Interpol

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International Criminal Police Organization
INTERPOL Logo.svg
Common nameInterpol
AbbreviationICPO-INTERPOL
Motto“Connecting police for a safer world”
Agency overview
Formed1923;96 years ago (1923)
Employees756 (2013) [1]
Annual budget€78 million (2013)
€113 million (2017)
Jurisdictional structure
International agency
Countries194 member countries
Map of the member states of Interpol 2018.svg
Map of International Criminal Police Organization's jurisdiction.
Governing body INTERPOL General Assembly
Constituting instrument
  • ICPO-INTERPOL Constitution and General Regulations [2] [3]
Headquarters Lyon, France

Agency executives
Facilities
National Central Bureaus181
Website
www.interpol.int
Interpol headquarters in Lyon ICPO-Interpol Lione.JPG
Interpol headquarters in Lyon

The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO-INTERPOL; French : Organisation internationale de police criminelle), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates worldwide police cooperation. It was established in 1923 as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC); it chose INTERPOL as its telegraphic address in 1946, and made it its common name in 1956. [4]

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

International organization Organization with an international membership, scope, or presence

An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types:

Police Law enforcement body

The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives, liberty and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the power of arrest and the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing. Police forces are usually public sector services, funded through taxes.

Contents

INTERPOL has an annual budget of around €113 million, most of which is provided through annual contributions by its membership of police forces in 181 countries (as of 2018). In 2013, the INTERPOL General Secretariat employed a staff of 756, representing 100 member countries. [1] Its current Secretary-General is Jürgen Stock, the former deputy head of Germany's Federal Criminal Police Office. He replaced Ronald Noble, a former United States Under Secretary of the Treasury for Enforcement, who stepped down in November 2014 after serving 14 years. [5] Interpol's current President is Kim Jong Yang of South Korea, replacing Meng Hongwei, Deputy Minister of Public Security of China, who is alleged to have resigned via an undersigned postal letter in October 2018 after his detention and disappearance by Chinese authorities on corruption charges. [6]

Jürgen Stock German law enforcement officer

Jürgen Stock is a German law enforcement officer and academic. He has served as Secretary General of Interpol since 7 November 2014.

Federal Criminal Police Office (Germany) federal criminal police of Germany

The Federal Criminal Police Office of Germany is the federal investigative police agency of Germany, directly subordinated to the Federal Ministry of the Interior. It is headquartered in Wiesbaden, Hesse, and maintains major branch offices in Berlin and Meckenheim near Bonn. It is headed by Holger Münch since Dec 2014.

Ronald Noble American law enforcement officer

Ronald Kenneth "Ron" Noble is an American law enforcement officer who served as the secretary-general of the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) from 2000 to 2014. He became the organization's first American and youngest secretary-general at the time of his appointment. Prior to his time there, he worked as a public servant in various U.S. government agencies, including the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, the Department of Justice and the Treasury.

To keep INTERPOL as politically neutral as possible, its charter forbids it from undertaking interventions or activities of a political, military, religious, or racial nature or involving itself in disputes over such matters. [7] Its work focuses primarily on public safety and battling transnational crimes against humanity, child pornography, cybercrime, drug trafficking, environmental crime, genocide, human trafficking, illicit drug production, [8] copyright infringement, missing people, illicit traffic in works of art, intellectual property crime, money laundering, organized crime, corruption, terrorism, war crimes, weapons smuggling, and white-collar crime.

Constitution Set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed

A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

Crimes against humanity deliberate attack against civilians

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials. Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is currently an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative.

Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation. It may be produced with the direct involvement or sexual assault of a child or it may be simulated child pornography. Abuse of the child occurs during the sexual acts or lascivious exhibitions of genitals or pubic areas which are recorded in the production of child pornography. Child pornography may use a variety of media, including writings, magazines, photos, sculpture, drawing, cartoon, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, and video games.

History

In the first part of the 20th century, several efforts were taken to formalize international police cooperation, but they initially failed. [9] Among these efforts were the First International Criminal Police Congress in Monaco in 1914, and the International Police Conference in New York in 1922. The Monaco Congress failed because it was organized by legal experts and political officials, not by police professionals, while the New York Conference failed to attract international attention.[ citation needed ]

Monaco Principality in Western Europe

Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state, country, and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea.

In 1923, a new initiative was taken at the International Criminal Police Congress in Vienna, where the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) was successfully founded as the direct forerunner of INTERPOL. Founding members included police officials from Austria, Germany, Belgium, Poland, China, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia. [10] The United Kingdom joined in 1928. [11] The United States did not join Interpol until 1938, although a US police officer unofficially attended the 1923 congress. [12]

Vienna Capital city and state in Austria

Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

Yugoslavia 1918–1992 country in Southeastern and Central Europe

Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.

Following Anschluss in 1938, the organization fell under the control of Nazi Germany, and the Commission's headquarters were eventually moved to Berlin in 1942. [13] Most members withdrew their support during this period. [10] From 1938 to 1945, the presidents of the ICPC included Otto Steinhäusl, Reinhard Heydrich, Arthur Nebe, and Ernst Kaltenbrunner. All were generals in the SS, and Kaltenbrunner was the highest ranking SS officer executed after the Nuremberg Trials.

<i>Anschluss</i> annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938

Anschluss refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938. The word's German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996, was Anschluß and it was also known as the Anschluss Österreichs.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

After the end of World War II in 1945, the organization was revived as the International Criminal Police Organization by officials from Belgium, France, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. Its new headquarters were established in Paris, then from 1967 in Saint-Cloud, a suburb of Paris. They remained there until 1989, when they were moved to their present location in Lyon.

Until the 1980s, INTERPOL did not intervene in the prosecution of Nazi war criminals in accordance with Article 3 of its Charter, which prohibited intervention in "political" matters. [14]

In July 2010, former INTERPOL President Jackie Selebi was found guilty of corruption by the South African High Court in Johannesburg for accepting bribes worth €156,000 from a drug trafficker. [15] After being charged in January 2008, Selebi resigned as president of INTERPOL and was put on extended leave as National Police Commissioner of South Africa. [16] He was temporarily replaced by Arturo Herrera Verdugo, the National Commissioner of Investigations Police of Chile and former vice president for the American Zone, who remained acting president until the appointment of Khoo Boon Hui [17] in October 2008.

On 8 November 2012, the 81st General Assembly closed with the election of Deputy Central Director of the French Judicial Police Mireille Ballestrazzi as the first female president of the organization. [18] [19]

In November 2016, Meng Hongwei, a politician from the People's Republic of China, was elected president during the 85th Interpol General Assembly, and was to serve in this capacity until 2020. [20] At the end of September 2018, Meng was reported missing during a trip to China, after being "taken away" for questioning by "discipline authorities". [21] [22] Chinese police later confirmed that Meng had been arrested on charges of bribery as part of a national anti-corruption campaign. [23] on 7 October 2018, INTERPOL announced that Meng had resigned his post with immediate effect and that the Presidency would be temporarily occupied by INTERPOL Senior Vice-President (Asia) Kim Jong Yang of South Korea. On 21 November 2018, INTERPOL's General Assembly elected Kim to fill the remainder of Meng's term, [24] in a controversial election which saw accusations that the other candidate, Vice President Alexander Prokopchuk of Russia, had used INTERPOL notices to target critics of the Russian government. [25]

Constitution

The role of INTERPOL is defined by the general provisions of its constitution. [2]

Article 2 states that its role is:

  1. To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  2. To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes.

Article 3 states:

It is strictly forbidden for the Organization to undertake any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character.

Methodology

Interpol ID card (front) Interpol ID card front.jpg
Interpol ID card (front)

Contrary to frequent portrayals in popular culture, Interpol is not a supranational law enforcement agency and has no agents who are allowed to make arrests. [26] Instead, it is an international organization that functions as a network of criminal law enforcement agencies from different countries. The organization thus functions as an administrative liaison among the law enforcement agencies of the member countries, providing communications and database assistance, assisted via the central headquarters in Lyon, France. [27]

Interpol's collaborative form of cooperation is useful when fighting international crime because language, cultural and bureaucratic differences can make it difficult for police officials from different nations to work together. For example, if FBI special agents track a terrorist to Italy, they may not know whom to contact in the Polizia di Stato, if the Carabinieri have jurisdiction over some aspect of the case, or who in the Italian government must be notified of the FBI's involvement. The FBI can contact the Interpol National Central Bureau in Italy, which would act as a liaison between the United States and Italian law enforcement agencies.

Interpol's databases at the Lyon headquarters can assist law enforcement in fighting international crime. [26] While national agencies have their own extensive crime databases, the information rarely extends beyond one nation's borders. Interpol's databases can track criminals and crime trends around the world, specifically by means of authorized collections of fingerprints and face photos, lists of wanted persons, DNA samples, and travel documents. Interpol's lost and stolen travel document database alone contains more than 12 million records. Officials at the headquarters also analyze these data and release information on crime trends to the member countries.

An encrypted Internet-based worldwide communications network allows Interpol agents and member countries to contact each other at any time. Known as I-24/7, the network offers constant access to Interpol's databases. [26] While the National Central Bureaus are the primary access sites to the network, some member countries have expanded it to key areas such as airports and border access points. Member countries can also access each other's criminal databases via the I-24/7 system.

Interpol issued 13,637 notices in 2013, of which 8,857 were Red Notices, compared to 4,596 in 2008 and 2,037 in 2003. As of 2013, there are currently 52,880 valid notices in circulation. [1]

In the event of an international disaster, terrorist attack, or assassination, Interpol can send an Incident Response Team (IRT). IRTs can offer a range of expertise and database access to assist with victim identification, suspect identification, and the dissemination of information to other nations' law enforcement agencies. In addition, at the request of local authorities, they can act as a central command and logistics operation to coordinate other law enforcement agencies involved in a case. Such teams were deployed eight times in 2013. [1] Interpol began issuing its own travel documents in 2009 with hopes that nations would remove visa requirements for individuals traveling for Interpol business, thereby improving response times. [28] In September 2017, the organization voted to accept Palestine and the Solomon Islands as members. [29]

Finances

In 2013, Interpol's operating income was €78 million, of which 68 percent was contributed by member countries, mostly in the form of statutory contributions (67 percent) and 26 percent came from externally funded projects, private foundations and commercial enterprises. Financial income and reimbursements made up the other six percent of the total. [1] With the goal of enhancing the collaboration between Interpol and the private sector to support Interpol's missions, the Interpol Foundation for a Safer World was created in 2013. Although legally independent of Interpol, the relationship between the two is close enough for Interpol's president to obtain in 2015 the departure of HSBC CEO from the foundation board after the Swiss Leaks allegations. [30]

From 2004 to 2010, Interpol's external auditors was the French Court of Audit. [31] [32] In November 2010, the Court of Audit was replaced by the Office of the Auditor General of Norway for a three-year term with an option for a further three years. [33] [34]

Criticism

Despite its politically neutral stance, some have criticized the agency for its role in arrests that critics contend were politically motivated. [35] In the year 2008, the office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees pointed to the problem of arrests of refugees on the request of Interpol [36] in connection with politically motivated charges. In their declaration, adopted in Oslo (2010), [37] Monaco (2012), [38] Istanbul (2013), [39] and Baku (2014), [40] the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly criticized some OSCE member States for their abuse of mechanisms of the international investigation and urged them to support the reform of Interpol in order to avoid politically motivated prosecution. The Istanbul Declaration of the OSCE cited specific cases of such prosecution, including those of the Russian activist Petr Silaev, financier William Browder, businessman Ilya Katsnelson, Belarusian politician Ales Michalevic, and Ukrainian politician Bohdan Danylyshyn. The resolution of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe of 31 January 2014 criticizes the mechanisms of operation of the Commission for the Control of Interpol's files, in particular, non-adversarial procedures and unjust decisions. [41] [42] In 2014, PACE adopted a decision to thoroughly analyse the problem of the abuse of Interpol and to compile a special report on this matter. [43] In May 2015, within the framework of the preparation of the report, the PACE Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights organized a hearing, during which both representatives of NGOs and Interpol had the opportunity to speak. [44]

Organizations, such as Detained in Dubai, Open Dialog Foundation, [45] Fair Trials International, [46] Centre for Peace Studies, [47] , International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, [48] indicate that non-democratic states use Interpol in order to harass opposition politicians, journalists, human rights activists and businessmen. According to them, countries that frequently abuse the Interpol system include: China, [49] Russia, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Iran, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Tunisia. [45] [46] [48]

The Open Dialog Foundation's report analysed 44 high-profile political cases which went through the Interpol system. [45] A number of persons who have been granted refugee status in the EU and the US, including: Russian businessman Andrey Borodin, [50] Chechen Arbi Bugaev, [51] the Kazakh opposition politician Mukhtar Ablyazov [52] and his associate Artur Trofimov, [53] and Sri Lankan journalist Chandima Withana [54] continue to remain on the public Interpol list. Some of the refugees remain on the list of Interpol even after courts have refused to extradite them to a non-democratic state (for example, Pavel Zabelin, [55] a witness in the case of Mikhail Khodorkovsky, and Alexandr Pavlov, [56] former security chief of the Kazakh oppositionist Ablyazov).

Interpol has recognized some requests to include persons on the wanted list as politically motivated, e.g., Indonesian activist Benny Wenda, Georgian politician Givi Targamadze, [57] ex-president of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili, [58] ex-president of Honduras Manuel Zelaya Rosales; [59] these persons have been removed from the wanted list. However, in most cases, Interpol removes a "red notice" against refugees only after an authoritarian state closes a criminal case or declares amnesty (for example, the cases of Russian activists and political refugees Petr Silaev, Denis Solopov, and Aleksey Makarov, as well as the Turkish sociologist and feminist Pinar Selek). [60] [61] [62] [63] The election of Meng Hongwei as president and Alexander Prokopchuk, a Russian, as vice president of Interpol for Europe drew criticism in western media and raised fears of Interpol accepting politically motivated requests from China and Russia. [64] [65] [66]

Refugees who are included in the list of Interpol can be arrested when crossing the border. [46] The procedure for filing an appeal with Interpol is a long and complex one. For example, the Venezuelan journalist Patricia Poleo and a colleague of Kazakh activist Ablyazov, Tatiana Paraskevich, who were granted refugee status, sought to overturn the politically motivated request for as long as one and a half years, and six months, respectively. [67] [68] [69]

In 2013, Interpol was criticised over its multimillion-dollar deals with such private sector bodies as FIFA, Philip Morris, and the pharmaceutical industry. The criticism was mainly about the lack of transparency and potential conflicts of interest such as Codentify.[ clarification needed ] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] After the 2015 FIFA scandal, the organization has severed ties with all the private-sector bodies that evoked such criticism, and has adopted a new and transparent financing framework.

Chinese authorities said former Interpol President Meng Hongwei is under investigation for bribery and corruption. Meng Hongwei.jpg
Chinese authorities said former Interpol President Meng Hongwei is under investigation for bribery and corruption.

In 2016, Taiwan criticised Interpol for turning down their application to join the General Assembly as an observer. [76] The United States supports Taiwan's participation, and the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to obtain observer status for Taiwan. [77]

According to a report by the Stockholm Center for Freedom that was issued on September 2017, Turkey has weaponized Interpol mechanisms to hunt down legitimate critics and opponents in violation of Interpol's own constitution. The report lists abuse cases where not only arrest warrants but also revocation of travel documents and passports were used by Turkey as persecution tools against critics and opponents. The harassment campaign targeted foreign companies as well. [78]

On 25 July 2014, despite Interpol's Constitution prohibiting them from undertaking any intervention or activities of a political or military nature, [79] the Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary leader Dmytro Yarosh was placed on Interpol's international wanted list at the request of Russian authorities, [80] which made him the only person wanted internationally after the beginning of the conflict between Ukraine and Russia in 2014. For a long time, Interpol refused to place former President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych on the wanted list as a suspect by the new Ukrainian government for the mass killing of protesters during Euromaidan. [81] [82] Yanukovych was eventually placed on the wanted list on 12 January 2015. [83] However, on 16 July 2015, after an intervention of Joseph Hage Aaronson LLP, the British law firm hired by Yanukovych, the international arrest warrant against the former president of Ukraine was suspended pending further review. [84] In December 2014, the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) liquidated[ clarification needed ] a sabotage and reconnaissance group that was led by a former agent of the Ukrainian Bureau of Interpol that also has family relations in the Ukrainian counter-intelligence agencies. [85] In 2014, Russia made attempts to place Ukrainian politician Ihor Kolomoyskyi and Ukrainian civic activist Pavel Ushevets, subject to criminal persecution in Russia following his pro-Ukrainian art performance in Moscow, on the Interpol wanted list. [86]

After the disappearance of Meng Hongwei, four American senators accused his presumptive successor, Alexander Prokopchuk, of abusing Red Notices and compared his election to "putting a fox in charge of the henhouse". [87] A statement posted by the Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union and signed by other NGO's raised concerns about his ability to use his Interpol position to silence Russia's critics. [88] Russian politicians criticised the US political activity and called it interference: "This is interference in the election process of sorts, in the election to an international organisation. What else can you call it? This is a vivid example." Russian Presidential spokesman Dmitry Peskov said. [89]

Reform of Interpol mechanisms

From 1–3 July 2015, Interpol organized a session of the Working Group on the Processing of Information, which was formed specifically in order to verify the mechanisms of information processing. The Working Group heard the recommendations of civil society as regards the reform of the international investigation system and promised to take them into account, in light of possible obstruction or refusal to file crime reports nationally. [90]

Human rights organization, The Open Dialog Foundation, recommended that Interpol, in particular: create mechanism for the protection of rights of people having international refugee status; initiate closer cooperation of the Commission for the Control of Files with human rights NGO and experts on asylum and extradition; enforce sanctions for violations of Interpol's rules; strengthen cooperation with NGOs, the UN, OSCE, the PACE and the European Parliament. [91]

Fair Trials International proposed to create effective remedies for individuals who are wanted under a Red Notice on unfair charges; to penalize nations which frequently abuse the Interpol system; to ensure more transparency of Interpol's work. [92]

The Centre for Peace Studies also created recommendations for Interpol, in particular to delete Red Notices and Diffusions for people who were granted refugee status according to 1951 Refugee Convention issued by their countries of origin, and to establish an independent body to review Red Notices on a regular basis. [47]

Emblem

INTERPOL Emblem INTERPOL Logo.svg
INTERPOL Emblem

The current emblem of Interpol was adopted in 1950 and includes the following elements: [4]

Members

Membership as of March 2018, with acceptance date [93]

Sub-bureaus

UN member states without membership

Partially recognized states and entities without membership or sub-bureau status

Unrecognized states without membership or sub-bureau status

Offices

In addition to its General Secretariat headquarters in Lyon, Interpol maintains seven regional bureaus: [1]

Interpol's Command and Coordination Centres offer a 24/7 point of contact for national police forces seeking urgent information or facing a crisis. The original is in Lyon with a second in Buenos Aires added in September 2011. A third was opened in Singapore in September 2014. [94]

Interpol opened a Special Representative Office to the United Nations in New York in 2004 [95] and to the European Union in Brussels in 2009. [96]

The organization has constructed the Interpol Global Complex for Innovation (IGCI) in Singapore to act as its research and development facility, and a place of cooperation on digital crimes investigations. It was officially opened in April 2015, but had already become active beforehand. Most notably, a worldwide takedown of the SIMDA botnet infrastructure was coordinated and executed from IGCI's Cyber Fusion Centre in the weeks before the opening, as was revealed at the launch event. [97]

Secretaries-general and presidents

Secretaries-general since organization's inception in 1923:

Secretaries-generalTook officeLeft officeTime in officeNationality
1
No image available (photo).jpg
Dressler, Oskar Oskar Dressler 1923194622–23 yearsFlag of Austria.svg  Austria
2
No image available (photo).jpg
Ducloux, Louis Louis Ducloux 194619514–5 yearsFlag of France.svg  France
3
No image available (photo).jpg
Sicot, Marcel Marcel Sicot 1951196311–12 yearsFlag of France.svg  France
4
No image available (photo).jpg
Népote, Jean Jean Népote 196326 October 197814–15 yearsFlag of France.svg  France
5
No image available (photo).jpg
Bossard, André André Bossard October 1978October 19857 yearsFlag of France.svg  France
6
No image available (photo).jpg
Kendall, Raymond Raymond Kendall
(born 1933)
October 19852 October 200015 yearsFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  UK
7
Ronald K. Noble - Cartagena, Colombia 2013.jpg
Noble, Ronald Ronald Noble
(born 1956)
3 November 20007 November 201414 yearsFlag of the United States.svg  USA
8
Jurgen Stock - 2015 (cropped).jpg
Stock, Jürgen Jürgen Stock
(born 1959)
7 November 2014Incumbent4 yearsFlag of Germany.svg  Germany

Presidents since organization's inception in 1923:

Country of originNameIn office
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Johann Schober 1923–1932
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Franz Brandl 1932–1934
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Eugen Seydel 1934–1935
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Michael Skubl 1935–1938
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany Otto Steinhäusl 1938–1940
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany Reinhard Heydrich 1940–1942
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany Arthur Nebe 1942–1943
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany Ernst Kaltenbrunner 1943–1945
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Florent Louwage 1945–1956
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Agostinho Lourenço 1956–1960
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Sir Richard Jackson 1960–1963
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Fjalar Jarva 1963–1964
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Firmin Franssen 1964–1968
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany Paul Dickopf 1968–1972
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada William Leonard Higgitt 1972–1976
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Carl Persson 1976–1980
Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Philippines Jolly Bugarin 1980–1984
Flag of the United States.svg  United States John Simpson 1984–1988
Flag of France.svg  France Ivan Barbot 1988–1992
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Norman Inkster 1992–1994
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Björn Eriksson 1994–1996
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Toshinori Kanemoto 1996–2000
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Jesús Espigares Mira 2000–2004
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Jackie Selebi 2004–2008
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Arturo Herrera Verdugo 2008 (acting)
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Khoo Boon Hui 2008–2012
Flag of France.svg  France Mireille Ballestrazzi 2012–2016
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Meng Hongwei 2016–2018
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Kim Jong Yang 2018–present

See also

Notes

  1. Taiwan was an Interpol member as the Republic of China until 1984, when it was replaced by the People's Republic of China. Taiwan was offered an option to continue as China's sub-bureau under name "Taiwan, China", but as this could imply that Taiwan was part of the People's Republic of China, it refused and withdrew from the organization.

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The Berkut was the Ukrainian system of special police of the Ukrainian Militsiya within the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The agency was formed in 1992, shortly after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, as the successor to the Ukrainian SSR's OMON.

2010 Ukrainian presidential election election

The Ukrainian presidential election of 2010 was Ukraine's fifth presidential election since declaring independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The first round was held on January 17, 2010. The run-off between Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko and opposition leader Viktor Yanukovych followed on February 7, 2010.

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Law enforcement in Azerbaijan comes under the control of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan, which administers the National Police of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Admitted to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) on 30 January 1992, with an OSCE office opening in Baku on 16 November 1999, and as a member of INTERPOL, the National police force is well integrated into the law enforcement network of European countries.

Human rights in Ukraine is a highly contested topic and in 2018 Ukraine was labeled as "Partly Free" by organizations such as Freedom House.

Udayanga Weeratunga is a Sri Lankan businessman who is the former Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka to the Russian Federation. Weeratunga is a first cousin of Mahinda Rajapaksa, who is the former President of Sri Lanka and he presented his Letter of Credence to then-President of Russia Vladimir Putin on 16 November 2006.

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2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine Unrest in Ukraine in the aftermath of the Euromaidan movement.

From the end of February 2014, demonstrations by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in major cities across the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, in the aftermath of the Euromaidan movement and the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. During the first stage of the unrest, Crimea was annexed by the Russian Federation after a Russian military intervention, and an internationally criticized Crimean referendum. Protests in Donetsk and Luhansk regions (oblasts) escalated into an armed pro-Russian separatist insurgency. From late 2014, cities outside of the Donbass combat zone, such as Kharkiv, Odessa, Kiev and Mariupol, were struck by bombings that targeted pro-Ukrainian unity organizations. To maintain control over southeastern territories Ukraine's government started "antiterrorist operation" (ATO) sending armed forces to suppress separatists. Armed conflict between Ukraine's government forces and pro-Russian rebels is known as War in Donbass.

War in Donbass armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine

The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine. From the beginning of March 2014, protests by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, commonly collectively called the "Donbass", in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and the Euromaidan movement. These demonstrations, which followed the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, and which were part of a wider group of concurrent pro-Russian protests across southern and eastern Ukraine, escalated into an armed conflict between the separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics, and the Ukrainian government. In the Donetsk People's Republic, from May 2014 until a change of the top leadership in August 2014, some of the top leaders were Russian citizens. According to the Ukrainian government, at the height of the conflict in mid-2014, Russian paramilitaries were reported to make up between 15% to 80% of the combatants.

Luhansk Peoples Republic political entity without international recognition

The Luhansk People's Republic, also known as Lugansk People's Republic, usually abbreviated as LPR or LNR, is a landlocked proto-state in the Donbass region, in eastern Ukraine. Along with the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), the LPR declared independence from Ukraine in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. An armed conflict with Ukraine followed its declaration of independence, during which the LPR and DPR received military and humanitarian assistance from Russia. This conflict is still ongoing as of April 2019. LPR remains unrecognized by any UN member state, including Russia—although Russia recognizes documents issued by the LPR government, such as identity documents, diplomas, birth and marriage certificates and vehicle registration plates.

During the ongoing war between Ukrainian government forces and pro-Russian separatist insurgents in the Donbass region of Ukraine that began in April 2014, many international organisations and states noted a deteriorating humanitarian situation in the conflict zone.

Kim Jong Yang is a South Korean police officer who is the current President of Interpol.

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Further reading

Coordinates: 45°46′56″N4°50′54″E / 45.7822°N 4.8484°E / 45.7822; 4.8484