from UEFA and Toyota. [118]

The first Toyota Cup was held in 1980 which saw Uruguay's Nacional triumph over Nottingham Forest. The 1980s saw a domination by South American sides as Brazil's Flamengo and Grêmio, Uruguay's Nacional and Peñarol, Argentina's Independiente and River Plate take the spoils once each after Nacional's victory in 1980. Only Juventus, Porto and Milan managed to bring the trophy to the European continent. In that decade, the English Football Association tried organizing a Club World Cup sponsored by promoting company West Nally only to be shot down by UEFA. [119]

The 1990s proved to be a decade dominated by European teams, as Milan, Red Star Belgrade, Ajax, Juventus, Real Madrid, Manchester United, and newcomers Borussia Dortmund of Germany were fueled to victory by their economic powers and heavy poaching of South American stars. Only three titles went to South America, as São Paulo and Argentina's Vélez Sársfield came out the winners, each of them defeating Milan, with São Paulo's inaugural win being over Barcelona. The 2000s would see Boca Juniors win the competition twice for South America, while European victories came from Bayern Munich, Real Madrid, and Porto. The 2004 Intercontinental Cup proved to be the last edition, as the competition was absorbed into the FIFA Club World Cup.

International participation

All the winning teams from Intercontinental Cup are regarded as de facto "World club champions". [120] [121] [122] [123] According to some texts on FIFA.com, due to the superiority at sporting level of the European and South American clubs to the rest of the world, reflected earlier in the tournament for national teams, the winning clubs of the Intercontinental Cup were named world champions and can claim to be symbolic World champions, [124] [125] in a "symbolic" club world championship, [126] while the FIFA Club World Cup would have another dimension, [127] as the "true" world club showdown, [128] [129] [130] created because, with the passage of time and the development of football outside Europe and South America, it had become "unrealistic" to continue to confer the symbolic title of world champion upon the winners of the Intercontinental Cup, [131] the idea to expand it being mentioned for the first time in 1967 by Stanley Rous as CONCACAF and the AFC had established their continental club competitions and requested the participation, [72] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] an expansion that was to occur only in 2000 through the 2000 FIFA Club World Championship. Nevertheless, some European champions started to decline participation in the tournament after the events of 1969. [80] Though "symbolic" or de facto as a club world championship, the Intercontinental Cup is official at confederation level, with both UEFA and CONMEBOL considering all editions of the competition as part of their official honours. [27] [28] [29]

Despite being chronologically the fourth international competitions created to define "the best club team in the world" – such as the Lipton Trophy, the Copa Rio and Pequeña Copa del Mundo - due to FIFA's lack of interest or inability to organize club competitions, [132] – the Intercontinental Cup is considered by FIFA as one of the two predecessors [120] to the FIFA Club World Cup, which was held for the first time in 2000. It had been regarded by FIFA as the sole predecessor, [133] until the June 2014 FIFA Executive Committee meeting, which declared the 1951 edition of Copa Rio as "the first worldwide club tournament with teams from Europe and South America". [134] [135]

On 27 October 2017, FIFA officially recognized all the champions of the Intercontinental Cup as club world champions, in equal status to the FIFA Club World Cup. [136] [137]

Trophy

The competition trophy bears the words "Coupe Européenne-Sudamericaine" ("European-South American Cup") at the top. At the base of the trophy, there is the round logo of UEFA and a map of South America in a circle.

During the sponsorship by Toyota, the competition awarded an additional trophy, entitled "Toyota Cup".

Cup format

From 1960 to 1979, the Intercontinental Cup was played in two legs. Between 1960 and 1968, the cup was decided on points only, the same format used by CONMEBOL to determine the winner of the Copa Libertadores final through 1987. Because of this format, a third match was needed when both teams were equal on points. Commonly this match was host by the continent where the last game of the series was played. From 1969 through 1979, the competition adopted the European standard method of aggregate score, with away goals.

Starting in 1980, the final became a single match. Up until 2001, the matches were held at Tokyo's National Stadium. Finals since 2002 were held at the Yokohama International Stadium, also the venue of the 2002 FIFA World Cup final.

Results

Key
Match was won during extra time
Match was won on a penalty shoot-out
Play-off match where teams were tied on points (1 win and 1 defeat each)
# European runner-up contested in place of European champion
YearCountryWinnersScoreRunners-upCountryVenueLocationRefs
1960 Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  ESP Real Madrid 0–0 Peñarol Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay [138]
Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  ESP Real Madrid5–1PeñarolFlag of Uruguay.svg  URU Santiago Bernabéu Madrid, Spain
1961 Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Peñarol 0–1 Benfica Flag of Portugal.svg  POR Estádio da Luz Lisbon, Portugal [139]
Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Peñarol5–0BenficaFlag of Portugal.svg  POR Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Peñarol2–1BenficaFlag of Portugal.svg  POR Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1962 Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg  BRA Santos 3–2 Benfica Flag of Portugal.svg  POR Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [140]
Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg  BRA Santos5–2BenficaFlag of Portugal.svg  POR Estádio da Luz Lisbon, Portugal
1963 Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg  BRA Santos 2–4 Milan Flag of Italy.svg  ITA San Siro Milan, Italy [141]
Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg  BRA Santos4–2MilanFlag of Italy.svg  ITA Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg  BRA Santos1–0MilanFlag of Italy.svg  ITA Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1964 Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Inter Milan 0–1 Independiente Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina [142]
Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Inter Milan2–0IndependienteFlag of Argentina.svg  ARG San Siro Milan, Italy
Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Inter Milan1–0IndependienteFlag of Argentina.svg  ARG Santiago Bernabéu Madrid, Spain
1965 Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Inter Milan 3–0 Independiente Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG San Siro Milan, Italy [143]
Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Inter Milan0–0IndependienteFlag of Argentina.svg  ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina
1966 Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Peñarol 2–0 Real Madrid Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  ESP Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay [144]
Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Peñarol2–0Real MadridFlag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  ESP Santiago Bernabéu Madrid, Spain
1967 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Racing 0–1 Celtic Flag of Scotland.svg  SCO Hampden Park Glasgow, Scotland [145]
Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Racing2–1CelticFlag of Scotland.svg  SCO El Cilindro Avellaneda, Argentina
Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Racing1–0CelticFlag of Scotland.svg  SCO Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1968 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Estudiantes 1–0 Manchester United Flag of England.svg  ENG Estadio Boca Juniors Buenos Aires, Argentina [146]
Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Estudiantes1–1Manchester UnitedFlag of England.svg  ENG Old Trafford Manchester, England
1969 Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Milan 3–0 Estudiantes Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG San Siro Milan, Italy [147]
Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Milan1–2EstudiantesFlag of Argentina.svg  ARG Estadio Camilo Cichero Buenos Aires, Argentina
1970 Flag of the Netherlands.svg  NED Feyenoord 2–2 Estudiantes Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Estadio Camilo Cichero Buenos Aires, Argentina [148]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  NED Feyenoord1–0EstudiantesFlag of Argentina.svg  ARG De Kuip Rotterdam, Netherlands
1971 Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Nacional 1–1 Panathinaikos #1Flag of Greece (1970-1975).svg  GRE Karaiskakis Stadium Piraeus, Greece [149]
Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Nacional2–1Panathinaikos#1Flag of Greece (1970-1975).svg  GRE Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1972 Flag of the Netherlands.svg  NED Ajax 1–1 Independiente Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina [150]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  NED Ajax3–0IndependienteFlag of Argentina.svg  ARG Olympic Stadium Amsterdam, Netherlands
1973 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Independiente 1–0 Juventus #2Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Stadio Olimpico Rome, Italy [151]
Second leg was not played. Flag of Argentina.svg Independiente declared winner.
1974 Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  ESP Atlético Madrid #30–1 Independiente Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina [152]
Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  ESP Atlético Madrid#32–0IndependienteFlag of Argentina.svg  ARG Vicente Calderón Madrid, Spain
1975
Flag of Germany.svg Bayern Munich and Flag of Argentina.svg Independiente did not find compatible schedule to play.
[153]
1976 Flag of Germany.svg  FRG Bayern Munich 2–0 Cruzeiro Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  BRA Olympiastadion Munich, West Germany [154]
Flag of Germany.svg  FRG Bayern Munich0–0CruzeiroFlag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  BRA Mineirão Belo Horizonte, Brazil
1977 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Boca Juniors 2–2 Borussia Mönchengladbach #4Flag of Germany.svg  FRG La Bombonera Buenos Aires, Argentina [155]
Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Boca Juniors3–0Borussia Mönchengladbach#4Flag of Germany.svg  FRG Wildparkstadion Karlsruhe, West Germany
1978
Flag of England.svg Liverpool and Flag of Argentina.svg Boca Juniors declined to play each other.
[153]
1979 Flag of Paraguay (1954-1988).svg  PAR Olimpia 1–0 Malmö FF #5Flag of Sweden.svg  SWE Malmö Stadion Malmö, Sweden [156]
Flag of Paraguay (1954-1988).svg  PAR Olimpia2–1Malmö FF#5Flag of Sweden.svg  SWE Defensores del Chaco Asunción, Paraguay
1980 Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Nacional 1–0 Nottingham Forest Flag of England.svg  ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [157]
1981 Flag of Brazil.svg  BRA Flamengo 3–0 Liverpool Flag of England.svg  ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [158]
1982 Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Peñarol 2–0 Aston Villa Flag of England.svg  ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [159]
1983 Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg  BRA Grêmio 2–1 (aet) Hamburger SV Flag of Germany.svg  FRG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [160]
1984 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Independiente 1–0 Liverpool Flag of England.svg  ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [161]
1985 Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Juventus 2–2 (4–2 p) Argentinos Juniors Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [162]
1986 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG River Plate 1–0 Steaua București Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  ROU National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [163]
1987 Flag of Portugal.svg  POR Porto 2–1 (aet) Peñarol Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [164]
1988 Flag of Uruguay.svg  URU Nacional 2–2 (7–6 p) PSV Eindhoven Flag of the Netherlands.svg  NED National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [165]
1989 Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Milan 1–0 (aet) Atlético Nacional Flag of Colombia.svg  COL National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [166]
1990 Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Milan 3–0 Olimpia Flag of Paraguay (1990-2013).svg  PAR National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [167]
1991 Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  YUG Red Star Belgrade 3–0 Colo-Colo Flag of Chile.svg  CHI National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [168]
1992 Flag of Brazil.svg  BRA São Paulo 2–1 Barcelona Flag of Spain.svg  ESP National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [169]
1993 Flag of Brazil.svg  BRA São Paulo 3–2 Milan #6Flag of Italy.svg  ITA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [170]
1994 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Vélez Sársfield 2–0 Milan Flag of Italy.svg  ITA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [171]
1995 Flag of the Netherlands.svg  NED Ajax 0–0 (4–3 p) Grêmio Flag of Brazil.svg  BRA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [172]
1996 Flag of Italy.svg  ITA Juventus 1–0 River Plate Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [173]
1997 Flag of Germany.svg  GER Borussia Dortmund 2–0 Cruzeiro Flag of Brazil.svg  BRA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [174]
1998 Flag of Spain.svg  ESP Real Madrid 2–1 Vasco da Gama Flag of Brazil.svg  BRA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [175]
1999 Flag of England.svg  ENG Manchester United 1–0 Palmeiras Flag of Brazil.svg  BRA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [176]
2000 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Boca Juniors 2–1 Real Madrid Flag of Spain.svg  ESP National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [177]
2001 Flag of Germany.svg  GER Bayern Munich 1–0 (aet) Boca Juniors Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [178]
2002 Flag of Spain.svg  ESP Real Madrid 2–0 Olimpia Flag of Paraguay (1990-2013).svg  PAR International Stadium Yokohama, Japan [179]
2003 Flag of Argentina.svg  ARG Boca Juniors 1–1 (3–1 p) Milan Flag of Italy (2003-2006).svg  ITA International Stadium Yokohama, Japan [180]
2004 Flag of Portugal.svg  POR Porto 0–0 (8–7 p) Once Caldas Flag of Colombia.svg  COL International Stadium Yokohama, Japan [181]

Notes

Performances

The performance of various clubs is shown in the following tables: [153] [184]

Performance by club

ClubWinnersRunners-upWinning yearsRunner-up years
Flag of Italy.svg Milan
3
4
1969, 1989, 1990 1963, 1993, 1994, 2003
Flag of Uruguay.svg Peñarol
3
2
1961, 1966, 1982 1960, 1987
Flag of Spain.svg Real Madrid
3
2
1960, 1998, 2002 1966, 2000
Flag of Argentina.svg Boca Juniors
3
1
1977, 2000, 2003 2001
Flag of Uruguay.svg Nacional
3
1971, 1980, 1988
Flag of Argentina.svg Independiente
2
4
1973, 1984 1964, 1965, 1972, 1974
Flag of Italy.svg Juventus
2
1
1985, 1996 1973
Flag of Brazil.svg Santos
2
1962, 1963
Flag of Italy.svg Internazionale
2
1964, 1965
Flag of Brazil.svg São Paulo
2
1992, 1993
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Ajax
2
1972, 1995
Flag of Germany.svg Bayern Munich
2
1976, 2001
Flag of Portugal.svg Porto
2
1987, 2004
Flag of Argentina.svg Estudiantes
1
2
1968 1969, 1970
Flag of Paraguay.svg Olimpia
1
2
1979 1990, 2002
Flag of Brazil.svg Grêmio
1
1
1983 1995
Flag of Argentina.svg River Plate
1
1
1986 1996
Flag of England.svg Manchester United
1
1
1999 1968
Flag of Argentina.svg Racing
1
1967
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Feyenoord
1
1970
Flag of Spain.svg Atlético Madrid
1
1974
Flag of Brazil.svg Flamengo
1
1981
Flag of Serbia.svg Red Star Belgrade
1
1991
Flag of Argentina.svg Vélez Sarsfield
1
1994
Flag of Germany.svg Borussia Dortmund
1
1997
Flag of Portugal.svg Benfica
2
1961, 1962
Flag of England.svg Liverpool
2
1981, 1984
Flag of Brazil.svg Cruzeiro
2
1976, 1997
Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic
1
1967
Flag of Greece.svg Panathinaikos
1
1971
Flag of Germany.svg Borussia Mönchengladbach
1
1977
Flag of Sweden.svg Malmö FF
1
1979
Flag of England.svg Nottingham Forest
1
1980
Flag of England.svg Aston Villa
1
1982
Flag of Germany.svg Hamburger SV
1
1983
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentinos Juniors
1
1985
Flag of Romania.svg Steaua București
1
1986
Flag of the Netherlands.svg PSV Eindhoven
1
1988
Flag of Colombia.svg Atlético Nacional
1
1989
Flag of Chile.svg Colo-Colo
1
1991
Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona
1
1992
Flag of Brazil.svg Vasco da Gama
1
1998
Flag of Brazil.svg Palmeiras
1
1999
Flag of Colombia.svg Once Caldas
1
2004

Performance by country

CountryWinnersRunners-upWinning clubsWinning years
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
9
9
Boca, Independiente, Estudiantes, River Plate, Racing Club, Vélez Sarsfield 1967, 1968, 1973, 1977, 1984, 1986, 1994, 2000, 2003
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
7
5
Milan, Juventus, Internazionale 1964, 1965, 1969, 1985, 1989, 1990, 1996
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
6
5
Santos, São Paulo, Grêmio, Flamengo 1962, 1963, 1981, 1983, 1992, 1993
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay
6
2
Peñarol, Nacional 1961, 1966, 1971, 1980, 1982, 1988
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
4
3
Real Madrid, Atlético Madrid 1960, 1974, 1998, 2002
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
3
2
Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund 1976, 1997, 2001
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
3
1
Ajax, Feyenoord 1970, 1972, 1995
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
2
2
Porto 1987, 2004
Flag of England.svg  England
1
5
Manchester United 1999
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay
1
2
Olimpia 1979
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia
1
Red Star Belgrade 1991
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
2
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland
1
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
1
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
1
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
1
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
1

Performance by confederation

ConfederationWinnersRunners-upWinning clubsWinning countries
CONMEBOL
22
21
13
4
UEFA
21
22
12
7

Coaches

Players

All-time top scorers

Pele is the all-time top goalscorer in Intercontinental Cup's history with 9 goals in 5 matches. Pele.jpg
Pelé is the all-time top goalscorer in Intercontinental Cup's history with 9 goals in 5 matches.
PlayerClubGoalsAppsYears
Flag of Brazil.svg Pelé Flag of Brazil.svg Santos
7
3
1962, 1963
Flag of Ecuador.svg Alberto Spencer Flag of Uruguay.svg Peñarol
6
6
1960, 1961, 1966
Flag of Argentina.svg Luis Artime Flag of Uruguay.svg Nacional
3
2
1971
Flag of Uruguay.svg José Sasía Flag of Uruguay.svg Peñarol
3
3
1961
Flag of Portugal.svg Santana Flag of Portugal.svg Benfica
3
4
1961, 1962
Flag of Italy.svg Sandro Mazzola Flag of Italy.svg Internazionale
3
4
1964, 1965

Hat-tricks

Most Valuable Player of the Match

Martin Palermo, most valuable player of the Match 2000. Martin Palermo.jpg
Martín Palermo, most valuable player of the Match 2000.

The most valuable player of the match was selected since 1980. Here is the list of the winners. [190]

YearPlayerClub
1980
Flag of Uruguay.svg Waldemar Victorino Flag of Uruguay.svg Nacional
1981
Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg Zico Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg Flamengo
1982
Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg Jair Flag of Uruguay.svg Peñarol
1983
Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg Renato Gaúcho Flag of Brazil (1968-1992).svg Grêmio
1984
Flag of Argentina.svg José Percudani Flag of Argentina.svg Independiente
1985
Flag of France.svg Michel Platini Flag of Italy.svg Juventus
1986
Flag of Uruguay.svg Antonio Alzamendi Flag of Argentina.svg River Plate
1987
Flag of Algeria.svg Rabah Madjer Flag of Portugal.svg Porto
1988
Flag of Uruguay.svg Santiago Ostolaza Flag of Uruguay.svg Nacional
1989
Flag of Italy.svg Alberigo Evani Flag of Italy.svg Milan
1990
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Frank Rijkaard Flag of Italy.svg Milan
1991
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Vladimir Jugović Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Red Star Belgrade
1992
Flag of Brazil.svg Raí Flag of Brazil.svg São Paulo
1993
Flag of Brazil.svg Toninho Cerezo Flag of Brazil.svg São Paulo
1994
Flag of Argentina.svg Omar Asad Flag of Argentina.svg Vélez Sársfield
1995
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Danny Blind Flag of the Netherlands.svg Ajax
1996
Flag of Italy.svg Alessandro Del Piero Flag of Italy.svg Juventus
1997
Flag of Germany.svg Andreas Möller Flag of Germany.svg Borussia Dortmund
1998
Flag of Spain.svg Raúl Flag of Spain.svg Real Madrid
1999
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Ryan Giggs Flag of England.svg Manchester United
2000
Flag of Argentina.svg Martín Palermo Flag of Argentina.svg Boca Juniors
2001
Flag of Ghana.svg Samuel Kuffour Flag of Germany.svg Bayern Munich
2002
Flag of Brazil.svg Ronaldo Flag of Spain.svg Real Madrid
2003
Flag of Argentina.svg Matías Donnet Flag of Argentina.svg Boca Juniors
2004
Flag of Portugal.svg Maniche Flag of Portugal.svg Porto

See also

Related Research Articles

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  128. Text Japan welcomes the world with open arms, from FIFA site, recovered by Way Back Machine. Text of 28 July 2005. Accessed (recovery) on 31/12/2015. In the list of texts referring to the 2005 FIFA Club World Cup, this text brings as subtitle: ... Brought up watching the annual Europe-South America clash, Japanese fans are counting the days to the kick off of the TRUE world club showdown.
  129. Goodbye Toyota Cup, hello FIFA Club World Championship, FIFA site. Accessed on 10 December 2004. Accessed on 08/03/2015: According to the new format, which enters into force in 2005, once again in Japan, the respective winners of the six "champions cups" of each confederation will qualify for the FIFA Club World Championship. "I am convinced that this is the best formula for everyone," argues Michel Platini, a FIFA Executive Committee member and former Toyota Cup winner from 1985. "It won't make the clubs' trips any longer, but by playing an extra game, the club crowned this time will be TRUE world champions," continued the former Juventus playmaker.
  130. Text Continental champions prepare for Tokyo draw, FIFA site, 28 July 2005. Accessed on 08/March/2015: Initially a one-off contest between the champions of South America and Europe, the Toyota Cup, which superseded the Intercontinental Cup in 1980, has been revamped by FIFA to reach out to all confederations and associations across the globe so the winners may TRULY be regarded as the best club side in the world.
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