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The International Communist League (LCI) was a Trotskyist political party in Vietnam. It was founded as the October Group in 1932, by a split in the Indochinese Bolshevik-Leninist Group, which also produced the Struggle Group. The group acquired its name from its journal, Thang muoi (October).
The October Group supported but did not join La Lutte, a united front of the Struggle Group and the Indochinese Communist Party (PCI), as it would have had to withhold its criticisms of the PCI.
The October Group grew rapidly and began publishing a newspaper, Le Militant. This was suppressed by the colonial government in 1937 for supporting strikes. As a result, they again began publishing October, along with a new newspaper, Tia Sang, which in 1939 became a daily - perhaps the world's first daily Trotskyist newspaper.
With the outbreak of World War II, the leading figures in the group were arrested and the organisation banned. Activity did not resume until August 1944, when it was renamed the "International Communist League".
The LCI fully supported the workers' uprising against colonial rule at the end of the war. It organised committees to take power in over 150 towns. Its membership grew rapidly, and it was able to establish printing presses. However, an attempt to organise an assembly of the committees in Saigon was broken up by Chief of Police Duong Bach Mai with the support of the PCI.
When a French expeditionary force arrived, the LCI organised a workers' militia, but its appeal for workers to arm themselves was not widely taken up. Ho Chi Minh of the PCI signed an agreement with the French, and the most of the leaders of the LCI were executed or had disappeared by early 1946.
French Indochina, officially known as the Indochinese Union from 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia until its demise in 1954. It comprised three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin in the north, Annam in the centre, and Cochinchina in the south, Cambodia, Laos and the Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan. The capital for most of its history (1902–45) was Hanoi; Saigon was the capital from 1887 to 1902 and again from 1945 to 54.
Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch of Marxism developed by Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Trotsky self-identified as an orthodox Marxist and Bolshevik–Leninist. He supported founding a vanguard party of the proletariat, proletarian internationalism and a dictatorship of the proletariat based on working class self-emancipation and mass democracy. Trotskyists are critical of Stalinism as they oppose Joseph Stalin's theory of socialism in one country in favor of Trotsky's theory of permanent revolution. Trotskyists also criticize the bureaucracy that developed in the Soviet Union under Stalin.
The Fourth International (FI) is a revolutionary socialist international organization consisting of followers of Leon Trotsky, also known as Trotskyists, whose declared goal is the overthrowing of global capitalism and the establishment of world socialism via international revolution. The Fourth International was established in France in 1938, as Trotsky and his supporters, having been expelled from the Soviet Union, considered the Third International or Comintern as effectively puppets of Stalinism and thus incapable of leading the international working class to political power. Thus, Trotskyists founded their own competing Fourth International.
Cochinchina is a historical exonym for part of Vietnam, depending on the contexts. Sometimes it referred to the whole of Vietnam, but it was commonly used to refer to the region south of the Gianh River.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Although nominally exists alongside the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, it maintains a unitary government and has centralised control over the state, military and media. The supremacy of the Communist Party is guaranteed by Article 4 of the national constitution. CPV was founded in 1930; since 1954, it has been the ruling party of North Vietnam and then the Socialist Republic after seizing power in South Vietnam in 1975. It controls the Vietnam People's Armed Forces.
The August Revolution, also known as the August General Uprising, was a revolution launched by Ho Chi Minh's Việt Minh against French and the Japanese Empire colonial rule in Vietnam, on August 14, 1945.
Tạ Thu Thâu (1906–1945) in the 1930s was the principal representative of Trotskyism in Vietnam and, in colonial Cochinchina, of left opposition to the Indochinese Communist Party (PCI) of Nguyen Ai Quoc. He was executed by the Viet Minh in September 1945.
The State of Vietnam was a member of the French Union and a country that claimed authority over all of Vietnam during the First Indochina War, although large parts of the territory were controlled by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam of the Việt Minh. The state was created in 1949 by France and was internationally recognised in 1950. Former Emperor Bảo Đại became Chief of State. After the 1954 Geneva Agreements, the State of Vietnam abandoned its sovereignty over the northern part of the country, which was controlled the Việt Minh. Ngô Đình Diệm was appointed prime minister the same year and—after having ousted Bảo Đại in 1955—became president of the Republic of Vietnam.
Nguyễn Hải Thần was a leader of the Việt Nam Cách Mạng Đồng Minh Hội and a political leader during the Vietnamese Revolution. In 1905, he left Vietnam to study at military academies first in Japan then in China as part of Phan Bội Châu's Đông-Du Movement. In 1912, he joined Châu's Vietnam Restoration League and became one of its representatives in Kwangsi and one of its most capable military leaders.
The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng or the Nationalist Party of Vietnam, abbreviated VNQDĐ or Việt Quốc, was a nationalist and democratic socialist political party that sought independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam during the early 20th century. Its origins lie in the mid-1920s, when a group of young Hanoi-based intellectuals began publishing revolutionary material. In 1927, after the publishing house failed because of French harassment and censorship, the VNQDD was formed under the leadership of Nguyễn Thái Học. Modelling itself on the Kuomintang of Nationalist China the VNQDD gained a following among northerners, particularly teachers and intellectuals. The party, which was less successful among peasants and industrial workers, was organised in small clandestine cells.
Trotskyism in Vietnam was represented by those who, in left opposition to the Indochinese Communist Party (PCI) of Nguyen Ai Quoc, identified with the call by Leon Trotsky to re-found "vanguard parties of proletariat" on principles of "proletarian internationalism" and of "permanent revolution". Active in the 1930s in organising the Saigon waterfront, industry and transport, Trotskyists presented a significant challenge to the Moscow-aligned party in Cochinchina. Following the September 1945 Saigon uprising against the restoration of French colonial rule, Vietnamese Trotskyists were systematically hunted down and eliminated by both the French Sûreté and the Communist-front Viet Minh.
Phan Văn Chánh (1906–1945) was a Vietnamese activist and Trotskyist.
Ngô Văn Xuyết, alias Ngô Văn was a Vietnamese revolutionary who chronicled labour and peasant insurrections caught "in the crossfire" between the colonial French and the Indochinese Communist Party of Nguyễn Ái Quốc. As a Trotskyist militant in the 1930s, Ngô Văn helped organise Saigon's waterfront and factories in defiance of the Party's "Moscow line" which sought to engage indigenous employers and landowners in a nationalist front and the French in an "anti-fascist" and anti-Japanese alliance. When, after 1945, further challenges to the Party met with a policy of targeted assassination, Ngô Văn went into exile. In Paris experiences shared with anarchist and Poumista refugees from the Spanish Civil War suggested " new radical perspectives." Drawn into the Council Communist circles of Maximilien Rubel and Henri Simon, Ngô Văn "permanently distanced" himself from the model of "the so-called workers's party."
Communism in Vietnam has played a large role in the Politics of Vietnam since independence. Marxism was introduced into Vietnam with the emergence of three separate communist parties; the Indochinese Communist Party, the Annamese Communist Party and the Indochinese Communist Union, later joined by a Trotskyist movement led by Tạ Thu Thâu. In 1930 the Communist International (Comintern) sent Nguyễn Ái Quốc to Hong Kong to coordinate the unification of the parties into the Vietnamese Communist Party with Trần Phú as its first Secretary General.
La Lutte was a left-wing paper published in Saigon, French-colonial Cochin-China, in the 1930s. It was launched ahead of the April–May 1933 Saigon municipal council election as a joint organ of the Indochinese Communist Party (PCI) and a grouping of Trotskyists and others who agreed to run a joint "Workers' slate" of candidates for the polls. This kind of cooperation between Trotskyists and Comintern-linked communists was a phenomenon unique to Vietnam. The editorial line of La Lutte avoided criticism of the USSR while supporting the demands of workers and peasants without regard to faction The supporters of La Lutte were known as lutteurs.
Nguyễn An Ninh was a radical Vietnamese political journalist and publicist in French colonial Cochinchina. An independent and charismatic figure, Nguyen An Ninh was able to conciliate between different anti-colonial factions including, for a period in the 1930s, between the Communist Party of Nguyen Ai Quoc and its left, Trotskyist, opposition. Nguyen An Ninh died in the French penal colony of Pulo Condore, age 42. He is recognised by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam as a Revolutionary Martyr.
Political organizations and Armed forces in Vietnam, since 1912 :
This article describes the history of the Communist Party of Vietnam, which ruled all or part of Vietnam beginning in 1945.
Phan Văn Hùm was a Vietnamese journalist, philosopher and revolutionary who, from 1930, participated in the Trotskyist left opposition to the Communist Party of Nguyen Ai Quoc.
Colonial Council elections were held in French Cochinchina on 16 April 1939.