# International Standard Book Number

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Acronym A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code ISBN 1970;49 years ago International ISBN Agency 13 (formerly 10) Weighted sum 978-3-16-148410-0

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. [1]

## Contents

An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.

An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but also on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

A paperback, also known as a softcover or softback, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth. The pages on the inside are made of paper.

A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a flexible, sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk.

The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit "0").

The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative. [2]

Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores.

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.

A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three.

A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background.

## History

The Standard Book Numbering (SBN) code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin, [3] for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. [4] The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker [5] (regarded as the "Father of the ISBN") [6] and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay [5] (who later became director of the U.S. ISBN agency R.R. Bowker). [6] [7] [8]

In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium. An early example is the invention of language, which enabled a person, through speech, to communicate what he or she saw, heard, felt, or thought to others. But speech limits the range of communication to the distance a voice can carry, and limits the audience to those present when the speech is uttered. The invention of writing, which converted spoken language into visual symbols, extended the range of communication across space and time.

As a physical object, a book is a stack of usually rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and then bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier, relatively inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page.

An identifier is a name that identifies either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical [countable] object, or physical [noncountable] substance. The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification, or an identifier. An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those.

The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. [4] [5] The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978. [9]

An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns , published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, and 8 being the check digit. This can be converted to ISBN   0-340-01381-8; the check digit does not need to be re-calculated.

Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. [10]

## Overview

An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. [11] The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts (if it is a 10-digit ISBN) or 5 parts (for a 13-digit ISBN):

1. for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, [12]
2. the registration group element (language-sharing country group, individual country or territory), [13]
3. the registrant element,
4. the publication element, [12] and
5. a checksum character or check digit. [12]

A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts (prefix element, registration group, registrant, publication and check digit), and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts (registration group, registrant, publication and check digit) of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. [14]

ISBN is most often used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions (for example different spelling of the title or authors depending on language). [15] [16]

### How ISBNs are issued

ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language. The ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, and so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number, type, and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. [17]

A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. [18] Partial listing:

Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker; [19] [20]
Brazil: The National Library of Brazil; [21]
Canada (French): Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec;
Colombia: Cámara Colombiana del Libro, an NGO;
Hong Kong: Books Registration Office (BRO), under the Hong Kong Public Libraries; [22]
India: The Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN (Book Promotion and Copyright Division), under Department of Higher Education, a constituent of the Ministry of Human Resource Development; [23] [24]
Iceland: Landsbókasafn (National and University Library of Iceland)
Israel: The Israel Center for Libraries [25]
Italy: EDISER srl, owned by Associazione Italiana Editori (Italian Publishers Association); [26] [27]
Maldives: The National Bureau of Classification (NBC);[ citation needed ]
Malta: The National Book Council (Maltese : Il-Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb); [28] [29] [30]
Morocco: The National Library of Morocco;
New Zealand: The National Library of New Zealand; [31]
Pakistan: National Library of Pakistan;
Philippines: National Library of the Philippines; [32]
South Africa: National Library of South Africa;
Turkey: General Directorate of Libraries and Publications, a branch of the Ministry of Culture; [33]
United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland:Nielsen Book Services Ltd, part of Nielsen Holdings N.V.; [34]
United States: R.R. Bowker. [5] [35]

### Registration group identifier

The ISBN registration group identifier is a 1- to 5-digit number that is valid within a single prefix element (i.e. one of 978 or 979), [12] and can be separated between hyphens, such as "978-1-...". Registration group identifiers have primarily been allocated within the 978 prefix element. [36] The single-digit group identifiers within the 978-prefix element are: 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries; 2 for French-speaking countries; 3 for German-speaking countries; 4 for Japan; 5 for Russian-speaking countries; and 7 for People's Republic of China. An example 5-digit group identifier is 99936, for Bhutan. The allocated group IDs are: 0–5, 600–622, 65, 7, 80–94, 950–989, 9920–9989, and 99901–99981. [37] Books published in rare languages typically have longer group identifiers. [38]

Within the 979 prefix element, the registration group identifier 0 is reserved for compatibility with International Standard Music Numbers (ISMNs), but such material is not actually assigned an ISBN. [12] The registration group identifiers within prefix element 979 that have been assigned are 10 for France, 11 for the Republic of Korea, and 12 for Italy. [39]

The original 9-digit standard book number (SBN) had no registration group identifier, but prefixing a zero (0) to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid 10-digit ISBN.

### Registrant element

The national ISBN agency assigns the registrant element (cf. Category:ISBN agencies) and an accompanying series of ISBNs within that registrant element to the publisher; the publisher then allocates one of the ISBNs to each of its books. In most countries, a book publisher is not required by law to assign an ISBN; however, most bookstores only handle ISBN bearing publications.[ citation needed ]

A listing of more than 900,000 assigned publisher codes is published, and can be ordered in book form (1399, US\$1959). The web site of the ISBN agency does not offer any free method of looking up publisher codes. [40] Partial lists have been compiled (from library catalogs) for the English-language groups: identifier 0 and identifier 1.

Publishers receive blocks of ISBNs, with larger blocks allotted to publishers expecting to need them; a small publisher may receive ISBNs of one or more digits for the registration group identifier, several digits for the registrant, and a single digit for the publication element. Once that block of ISBNs is used, the publisher may receive another block of ISBNs, with a different registrant element. Consequently, a publisher may have different allotted registrant elements. There also may be more than one registration group identifier used in a country. This might occur once all the registrant elements from a particular registration group have been allocated to publishers.

By using variable block lengths, registration agencies are able to customise the allocations of ISBNs that they make to publishers. For example, a large publisher may be given a block of ISBNs where fewer digits are allocated for the registrant element and many digits are allocated for the publication element; likewise, countries publishing many titles have few allocated digits for the registration group identifier and many for the registrant and publication elements. [41] Here are some sample ISBN-10 codes, illustrating block length variations.

ISBNCountry or areaPublisher
99921-58-10-7QatarNCCAH, Doha
9971-5-0210-0SingaporeWorld Scientific
960-425-059-0GreeceSigma Publications
80-902734-1-6Czech Republic; SlovakiaTaita Publishers
85-359-0277-5BrazilCompanhia das Letras
1-84356-028-3English-speaking areaSimon Wallenberg Press
0-684-84328-5English-speaking areaScribner
0-8044-2957-XEnglish-speaking areaFrederick Ungar
0-85131-041-9English-speaking areaJ. A. Allen & Co.
93-86954-21-4English-speaking areaEdupedia Publications Pvt Ltd.
0-943396-04-2English-speaking areaWillmann–Bell
0-9752298-0-XEnglish-speaking areaKT Publishing

#### Pattern for English language ISBNs

English-language registration group elements are 0 and 1 (2 of more than 220 registration group elements). These two registration group elements are divided into registrant elements in a systematic pattern, which allows their length to be determined, as follows: [42]

Publication
element length
0 – Registration group element1 – Registration group elementTotal
Registrants
FromToRegistrantsFromToRegistrants
6 digits0-00-xxxxxx-x0-19-xxxxxx-x201-01-xxxxxx-x1-08-xxxxxx-x828
5 digits0-200-xxxxx-x
0-229-xxxxx-x
0-370-xxxxx-x
0-640-xxxxx-x
0-649-xxxxx-x
0-656-xxxxx-x
0-227-xxxxx-x
0-368-xxxxx-x
0-638-xxxxx-x
0-647-xxxxx-x
0-654-xxxxx-x
0-699-xxxxx-x
4951-000-xxxxx-x
1-100-xxxxx-x
1-009-xxxxx-x
1-397-xxxxx-x
308803
4 digits0-2280-xxxx-x
0-3690-xxxx-x
0-6390-xxxx-x
0-6550-xxxx-x
0-7000-xxxx-x
0-2289-xxxx-x
0-3699-xxxx-x
0-6398-xxxx-x
0-6559-xxxx-x
0-8499-xxxx-x
1,5391-0900-xxxx-x
1-3980-xxxx-x
1-7170-xxxx-x
1-7900-xxxx-x
1-9730-xxxx-x
1-0999-xxxx-x
1-5499-xxxx-x
1-7319-xxxx-x
1-7999-xxxx-x
1-9877-xxxx-x
2,0183,557
3 digits0-85000-xxx-x0-89999-xxx-x5,0001-55000-xxx-x
1-74000-xxx-x
1-77540-xxx-x
1-80000-xxx-x
1-71699-xxx-x
1-77499-xxx-x
1-78999-xxx-x
1-86979-xxx-x
28,64033,640
2 digits0-900000-xx-x0-949999-xx-x50,0001-869800-xx-x
1-916506-xx-x
1-987800-xx-x
1-915999-xx-x
1-972999-xx-x
1-998999-xx-x
113,894163,894
1 digit0-6399000-x-x
0-6480000-x-x
0-9500000-x-x
0-6399999-x-x
0-6489999-x-x
0-9999999-x-x
511,0001-7320000-x-x
1-7750000-x-x
1-9160000-x-x
1-9990000-x-x
1-7399999-x-x
1-7753999-x-x
1-9165059-x-x
1-9999999-x-x
99,060610,060
Total568,054Total243,928811,982

## Check digits

A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection, the decimal equivalent of a binary check bit. It consists of a single digit computed from the other digits in the number. The method for the ten-digit code is an extension of that for SBNs, the two systems are compatible, and SBN prefixed with "0" will give the same check-digit as without – the digit is base eleven, and can be 0–9 or X. The system for thirteen-digit codes is not compatible and will, in general, give a different check digit from the corresponding 10-digit ISBN, and does not provide the same protection against transposition. This is because the thirteen-digit code was required to be compatible with the EAN format, and hence could not contain an "X".

### ISBN-10 check digits

According to the 2001 edition of the official manual of the International ISBN Agency, [43] the ISBN-10 check digit [44] – which is the last digit of the ten-digit ISBN – must range from 0 to 10 (the symbol X is used for 10), and must be such that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 1, is a multiple of 11.

For example, for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-2:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}s&=(0\times 10)+(3\times 9)+(0\times 8)+(6\times 7)+(4\times 6)+(0\times 5)+(6\times 4)+(1\times 3)+(5\times 2)+(2\times 1)\\&=0+27+0+42+24+0+24+3+10+2\\&=132=12\times 11\end{aligned}}}

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered:

${\displaystyle (10x_{1}+9x_{2}+8x_{3}+7x_{4}+6x_{5}+5x_{6}+4x_{7}+3x_{8}+2x_{9}+x_{10})\equiv 0{\pmod {11}}.}$

It is also true for ISBN-10's that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10, is a multiple of 11. For this example:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}s&=(0\times 1)+(3\times 2)+(0\times 3)+(6\times 4)+(4\times 5)+(0\times 6)+(6\times 7)+(1\times 8)+(5\times 9)+(2\times 10)\\&=0+6+0+24+20+0+42+8+45+20\\&=165=15\times 11\end{aligned}}}

Formally, this is rendered:

${\displaystyle (x_{1}+2x_{2}+3x_{3}+4x_{4}+5x_{5}+6x_{6}+7x_{7}+8x_{8}+9x_{9}+10x_{10})\equiv 0{\pmod {11}}.}$

The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g., typing or writing it) are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits. It can be proven that all possible valid ISBN-10s have at least two digits different from each other. It can also be proven that there are no pairs of valid ISBN-10s with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. (These are true only because the ISBN is less than 11 digits long, and because 11 is a prime number.) The ISBN check-digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.e., if either of these types of error has occurred, the result will never be a valid ISBN – the sum of the digits multiplied by their weights will never be a multiple of 11. However, if the error occurs in the publishing house and goes undetected, the book will be issued with an invalid ISBN. [45]

In contrast, it is possible for other types of error, such as two altered non-transposed digits, or three altered digits, to result in a valid ISBN (although it is still unlikely).

### ISBN-10 check digit calculation

Each of the first nine digits of the ten-digit ISBN—excluding the check digit itself—is multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 2, and the sum of these nine products found. The value of the check digit is simply the one number between 0 and 10 which, when added to this sum, means the total is a multiple of 11.

For example, the check digit for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}s&=(0\times 10)+(3\times 9)+(0\times 8)+(6\times 7)+(4\times 6)+(0\times 5)+(6\times 4)+(1\times 3)+(5\times 2)\\&=130\end{aligned}}}

Adding 2 to 130 gives a multiple of 11 (132 = 12 x 11) − this is the only number between 0 and 10 which does so. Therefore, the check digit has to be 2, and the complete sequence is ISBN 0-306-40615-2. The value ${\displaystyle x_{10}}$ required to satisfy this condition might be 10; if so, an 'X' should be used.

Alternatively, modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11. The remainder of this sum when it is divided by 11 (i.e. its value modulo 11), is computed. This remainder plus the check digit must equal either 0 or 11. Therefore, the check digit is (11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11) modulo 11. Taking the remainder modulo 11 a second time accounts for the possibility that the first remainder is 0. Without the second modulo operation the calculation could end up with 11 – 0 = 11 which is invalid. (Strictly speaking the first "modulo 11" is unneeded, but it may be considered to simplify the calculation.)

For example, the check digit for the ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}s&=(11-(((0\times 10)+(3\times 9)+(0\times 8)+(6\times 7)+(4\times 6)+(0\times 5)+(6\times 4)+(1\times 3)+(5\times 2))\,{\bmod {\,}}11)\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=(11-(0+27+0+42+24+0+24+3+10)\,{\bmod {\,}}11)\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=(11-(130\,{\bmod {\,}}11))\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=(11-(9))\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=(2)\,{\bmod {\,}}11\\&=2\end{aligned}}}

Thus the check digit is 2.

It is possible to avoid the multiplications in a software implementation by using two accumulators. Repeatedly adding t into s computes the necessary multiples:

// Returns ISBN error syndrome, zero for a valid ISBN, non-zero for an invalid one.// digits[i] must be between 0 and 10.intCheckISBN(intconstdigits[10]){inti,s=0,t=0;for(i=0;i<10;i++){t+=digits[i];s+=t;}returns%11;}

The modular reduction can be done once at the end, as shown above (in which case s could hold a value as large as 496, for the invalid ISBN 99999-999-9-X), or s and t could be reduced by a conditional subtract after each addition.

### ISBN-13 check digit calculation

The 2005 edition of the International ISBN Agency's official manual [46] describes how the 13-digit ISBN check digit is calculated. The ISBN-13 check digit, which is the last digit of the ISBN, must range from 0 to 9 and must be such that the sum of all the thirteen digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, alternating between 1 and 3, is a multiple of 10.

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered:

${\displaystyle (x_{1}+3x_{2}+x_{3}+3x_{4}+x_{5}+3x_{6}+x_{7}+3x_{8}+x_{9}+3x_{10}+x_{11}+3x_{12}+x_{13})\equiv 0{\pmod {10}}.}$

The calculation of an ISBN-13 check digit begins with the first 12 digits of the thirteen-digit ISBN (thus excluding the check digit itself). Each digit, from left to right, is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3, then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9. Subtracted from 10, that leaves a result from 1 to 10. A zero (0) replaces a ten (10), so, in all cases, a single check digit results.

For example, the ISBN-13 check digit of 978-0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

s = 9×1 + 7×3 + 8×1 + 0×3 + 3×1 + 0×3 + 6×1 + 4×3 + 0×1 + 6×3 + 1×1 + 5×3   =   9 +  21 +   8 +   0 +   3 +   0 +   6 +  12 +   0 +  18 +   1 +  15   = 93 93 / 10 = 9 remainder 3 10 –  3 = 7

Thus, the check digit is 7, and the complete sequence is ISBN 978-0-306-40615-7.

In general, the ISBN-13 check digit is calculated as follows.

Let

${\displaystyle r={\big (}10-{\big (}x_{1}+3x_{2}+x_{3}+3x_{4}+\cdots +x_{11}+3x_{12}{\big )}\,{\bmod {\,}}10{\big )}.}$

Then

${\displaystyle x_{13}={\begin{cases}r&{\text{ ; }}r<10\\0&{\text{ ; }}r=10.\end{cases}}}$

This check system – similar to the UPC check digit formula – does not catch all errors of adjacent digit transposition. Specifically, if the difference between two adjacent digits is 5, the check digit will not catch their transposition. For instance, the above example allows this situation with the 6 followed by a 1. The correct order contributes 3×6+1×1 = 19 to the sum; while, if the digits are transposed (1 followed by a 6), the contribution of those two digits will be 3×1+1×6 = 9. However, 19 and 9 are congruent modulo 10, and so produce the same, final result: both ISBNs will have a check digit of 7. The ISBN-10 formula uses the prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot, but requires more than the digits 0–9 to express the check digit.

Additionally, if the sum of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th digits is tripled then added to the remaining digits (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th), the total will always be divisible by 10 (i.e., end in 0).

### ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 conversion

An ISBN-10 is converted to ISBN-13 by prepending "978" to the ISBN-10 and recalculating the final checksum digit using the ISBN-13 algorithm. The reverse process can also be performed, but not for numbers commencing with a prefix other than 978, which have no 10 digit equivalent.

### Errors in usage

Publishers and libraries have varied policies about the use of the ISBN check digit. Publishers sometimes fail to check the correspondence of a book title and its ISBN before publishing it; that failure causes book identification problems for libraries, booksellers, and readers. [47] For example, ISBN   0-590-76484-5 is shared by two books – Ninja gaiden®: a novel based on the best-selling game by Tecmo (1990) and Wacky laws (1997), both published by Scholastic.

Most libraries and booksellers display the book record for an invalid ISBN issued by the publisher. The Library of Congress catalogue contains books published with invalid ISBNs, which it usually tags with the phrase "Cancelled ISBN". [48] However, book-ordering systems such as Amazon.com will not search for a book if an invalid ISBN is entered to its search engine.[ citation needed ] OCLC often indexes by invalid ISBNs, if the book is indexed in that way by a member library.

### eISBN

Only the term "ISBN" should be used; the terms "eISBN" and "e-ISBN" have historically been sources of confusion and should be avoided. If a book exists in one or more digital (e-book) formats, each of those formats must have its own ISBN. In other words, each of the three separate EPUB, Amazon Kindle, and PDF formats of a particular book will have its own specific ISBN. They should not share the ISBN of the paper version, and there is no generic "eISBN" which encompasses all the e-book formats for a title. [49]

## EAN format used in barcodes, and upgrading

Currently the barcodes on a book's back cover (or inside a mass-market paperback book's front cover) are EAN-13; they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits called an EAN-5 for the currency and the recommended retail price. [50] For 10-digit ISBNs, the number "978", the Bookland "country code", is prefixed to the ISBN in the barcode data, and the check digit is recalculated according to the EAN13 formula (modulo 10, 1x and 3x weighting on alternating digits).

Partly because of an expected shortage in certain ISBN categories, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to migrate to a thirteen-digit ISBN (ISBN-13). The process began 1 January 2005 and was planned to conclude 1 January 2007. [51] As of 2011, all the 13-digit ISBNs began with 978. As the 978 ISBN supply is exhausted, the 979 prefix was introduced. Part of the 979 prefix is reserved for use with the Musicland code for musical scores with an ISMN. The 10-digit ISMN codes differed visually as they began with an "M" letter; the bar code represents the "M" as a zero (0), and for checksum purposes it counted as a 3. All ISMNs are now 13 digits commencing 979–0; 979–1 to 979–9 will be used by ISBN.

Publisher identification code numbers are unlikely to be the same in the 978 and 979 ISBNs, likewise, there is no guarantee that language area code numbers will be the same. Moreover, the ten-digit ISBN check digit generally is not the same as the thirteen-digit ISBN check digit. Because the GTIN-13 is part of the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) system (that includes the GTIN-14, the GTIN-12, and the GTIN-8), the 13-digit ISBN falls within the 14-digit data field range. [52]

Barcode format compatibility is maintained, because (aside from the group breaks) the ISBN-13 barcode format is identical to the EAN barcode format of existing 10-digit ISBNs. So, migration to an EAN-based system allows booksellers the use of a single numbering system for both books and non-book products that is compatible with existing ISBN based data, with only minimal changes to information technology systems. Hence, many booksellers (e.g., Barnes & Noble) migrated to EAN barcodes as early as March 2005. Although many American and Canadian booksellers were able to read EAN-13 barcodes before 2005, most general retailers could not read them. The upgrading of the UPC barcode system to full EAN-13, in 2005, eased migration to the ISBN-13 in North America.

• ASIN (Amazon Standard Identification Number)
• CODEN (serial publication identifier currently used by libraries; replaced by the ISSN for new works)
• DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
• ESTC (English Short Title Catalogue)
• ETTN (Electronic Textbook Track Number)
• ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number)
• ISMN (International Standard Music Number)
• ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code)
• ISRC (International Standard Recording Code)
• ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)
• ISTC (International Standard Text Code)
• ISWN (International Standard Wine Number)
• LCCN (Library of Congress Control Number)
• List of group-0 ISBN publisher codes
• List of group-1 ISBN publisher codes
• OCLC number (Online Computer Library Center number) [53]
• Registration authority
• BICI (Book Item and Component Identifier)
• SICI (Serial Item and Contribution Identifier)
• VD 16 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Sixteenth Century")
• VD 17 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Seventeenth Century")

## Notes

1. Occasionally, publishers erroneously assign an ISBN to more than one title—the first edition of The Ultimate Alphabet and The Ultimate Alphabet Workbook have the same ISBN, 0-8050-0076-3. Conversely, books are published with several ISBNs: A German second-language edition of Emil und die Detektive has the ISBNs 87-23-90157-8 (Denmark), 0-8219-1069-8 (United States), 91-21-15628-X (Sweden), 0-85048-548-7 (United Kingdom) and 3-12-675495-3 (Germany).
2. In some cases, books sold only as sets share ISBNs. For example, the Vance Integral Edition used only two ISBNs for 44 books.

## Related Research Articles

Country codes are short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) developed to represent countries and dependent areas, for use in data processing and communications. Several different systems have been developed to do this. The term country code frequently refers to international dialing codes, the E.164 country calling codes.

The Universal Product Code (UPC) is a barcode symbology that is widely used in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, in Europe and other countries for tracking trade items in stores.

An International Securities Identification Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. Its structure is defined in ISO 6166. The ISIN code is a 12-character alphanumeric code that serves for uniform identification of a security through normalization of the assigned National Number, where one exists, at trading and settlement.

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of one or more digits computed by an algorithm from the other digits in the sequence input.

An ABA routing transit number is a nine-digit code, used in the United States, which appears on the bottom of negotiable instruments such as checks to identify the financial institution on which it was drawn. The ABA RTN was originally designed to facilitate the sorting, bundling, and shipment of paper checks back to the drawer's account. As new payment methods were developed, the system was expanded to accommodate these payment methods.

International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC) is a unique identifier for musical works, similar to ISBN for books. It is adopted as international standard ISO 15707. The ISO subcommittee with responsibility for the standard is TC 46/SC 9.

The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. The code was developed by the recording industry in conjunction with the ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9, which codified the standard as ISO 3901 in 1986, and updated it in 2001.

The International Standard Music Number or ISMN is a thirteen-character alphanumeric identifier for printed music developed by ISO.

The International Standard Text Code (ISTC) is a unique identifier for text-based works. The ISO standard was developed by TC 46/SC 9 and published in March 2009 as ISO 21047:2009. The authority responsible for implementing the standard is The International ISTC Agency.

Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) is an identifier for trade items, developed by GS1. Such identifiers are used to look up product information in a database which may belong to a retailer, manufacturer, collector, researcher, or other entity. The uniqueness and universality of the identifier is useful in establishing which product in one database corresponds to which product in another database, especially across organizational boundaries.

The International Article Number is a standard describing a barcode symbology and numbering system used in global trade to identify a specific retail product type, in a specific packaging configuration, from a specific manufacturer. The standard has been subsumed in the Global Trade Item Number standard from the GS1 organization; the same numbers can be referred to as GTINs and can be encoded in other barcode symbologies defined by GS1. EAN barcodes are used worldwide for lookup at retail point of sale, but can also be used as numbers for other purposes such as wholesale ordering or accounting.

A DEA number is an identifier assigned to a health care provider by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration allowing them to write prescriptions for controlled substances.

"Bookland" is the informal name for the Unique Country Code (UCC) prefix allocated in the 1980s for European Article Number (EAN) identifiers of published books, regardless of country of origin, so that the EAN namespace can catalogue books by ISBN rather than maintaining a redundant parallel numbering system. In other words, Bookland is a fictitious country that exists solely in EAN for the purposes of non-geographically cataloguing books in the otherwise geographically keyed EAN coding system.

Codabar is a linear barcode symbology developed in 1972 by Pitney Bowes Corp. It and its variants are also known as Codeabar, Ames Code, NW-7, Monarch, Code 2 of 7, Rationalized Codabar, ANSI/AIM BC3-1995 or USD-4.

The Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI) is a code used to uniquely identify specific volumes, articles or other identifiable parts of a serial. It is "intended primarily for use by those members of the bibliographic community involved in the use or management of serial titles and their contributions".

The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks.

The International Standard Link Identifier (ISLI), is an identifier standard. ISLI is a universal identifier for links between entities in the field of information and documentation. It was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published on May 15, 2015. ISO/TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for the development of the ISLI standard.

## References

1. "The International ISBN Agency" . Retrieved 20 February 2018.
2. Bradley, Philip (1992). "Book numbering: The importance of the ISBN" (PDF (245KB)). The Indexer. 18 (1): 25–26.
3. Foster, Gordon (1966). "INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (ISBN) SYSTEM original 1966 report". informaticsdevelopmentinstitute.net. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
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12. Some books have several codes in the first block: e.g. A. M. Yaglom's Correlation Theory..., published by Springer Verlag, has two ISBNs, 0-387-96331-6 and 3-540-96331-6. Though Springer's 387 and 540 codes are different for English (0) and German (3); the same item number 96331 produces the same check digit: 6. Springer uses 431 as their publisher code for Japanese (4) and 4-431-96331-? would also have check digit ? = 6. Other Springer books in English have publisher code 817, and 0-817-96331-? would also get check digit ? = 6. This suggests special considerations were made for assigning Springer's publisher codes, as random assignments of different publisher codes would not lead the same item number to get the same check digit every time. Finding publisher codes for English and German, say, with this effect amounts to solving a linear equation in modular arithmetic.
13. The International ISBN agency's ISBN User's Manual says: "The ten-digit number is divided into four parts of variable length, which must be separated clearly, by hyphens or spaces" although omission of separators is permitted for internal data processing. If present, hyphens must be correctly placed; see ISBN hyphenation definition. The actual definition for hyphenation contains more than 220 different registration group elements with each one broken down into a few to several ranges for the length of the registrant element (more than 1,000 total). The document defining the ranges, listed by agency, is 29 pages.
14. Lewoniewski, Włodzimierz; Węcel, Krzysztof; Abramowicz, Witold (2017-09-23). "Analysis of References Across Wikipedia Languages". Communications in Computer and Information Science. 756: 561–573. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67642-5_47 . Retrieved 2019-01-13.
15. Halfaker, Aaron; Taraborelli, Dario (2017): Scholarly article citations in Wikipedia. figshare. Dataset.
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19. "TABELA DE PREÇOS DOS SERVIÇOS". Biblioteca Nacional, Government of Brazil. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
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26. "Gazzetta tal-Gvern ta' Malta" (PDF). Government Gazette. 23 January 2015. p. 582. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2016.
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32. See a complete list of group identifiers. ISBN.org sometimes calls them group numbers. Their table of identifiers now refers to ISBN prefix ranges, which must be assumed to be group identifier ranges.
33. Hailman, Jack Parker (2008). Coding and redundancy: man-made and animal-evolved signals. Harvard University Press. p. 209. ISBN   978-0-674-02795-4.
34. International ISBN Agency (5 December 2014). "International ISBN Agency – Range Message (pdf sorted by prefix)" (PDF). isbn-international.org. p. 29. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
35. See Publisher's International ISBN Directory Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
36. Splane, Lily (2002). The Book Book: A Complete Guide to Creating a Book on Your Computer. Anaphase II Publishing. p. 37. ISBN   978-0-945962-14-4.
37. "ISBN Ranges". isbn-international.org. International ISBN Agency. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
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39. "ISBN Users' Manual – 4. Structure of ISBN". Isbn.org. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
40. For example, I'saka: a sketch grammar of a language of north-central New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN "0-85883-554-4".
41. "ISBN Users' Manual International edition (2012)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2014. (284 KB)
42. Lorimer, Rowland; Shoichet, Jillian; Maxwell, John W. (2005). Book Publishing I. CCSP Press. p. 299. ISBN   978-0-9738727-0-5.
43. 020 – International Standard Book Number (R) – MARC 21 Bibliographic – Full. Library of Congress.
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