Interstate 94 in Michigan

Last updated

I-94.svg

Interstate 94
Route information
Maintained by MDOT
Length275.398 mi [1] (443.210 km)
Existed1959 [2] –present
Tourist
routes
Major junctions
West endI-94.svg I-94 near New Buffalo
 
East endOntario 402 crown.svg Highway 402 at Port Huron
Location
Counties Berrien, Van Buren, Kalamazoo, Calhoun, Jackson, Washtenaw, Wayne, Macomb, St. Clair
Highway system
M-93.svg M-93 M-94 M-94.svg
US 112 Michigan 1948.svg US 112 M-112 M-113 M-113.svg

Interstate 94 (I-94) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Billings, Montana, to the Lower Peninsula of the US state of Michigan. In Michigan, it is a state trunkline highway that enters the state south of New Buffalo and runs eastward through several metropolitan areas in the southern section of the state. The highway serves Benton HarborSt. Joseph near Lake Michigan before turning inland toward Kalamazoo and Battle Creek on the west side of the peninsula. Heading farther east, I-94 passes through rural areas in the middle of the southern Lower Peninsula, crossing I-69 in the process. I-94 then runs through Jackson, Ann Arbor, and portions of Metro Detroit, connecting Michigan's largest city to its main airport. Past the east side of Detroit, the Interstate angles northeasterly through farmlands in The Thumb to Port Huron, where the designation terminates on the Blue Water Bridge at the Canadian border.

Interstate Highway System United States highway system

The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States. Construction of the system was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956. The system extends throughout the contiguous United States and has routes in Hawaii, Alaska, and Puerto Rico.

Billings, Montana City in Montana, United States

Billings is the largest city in the U.S. state of Montana, with a population estimated at 109,642 as of 2017. Located in the south-central portion of the state, it is the seat of Yellowstone County and the principal city of the Billings Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 170,498. It has a trade area of over 500,000.

Lower Peninsula of Michigan Michigan in the United States

The Lower Peninsula of Michigan is the southern of the two major landmasses of the U.S. state of Michigan, the other being the Upper Peninsula. It is surrounded by water on all sides except its southern border, which it shares with Indiana and Ohio. Although the Upper Peninsula is commonly referred to as "the U.P." it is fairly uncommon for the Lower Peninsula to be called "the L.P."

Contents

The first segment of what later became I-94 within the state, the Willow Run Expressway, was built near Ypsilanti and Belleville in 1941, with an easterly extension to Detroit in 1945. This expressway was initially numbered M-112. In the mid-1950s, state and federal officials planned an Interstate to replace the original route of U.S. Highway 12 (US 12). By 1960, the length of I-94 was completed from Detroit to New Buffalo. Two years later, the US 12 designation was dropped from the freeway. Subsequent extensions in the 1960s completed most of the rest of the route, including the remaining sections between Detroit and Port Huron which superseded the routing of US 25. The last segment opened to the public in 1972 when Indiana completed its connection across the state line. Since completion, I-94 has remained relatively unchanged; a few interchanges have been rebuilt, a second span was constructed for the Blue Water Bridge, and in 1987, a plane crashed on the freeway during take off from the airport in Detroit. The routing of I-94 is notable for containing the first full freeway-to-freeway interchange in the United States, connecting to the Lodge Freeway (M-10), and for comprising the first complete border-to-border toll-free freeway in a state in the United States. The highway has one auxiliary route, I-194, which serves downtown Battle Creek, and eight business routes. Various segments have been dedicated to multiple people and places.

Ypsilanti, Michigan City in Michigan, United States

Ypsilanti, commonly shortened to Ypsi, is a city in Washtenaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan, perhaps best known as the home of Eastern Michigan University. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 21,018. The city is bounded to the north by Superior Township and on the west, south, and east by Ypsilanti Township. Ypsilanti is located 6 miles (10 km) east of Ann Arbor and about 18 miles (29 km) west of the Detroit city limits.

Belleville, Michigan City in Michigan

Belleville is a city in Wayne County in the State of Michigan. The population was 3,991 at the 2010 census. It is the sister city of Machynlleth, Wales. Belleville is 15 miles (24 km) southeast of Ann Arbor and 29 miles (47 km) southwest of Detroit.

US Highway 12 (US 12) is an east–west US Highway that runs from Aberdeen, Washington, to Detroit, Michigan. In Michigan it runs for 210 miles (338 km) between New Buffalo and Detroit as a state trunkline highway and Pure Michigan Byway. On its western end, the highway is mostly a two-lane road that runs through the southern tier of counties roughly parallel to the Indiana state line. It forms part of the Niles Bypass, a four-lane expressway south of Niles in the southwestern part of the state, and it runs concurrently with the Interstate 94 (I-94) freeway around the south side of Ypsilanti in the southeastern. In between Coldwater and the Ann Arbor area, the highway angles northeasterly and passes the Michigan International Speedway. East of Ypsilanti, US 12 follows a divided highway routing on Michigan Avenue into Detroit, where it terminates at an intersection with Cass Avenue.

Route description

The entire length of I-94 is listed on the National Highway System, [3] a network of roadways important to the country's economy, defense, and mobility. [4] The freeway carried 168,200 vehicles on average between I-75 and Chene Street in Detroit, which is the peak traffic count in 2015, and it carried 12,554 vehicles immediately west of the Blue Water Bridge in Port Huron, the lowest traffic count in 2015. [5] As the state trunkline highway closest to the lake shore in these areas, I-94 carries the Lake Michigan Circle Tour south of Benton HarborSt. Joseph and the Lake Huron Circle Tour in the Port Huron area. [6] Sections through the Detroit area are named the Detroit Industrial and Edsel Ford freeways. I-94 in the state is either a four- or six-lane freeway for most of its length; one segment in the Detroit area has up to ten lanes total near the airport. [7]

National Highway System (United States) highway system in the United States

The National Highway System (NHS) is a network of strategic highways within the United States, including the Interstate Highway System and other roads serving major airports, ports, rail or truck terminals, railway stations, pipeline terminals and other strategic transport facilities. Altogether, it constitutes the largest highway system in the world.

Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used primarily in transportation planning, transportation engineering and retail location selection. Traditionally, it is the total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a simple, but useful, measurement of how busy the road is. Newer advances from GPS traffic data providers are now providing AADT counts by side of the road, by day of week and by time of day.

Interstate 75 (I-75) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs north–south from Miami, Florida, to Sault Ste. Marie in the Upper Peninsula of the US state of Michigan. I-75 enters the state from Ohio in the south, north of Toledo and runs generally northward through Detroit, Pontiac and Bay City, crosses the Mackinac Bridge, and ends at the Canadian border in Sault Ste. Marie. The freeway runs for approximately 396 miles (637 km) on both of Michigan's major peninsulas. The landscapes traversed by I-75 include Southern Michigan farmland, northern forests, suburban bedroom communities, and the urban core of Detroit. The freeway also uses three of the state's monumental bridges to cross major bodies of water. There are four auxiliary Interstates in the state related to I-75, as well as nine current or former business routes, with either Business Loop I-75 or Business Spur I-75 designations.

Southwestern Michigan

I-94 enters Michigan from Indiana south of New Buffalo. The freeway runs northeasterly through rural Michiana farmland in the southwestern corner of the Lower Peninsula and parallels the Lake Michigan shoreline about three miles (4.8 km) inland. I-94 traverses an area just east of the Warren Dunes State Park as the freeway runs parallel to the Red Arrow Highway, [6] [7] a former routing of US Highway 12 (US 12) named after the 32nd Infantry Division (Red Arrow Division). [8] The freeway crosses its companion highway south of St. Joseph; Red Arrow turns northward carrying the business loop for Benton Harbor and St. Joseph (Business Loop I-94, BL I-94). The Interstate curves further inland to bridge the St. Joseph River near Riverview Park. East of Benton Harbor, I-94 meets the Napier Avenue interchange, where US 31 merges onto the freeway. East of the Southwest Michigan Regional Airport, I-94/US 31 meets the southern end of I-196; US 31 departs the I-94 freeway to follow I-196, and I-94 continues its course away from Lake Michigan. [6] [7]

Michiana geographic region in Indiana and Michigan, United States

Michiana is a region in northern Indiana and southwestern Michigan centered on the city of South Bend, Indiana. The Chamber of Commerce of St. Joseph County, Indiana defines Michiana as St. Joseph County and "counties that contribute at least 500 inbound commuting workers to St. Joseph County daily." Those counties include Elkhart, La Porte, Marshall, St. Joseph, and Starke in Indiana, and Berrien and Cass in Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population of those seven counties was 856,377.

Warren Dunes State Park state park of a state of the United States

Warren Dunes State Park is a 1,952-acre (7.90 km2) Michigan state park, located along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan in Berrien County. The park's large sand dunes and lakeshore beaches make it one of the most popular of Michigan’s state parks with an average of about one million visitors annually.

32nd Infantry Division (United States) combat formation of the United States Army

The United States 32nd Infantry Division was formed from Army National Guard units from Wisconsin and Michigan and fought primarily during World War I and World War II. With roots as the Iron Brigade in the American Civil War, the division's ancestral units came to be referred to as the Iron Jaw Division. During tough combat in France in World War I, it soon acquired from the French the nickname Les Terribles, referring to its fortitude in advancing over terrain others could not. It was the first allied division to pierce the German Hindenburg Line of defense, and the 32nd then adopted its shoulder patch; a line shot through with a red arrow, to signify its tenacity in piercing the enemy line. It then became known as the Red Arrow Division.

I-94 at Park Road near Coloma Non Interchange Signage with Mileage Signage.jpg
I-94 at Park Road near Coloma

South of Coloma, the trunkline turns eastward and roughly follows the Paw Paw River on a course that takes it south of Watervliet and Hartford. Between the latter two cities, the freeway transitions from northeastern Berrien County into western Van Buren County. It curves around and between Lake Cora and Threemile Lake near the junction with the northern end of M-51. About four miles (6.4 km) further east, I-94 crosses M-40 south of Paw Paw. Continuing eastward, the Interstate runs through Mattawan before entering western Kalamazoo County. [6] [7]

Coloma, Michigan City in Michigan, United States

Coloma is a city in Berrien County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,483 at the 2010 census.

Paw Paw River river in Michigan

The Paw Paw River is located in the U.S. state of Michigan in the southwest portion of the lower peninsula. It is formed by the confluence of the north and south branches at 42°15′17″N85°55′36″W in Waverly Township in the northeast of Van Buren County. It flows approximately 61.8 miles (99.5 km) through Van Buren County and Berrien County until joining the St. Joseph River just above its mouth on Lake Michigan at Benton Harbor.

Watervliet, Michigan City in Michigan, United States

Watervliet is a city in northeastern Berrien County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,735 at the 2010 census, down from 1,843 at the 2000 census. Mostly a rural farming community, the name comes from the Dutch for "where the waters meet." The city is surrounded by Watervliet Charter Township but is administered autonomously.

In Texas Township, the freeway enters the western edges of the Kalamazoo suburbs. South of the campus for Western Michigan University's College of Engineering & Applied Sciences in Portage, I-94 intersects US 131. Near the Kalamazoo/Battle Creek International Airport, the Interstate passes into the southeastern corner of Kalamazoo before entering Comstock Township. The freeway intersects the eastern end of Business Spur I-94 (BS I-94) at a partial interchange near Morrow Lake in the township. I-94 continues out of the eastern Kalamazoo suburbs, paralleling the Kalamazoo River through the Galesburg area. [6] [7] Before crossing into Calhoun County on the west side of Battle Creek, [1] I-94 has the only driveway on any of Michigan's Interstate Highways for a gate providing access for military vehicles into the Fort Custer Training Center. [9]

Western Michigan University public university located in Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States

Western Michigan University (WMU) is a public research university in Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States. The university was established in 1903 by Dwight B. Waldo. Its enrollment, as of the Fall 2016 semester, was 23,252.

Portage, Michigan City in Michigan, United States

Portage is a city in Kalamazoo County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 46,292 in the 2010 census. It is the smaller of the two main cities included in the Kalamazoo-Portage Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 326,589 as of 2010.

US Highway 131 (US 131) is a north–south United States Highway, of which all but 0.64 of its 269.96 miles are within the state of Michigan. The highway starts in rural Indiana south of the state line as a state road connection to the Indiana Toll Road. As the road crosses into Michigan it becomes a state trunkline highway that connects to the metropolitan areas of Kalamazoo and Grand Rapids before continuing north to its terminus at Petoskey. US 131 runs as a freeway from south of Portage through to Manton in the north. Part of this freeway runs concurrently with Interstate 296 (I-296) as an unsigned designation through Grand Rapids. US 131 forms an important corridor along the western side of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, running through rural farm and forest lands as well as urban cityscapes. Various names have been applied to the roadway over the years. The oldest, the Mackinaw Trail, originated from an Indian trail in the area while other names honored politicians. An attempt to dedicate the highway to poet James Whitcomb Riley failed to gain official support in Michigan.

The Interstate enters Calhoun County southwest of the W. K. Kellogg Airport and enters the city of Battle Creek. Immediately east of the county line, the freeway has an interchange with the western end of Battle Creek's business loop. Next to the Lakeview Square Mall, I-94 meets its only auxiliary Interstate in Michigan: I-194. I-94 turns to the northwest to round Beadle Lake, intersecting M-294 before spanning the Kalamazoo River. East of the river crossing, the freeway meets an interchange for M-96, M-311 and the eastern end of the Battle Creek business loop near the FireKeepers Casino Hotel in Emmett Township. Turning back eastward, The Interstate exits the eastern Battle Creek suburbs and continues to an interchange with I-69 near Marshall; the business loop for Marshall follows I-69 southward. [6] [7]

Into Metro Detroit

Continuing eastward, I-94 traverses rural land on the north side of Marshall. The freeway runs north of, and parallel to, the Kalamazoo River through eastern Calhoun County. It angles southeasterly toward Albion before returning to an easterly course on the north side of town. I-94 crosses into western Jackson County before intersecting M-99. From there, it runs generally due east with a jog around Parma. West of the county airport, the Jackson business loop follows M-60 southward, and I-94 travels through the north side of Jackson. North of downtown, US 127 merges in from the north and runs concurrently with I-94 around the city. Southeast of the Michigan State Prison, US 127 departs to the south, and I-94 continues eastward through the rest of the county. [6] [7]

US 23 interchange in Pittsfield Township Interstate 94 & U.S. 23 interchange.JPG
US 23 interchange in Pittsfield Township

The freeway runs north of the Chrysler Chelsea Proving Grounds in Chelsea next to the M-52 interchange. As I-94 continues easterly, it passes into the western edge of the Ann Arbor area. West of downtown, the M-14 freeway splits off to the northeast, and the Interstate turns to the south and southeast to curve around the south side of the city. The freeway passes between the Briarwood Mall and the Ann Arbor Municipal Airport. On the southeastern corner of Ann Arbor, I-94 intersects US 23 and continues around the south side of Ypsilanti. South of that city, the freeway also carries US 12 and crosses the Huron River north of the river's mouth at Ford Lake. I-94 jogs southeasterly around the south side of the Willow Run Airport complex, separating from US 12 and entering Wayne County. [6] [7]

I-94 as seen from the air near Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport Interstate 94 Landing at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County International Airport, Romulus, Michigan (14017169320).jpg
I-94 as seen from the air near Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport

South of Willow Run, the Interstate parallels the north shore of Belleville Lake. East of the water body, it intersects I-275 near the northwest corner of Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport and angles northeasterly through the southwestern Detroit suburbs along the Detroit Industrial Freeway. I-94 uses the Gateway Bridge over the single-point interchange at US 24 (Telegraph Road) in Taylor; [6] [7] these bridges were inspired by Super Bowl XL and provide a western entrance to the city. [10] Further east, the Interstate intersects M-39 (Southfield Freeway) and passes the Uniroyal Giant Tire in Allen Park. I-94 then turns to the northeast through the Ford River Rouge Complex in Dearborn before turning back easterly on the Edsel Ford Freeway into Detroit. [6] [7]

I-94 traverses Detroit in an east–west direction well inland of, and parallel to, the Detroit River. The freeway intersects I-96 (Jeffries Freeway) and M-10 (Lodge Freeway) on the West Side, passing the main campus of Wayne State University before entering the East Side at M-1 (Woodward Avenue). Immediately east of the interchange with I-75 (Chrysler Freeway), I-94 forms the southern border of the Milwaukee Junction district. The Edsel Ford Freeway continues through residential neighborhoods of Detroit's East Side. The Interstate turns more northerly, mimicking the shoreline of Lake St. Clair, and exits Detroit for Harper Woods. Just north of the interchange for M-102 (Vernier Road), the freeway crosses 8 Mile Road and enters Macomb County. [6] [7]

North to Canada

Running northward through Macomb County, I-94 meets the eastern end of I-696 (Reuther Freeway) about three miles (4.8 km) north of the county line in St. Clair Shores. The freeway continues to parallel the lakeshore, and travels to the west of Selfridge Air National Guard Base in Harrison Township. It turns back to the northeast at 23 Mile Road at the interchange with M-3 and M-29. North of 26 Mile Road, the freeway exits the northern suburbs and passes into farmland in The Thumb region. [6] [7]

I-94 eastbound approaching exit 271 in Port Huron Interstate 94 MI at Exit 271.jpg
I-94 eastbound approaching exit 271 in Port Huron

South of Michigan Meadows Golf Course, I-94 crosses County Line Road and enters St. Clair County. The freeway continues northeasterly as far as Marysville before turning northward near the St. Clair County International Airport. From there, it runs roughly parallel to the St. Clair River. The Interstate travels along the western edge of residential areas for Marysville and Port Huron as it continues northward. Immediately west of downtown Port Huron, it intersects I-69; the two freeways merge and turn first east and then north through an interchange that also features connections to BL I-69. [6] [7]

I-94/I-69 turns back to the east about a mile (1.6 km) north of their confluence to span the Black River north of downtown. On the eastern bank of the river, there is one final interchange for M-25 and BL I-69/BL I-94 before the freeway reaches the toll and customs plazas for the twin-span Blue Water Bridge. Past these plazas, I-94/I-69 ascends the approach to the bridge which crosses the St. Clair River to Point Edward (Sarnia), Ontario. At the international boundary at the center of the river, the Interstate designations jointly terminate, becoming Ontario Highway 402. [6] [7]

History

Predecessor highways

Map of the pre-statehood Indian trails Michigan's Indian trails.png
Map of the pre-statehood Indian trails

The first major overland transportation corridors in the future state of Michigan were the Indian foot trails. [11] One of these, the St. Joseph Trail, followed the general route of the modern I-94 across the state from the Benton HarborSt. Joseph area east to the Ann Arbor area. [12] The State Trunkline Highway System was created on May 13, 1913, by an act of the Michigan Legislature; at the time, Division 6 corresponded to the rough path of today's I-94. [13] In 1919, the Michigan State Highway Department (MSHD) [lower-alpha 1] signposted the highway system for the first time, [16] and three different highways followed sections of the modern I-94 corridor. The original M-11 ran from the Indiana state line north to Coloma where M-17 connected easterly to Detroit. The third highway was M-19 from Detroit northeast to Port Huron. [17]

On November 11, 1926, the United States Numbered Highway System was approved by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), [18] [lower-alpha 2] and the original route of US 12 [lower-alpha 3] replaced the highways from the state line northeasterly to Detroit; US 31 overlapped the highway between St. Joseph and Watervliet. The remainder of the future I-94 corridor was served by US 25 between Detroit and Port Huron. [20] The first span of the Blue Water Bridge opened between Port Huron and Point Edward, Ontario, in 1938. [21]

Early conversions to freeways

M-112 1948.svg

M-112
Location YpsilantiDetroit
ExistedSeptember 12, 1942 [22] –Mid-1956 [23] [24]

The first segments of upgraded highways along the future route of I-94 were added during World War II. Construction on the Willow Run Expressway started in 1941 before the US entered the war. It was opened on September 12, 1942, to provide improved access to Ford's Willow Run bomber plants. [22] The highway was given the M-112 designation at the time. [25] The expressway was extended eastward as the Detroit Industrial Expressway into Detroit; the first section opened in 1943 and the remainder was completed in March 1945. [22] Land acquisition for the Edsel Ford Freeway started in 1945. Originally referred to as the Crosstown Freeway, the freeway became known as the Edsel Ford Freeway following an April 1946 petition. [26] The interchange between the Lodge Freeway and the Edsel Ford Freeway was built in 1953 as the first full freeway-to-freeway interchange in the United States. [27] [28] In mid-1956, the M-112 designation was decommissioned and replaced by a rerouted US 12. [23] [24] During the mid-1950s, the Detroit Streets and Rails campaign proposed a high-speed rail line in the median of the Willow Run, Detroit Industrial and Edsel Ford freeways; instead of building the rail line, special boarding stations adjacent to dedicated bus lanes in the interchanges along the highway were used. [29]

In other parts of the state, other segments of highway were built to bypass the cities along the future I-94 corridor. In 1940, a southern bypass of Battle Creek opened along Columbia Avenue, and the former routing through downtown on Michigan Avenue became Business US 12 (Bus. US 12). [30] [31] In late 1951 or early 1952, a northerly bypass of Jackson opened, and the former route through downtown on Michigan Avenue became another Bus. US 12. [32] [33] By the next year, the western half of the Jackson bypass opened, including a bypass of Parma. [34] [35] In 1954, a new bypass of Kalamazoo and Galesburg opened; US 12 was rerouted to follow the new highway while M-96 replaced part of the old route and US 12A in the area. [36] [37]

The first planning maps from 1947 for what later became the Interstate Highway System included a highway along I-94's route in Michigan. [38] This highway was included on the 1955 plan for the "National System of Interstate and Defense Highways" with a proposed spur in the Battle Creek area. [39] The modern I-94 was numbered I-92 between Benton Harbor–St. Joseph and Detroit with I-77 from Detroit to Port Huron in the August 1957 plans. [40]

1958 planning map for Michigan's Interstate Highways Interstate Highway plan June 27, 1958 (MI).jpg
1958 planning map for Michigan's Interstate Highways

In April 1958, the MSHD wanted to provide a single number for a more direct routing of a Detroit–Chicago freeway; the state proposed rerouting I-94 to replace I-92 in the state, but retained the I-77 designation. [41] On June 27, 1958, AASHO adopted their original numbering plan for Michigan, minus the state's proposed changes. [42] Around the same time, a section of M-146 near Port Huron was converted into an approach freeway for the Blue Water Bridge. [43] [44]

Interstate Highway era

In January 1959, officials announced that sections of US 12, the Willow Run, Detroit Industrial and Edsel Ford expressways were to be given the I-94 designation, temporarily co-designated with US 12. These sections connected Ann Arbor to Detroit, along with a bypass of Kalamazoo to Galesburg and a bypass of Jackson. [45] Later that year, additional segments of I-94 were opened, starting with a 10-mile (16 km) section from Hartford to Coloma, then another from Paw Paw to Kalamazoo which connected with a segment between Galesburg to Battle Creek. The overall 45-mile (72 km) section from Paw Paw to Battle Creek was dedicated on December 7, 1959. [46] In addition, a new northwest–southeast section of freeway was built east of Ypsilanti to create a more gradual curve in the routing between present-day exits 185 and 186, [47] the original routing of the Willow Run Expressway having followed present-day Wiard Road. [48] Signage for the state's Interstate Highways was placed on hold pending finalization of the numbering scheme, [49] and by late 1959 that signage was being added starting with I-75 [50] and followed by the other open segments of freeway in the state. [2]

Sections of freeway opened in southwestern Michigan in 1960 between the Benton Harbor–St Joseph area and between Jackson and Ann Arbor; the latter was built over existing portions of US 12. [44] In this year, Michigan became the first state to complete a border-to-border toll-free Interstate within their state, running for 205 miles (330 km) from Detroit toward New Buffalo, [51] creating the longest toll-free freeway in the country at the time. [52]

In January 1962, the US 12 designation was removed from the I-94 freeway. In the process, the designation was transferred to replace the US 112 designation in its entirety. [53] After this transfer, I-94 was no longer concurrent with US 12, except for the Ypsilanti bypass. [54] In 1963, the freeway was extended south of New Buffalo to end at M-239. Traffic was diverted down M-239 into Indiana where State Road 39 carried traffic the rest of the way to the Indiana Toll Road. [55] By the end of the year, a section of highway opened between Mount Clemens and Marysville, and US 25 was rerouted to run concurrently along the freeway from the New Baltimore area northward. [56] [57]

A landmark along I-94 in Allen Park, the Uniroyal Giant Tire was installed there in 1966. Uniroyal tire1.jpg
A landmark along I-94 in Allen Park, the Uniroyal Giant Tire was installed there in 1966.

The eastern terminus of I-94 in the Port Huron area was dedicated on October 14, 1964, signaling the completion of the highway between Marysville and the Blue Water Bridge. [59] This completion displaced part of the M-146 bypass of Port Huron, the southern leg of which was retained as a connector to present-day Lapeer Road. [60] Two years later, the gap between the Wayne–Macomb county line and the end of the freeway near Mount Clemens was filled in when another section of freeway opened. [61] [62] In late 1964, a plan was approved to improve the interchange with Telegraph Road (US 24), as the original interchange did not feature access in all directions. [63] North of Albion, the route of the freeway previously crossed a branch of the New York Central Railroad at-grade; the crossing was eliminated when the tracks were removed in 1968. [64]

The sections originally designated as the Willow Run Expressway were rebuilt from Rawsonville Road in Belleville to Ozga Road in Romulus starting in 1972. As part of this reconstruction, the segment between Haggerty Road and Ozga Road was widened from four to six lanes, and the eastbound lanes were realigned to facilitate construction of an interchange with I-275, a western bypass of Detroit which was under construction at the time. The Willow Run segment was also resurfaced at this point, as the old road bed did not contain steel mesh. [22] Construction of this interchange also obliterated a partial interchange with Huron River Drive. [65] [66]

The final section of I-94 in Michigan opened to traffic on November 2, 1972, when the connection across the state line into Indiana was dedicated. This last segment in Michigan between M-239 and the state line opened when Indiana completed an 18-mile (29 km) segment of freeway in their state. [67]

Since completion

The interchange with the Southfield Freeway (M-39) was closed entirely in 1985 to replace the original exit design, which included four on-ramps that sharply merged into the left lanes of I-94. Reconstruction added new on-ramps that merge into the freeway's right lane, while also moving the carriageways of I-94 closer together. [68]

Aftermath of the Flight 255 crash, N312RC's debris field scattered along Middlebelt Road at I-94 in Romulus NW255 crashsite.jpg
Aftermath of the Flight 255 crash, N312RC's debris field scattered along Middlebelt Road at I-94 in Romulus

On August 16, 1987, Northwest Airlines Flight 255 crashed after attempting to take off from Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, killing all but one passenger upon exploding at the I-94 overpass over Middlebelt Road; [69] that overpass was not damaged in the crash. [70] The freeway was closed until August 18, [71] and a memorial was later installed near the interchange between I-94 and Middlebelt Road. [72]

The completion of I-69 in the 1980s, and the approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement, increased traffic at the Blue Water Bridge. A new toll and customs plaza was built in 1991, [73] and later the next year, an international task force determined that traffic on the existing structure was exceeding capacity. Environmental planning started in 1993, and construction started on the second span between Port Huron and Point Edward, Ontario in 1995. [74] In July 1997, the second span opened. [75] The original span was closed for rehabilitation, and both were opened to traffic in 1999. [74]

The interchange with US 24 (Telegraph Road) following its mid-1960s redesign had only two bridges, and left hand exits were used throughout. [76] This interchange was reconfigured in 2005 to a single-point urban interchange (SPUI) design that was completed in December of that year. [77] A pair of bridges called the Gateway Arch Bridges (alternately "Gateway to Detroit" [78] ) was incorporated in the new interchange. [79]

In 2011, construction was started to widen I-94/I-69 approaching the Blue Water Bridge and to allow for dedicated local traffic and bridge traffic lanes. [80] The lane configuration changes confused drivers in the area, especially motorists with outdated GPS devices; [81] because of this, MDOT installed updated signs complete with American and Canadian flags to help prevent drivers from heading to Canada by mistake. [82]

Additional construction in the Port Huron area started in late 2013 to rebuild and reconfigure the I-94/I-69 interchange outside the city. The project improved 3.7 miles (6.0 km) of freeway, replaced several bridges and ramps and cost $76 million (equivalent to $82.4 million in 2018 [83] ). In June 2014, MDOT closed the ramps from I-69 eastbound to BL I-69 through the interchange until later in the year. [84] The project was completed in September 2015. [85]

In 2016, the sections of I-94 from the Indiana state line to the M-63 interchange was designated as part of the West Michigan Pike Pure Michigan Byway. [86] The West Michigan Pike originated in efforts in the 1910s to improve a highway along the western part of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and to increase tourism along the Lake Michigan shore. The auto trail was eventually superseded by US 12 and US 31 after the creation of the United States Numbered Highway System in 1926. [87]

MDOT announced in November 2018 that the stretch from I-96 to Conner Avenue within the Detroit city limits would undergo a complete reconstruction project in the 2020s. This project is slated to include new pavement and lighting, and the replacement of 67 bridges. [88]

Memorial highway names

Edsel Bryant Ford.jpg
James G. O'Hara.jpg
Sections of I-94 are named for businessman Edsel Ford (left) and Congressman James O'Hara (right).

As the original expressway through the center of Detroit was being planned in the 1940s, it was unofficially named the Harper–McGraw Expressway after the streets along which it was to run. There was some initial support to name it after Roy Chapin, the late president of the Hudson Motor Car Company and a former United States Secretary of Commerce under President Herbert Hoover. On April 23, 1946, the Detroit Common Council voted instead to name the highway after Edsel Ford, the son of Henry Ford and president of the Ford Motor Company from 1918 until his death in 1943. [89]

Two other original sections of I-94's predecessor highways in the Detroit area were given early names. The westernmost of these is the Willow Run Expressway, named for the Willow Run complex. The plants at Willow Run produced B-24 Liberator bombers for Ford Motor Company during World War II. [90] The second, the Detroit Industrial Expressway, continued the route of the Willow Run Expressway eastward into Detroit. Both highways were built to move workers from Detroit to the industrial plants at Willow Run during the war and were later incorporated into I-94 in the 1950s as part of a Detroit–Chicago highway. [91]

The section of I-94 northeast of Detroit was named after former Congressman James G. O'Hara by the Michigan Legislature. O'Hara was a World War II veteran who served in the United States House from 1959 until 1977. During his tenure in Congress, he procured federal funds for the construction of I-94 through his district. The first attempt to name the highway after him failed in 1991, but the honor was included in a budget bill passed in 1997. The section of I-94 was dedicated on October 16, 1998, after donors privately raised nearly $10,000 (equivalent to $14,664 in 2018 [83] ) to pay for the highway signs. [92]

A segment of I-94 in Battle Creek between the exits for Business Loop I-94 (BL I-94) and I-194 was named the 94th Combat Infantry Division Memorial Highway by the Michigan Legislature in 2002. The name honors the US Army's 94th Infantry Division, which was activated at the nearby Fort Custer in 1942 and served with distinction in the European theatre of World War II. Because the unit originated in Battle Creek, and its number matched that of the freeway, the Legislature added the designation by passing Public Act 305 of 2002. The name was dedicated in ceremonies at a rest stop along the section of I-94 on September 28, 2002. [93]

Another piece of I-94 in Calhoun County was designated in 2004 as part of the Underground Railroad Memorial Highway. [lower-alpha 4] Starting in 1990, the National Park Service started working to identify routes of the Underground Railroad. The Battle Creek area was active in the railroad during the Civil War, and the section of I-94 between exits 98 and 110 east of Battle Creek was included in the memorial designation. [94]

In June 2012, after a resolution passed by the Michigan Legislature was signed by Gov. Rick Snyder, a portion of I-94 in Taylor between Inkster and Pelham roads was named the "Auxiliary Lt. Dan Kromer Memorial Highway" after a 20-year veteran of the Taylor Police Department, who was killed in 2010 while helping motorists who had car trouble. [95]

Exit list

CountyLocationmi [1] kmExitDestinationsNotes
Berrien New Buffalo Township 0.0000.000I-94.svg I-94 west Gary, Chicago Indiana state line
1.4462.3271M-239.svg M-239 south (Harbor Country Drive) New Buffalo Northern terminus of M-239; New Buffalo signed eastbound only
3.556–
3.582
5.723–
5.765
4US 12.svgLake Michigan Circle Tour.svg US 12 / LMCT  Three Oaks, Niles, New Buffalo Signed as exits 4A (east) and 4B (west); Three Oaks signed eastbound only; western end of LMCT concurrency
New BuffaloChikaming township line6.23210.0296 Union Pier
Chikaming Township 12.01519.33612 Sawyer
Bridgman 15.56125.04316 Bridgman
Stevensville 21.52134.63522John Beers Road Stevensville Stevensville signed eastbound only
Lincoln Township 23.35837.59123Business Loop 94.svgLake Michigan Circle Tour.svg BL I-94 east (Red Arrow Highway) / LMCT  St. Joseph, Benton Harbor, Stevensville Eastern end of LMCT concurrency; BL I-94, Benton Harbor, and St. Joseph signed eastbound only; Stevensville and Red Arrow Highway signed westbound only; western terminus of BL I-94
St. Joseph Township 26.95743.38327M-63.svg M-63 (Niles Avenue)
Benton Township 28.25345.46928M-139.svg M-139 (Scottdale Road)
29.49647.46929Pipestone Road
30.40848.93730US 31.svg US 31 south (Napier Avenue)Western end of US 31 concurrency
32.59252.45233Business Loop 94.svg BL I-94  Downtown Benton Harbor, St. Joseph No eastbound exit; eastern terminus of BL I-94
34.144–
34.167
54.949–
54.986
34I-196.svgUS 31.svg I-196 north / US 31 north South Haven, Holland, Grand Rapids Eastern end of US 31 concurrency; southern terminus of I-196; signs westbound omit Grand Rapids; signs eastbound omit South Haven
Coloma Township 38.52862.00539 Millburg, Coloma
Watervliet Township 40.76265.60041M-140.svg M-140  Watervliet, Niles
Van Buren Hartford Township 45.76373.64846 Hartford
Lawrence Township 51.73083.25152 Lawrence
Paw Paw Township 56.28190.57556M-51.svg M-51  Decatur, Dowagiac Northern terminus of M-51
Paw Paw 59.95896.49360M-40.svg M-40  Paw Paw, Lawton
Mattawan 65.826105.93766 Mattawan
Kalamazoo Texas Township 71.592115.216729th Street Oshtemo
Portage 73.591–
73.649
118.433–
118.527
74US 131.svg US 131  Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Three Rivers Signed as exits 74A (south) and 74B (north); Kalamazoo signed eastbound only; exit 34 on US 131
74.845120.45175Oakland Drive
76.106122.48176Westnedge Avenue
Kalamazoo 77.753125.13178Portage Road, Kilgore Road
KalamazooComstock Township line79.576128.06580Sprinkle Road, Cork Street
Comstock Township 80.911130.21481Business Spur 94.svg BS I-94 west Downtown Kalamazoo Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; eastern terminus of BS I-94
85.103136.9608535th Street Augusta, Galesburg Galesburg and Augusta signed eastbound only; 35th Street signed westbound only
Charleston Township 87.945141.53488 Climax, Galesburg Climax signed eastbound only; Galesburg signed westbound only
91.887147.878Access Gate to Fort Custer Training Center At-grade intersection for military vehicles only; only driveway on an Interstate Highway in Michigan [9]
Calhoun Battle Creek 92.055148.14892Business Loop 94.svgM-37.svg BL I-94 east / M-37  Springfield, Battle Creek, Augusta, Climax BL I-94, Battle Creek, and Springfield signed eastbound only; Augusta and Climax signed westbound only; western terminus of BL I-94; southern terminus of M-37
95.082153.02095Helmer Road Springfield Signs eastbound omit Springfield
97.116156.29397Capital Avenue
Battle CreekEmmett Township line98.239–
98.269
158.100–
158.149
98I-194.svgM-66.svg I-194 north / M-66  Sturgis, Downtown Battle Creek Signed as exits 98A (south, M-66) and 98B (north, I-194/M-66); southern terminus of I-194; exit 1 on I-194
Emmett Township 99.748160.529100M-294.svg M-294 (Beadle Lake Road)Southern terminus of M-294
103.629166.775103Business Loop 94.svgM-96.svg BL I-94 / M-96  Battle Creek Former partial interchange with westbound exit to westbound M-96 and eastbound entrance from eastbound M-96 only; permanently closed in 2009 [96]
103.829167.097104Business Loop 94.svgM-96.svgM-311.svg BL I-94 / M-96 (Michigan Avenue) / M-311 south (11 Mile Road)Signs eastbound omit BL I-94; eastern terminus of BL I-94; northern terminus of M-311
Marshall Township 108.175–
108.198
174.091–
174.128
108I-69.svg I-69  Ft. Wayne, Lansing Western terminus of BL I-94; exit 38 on I-69
Marshall 109.879176.833110Old 27Former US 27
Marengo Township 111.997180.242112Business Loop 94.svg BL I-94 west (Partello Road) Marshall Partello Road signed eastbound only; BL I-94 and Marshall signed westbound only; eastern terminus of BL I-94
115.359185.6521152212 Mile Road
Sheridan Township 118.552190.791119M-199.svg M-199 (26 Mile Road)Western terminus of M-199
Albion 121.364195.316121Business Loop 94.svg BL I-94 east (28 Mile Road) Albion BL I-94 and Albion signed eastbound only; 28 Mile Road signed westbound only; western terminus of BL I-94
Jackson Parma Township 123.830199.285124Business Loop 94.svgM-99.svg BL I-94 west / M-99  Albion, Eaton Rapids Signs eastbound omit BL I-94 and Albion; eastern terminus of BL I-94
126.872204.181127Concord Road
ParmaSandstone township line128.417206.667128 Michigan Avenue
Sandstone Township 129.498208.407130Parma Road
132.633213.452133Dearing Road Spring Arbor Spring Arbor signed eastbound only
Blackman Township 135.785–
135.804
218.525–
218.555
136M-60.svgBusiness Loop 94.svg M-60 west / BL I-94 east Jackson, Spring Arbor Signs westbound omit Jackson; signs eastbound omit Spring Arbor; western terminus of BL I-94; eastern terminus of M-60
137.035220.536137Airport Road
138.393222.722138US 127.svgM-50.svg US 127 north / M-50  Lansing, Jackson Western end of US 127 concurrency; western terminus of Bus. US 127; exit 43 on US 127
139.008223.712Lansing AvenueFormer interchange removed in 1962 [97] [98]
139.589224.647139M-106.svg M-106 (Cooper Street) Downtown Jackson
140.615226.298141Elm Road
141.617227.910Dettman RoadFormer eastbound exit and westbound entrance; removed in 1962 [97] [98]
Leoni Township 141.926–
141.938
228.408–
228.427
142US 127.svg US 127 south Hudson Eastern end of US 127 concurrency; exit 40 on US 127
143.849231.503144Business Loop 94.svg BL I-94 west Jackson Partial interchange that had served Ann Arbor Road with westbound exit and eastbound entrance; exit removed in 2012 [99] [100]
144.537232.610145Business Loop 94.svg BL I-94 west / Sargent Road Jackson Signs eastbound omit BL I-94 and Jackson; eastern terminus of BL I-94
147.200236.895147Race RoadEastbound entrance via Ann Arbor Road
Grass Lake Township 150.061241.500150Mt. Hope Road Grass Lake
153.157246.482153Clear Lake Road
Washtenaw Sylvan Township 155.822250.771156Kalmbach Road
157.237253.048157Old US 12, Pierce Road
Chelsea 159.410256.546159M-52.svg M-52  Chelsea, Manchester
Lima Township 162.139260.937162Old US 12, Jackson Road
Scio Township 167.072268.876167Baker Road Dexter
169.213272.322169Zeeb Road
171.001275.199171M-14.svg M-14 east Plymouth Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; western terminus of M-14
Ann Arbor 172.168277.078172Business Loop 94.svg BL I-94 east (Jackson Avenue) Ann Arbor Signs westbound omit BL I-94; western terminus of BL I-94; no access from eastbound I-94 to westbound Jackson Avenue
175.081281.766175Ann Arbor–Saline Road
176.548284.126177State Street
Pittsfield Township 179.522–
179.540
288.913–
288.942
180US 23.svgBusiness Loop 94.svg US 23 / BL I-94 west Ann Arbor, Flint, Toledo Signed as exits 180A (south, US 23) and 180B (north, US 23/BL I-94); signs eastbound omit BL I-94; eastern terminus of BL I-94; eastbound exit uses collector-distributor lanes; Flint signed eastbound only, Ann Arbor signed westbound only; exit 35 on US 23
179.792289.347US 23 Michigan 1948.svg US 23 (Carpenter Road)Original routing of US 23; [48] was a four-ramp partial cloverleaf interchange that was obliterated when current US 23 exit was built in 1962 [101] [102]
181.265291.718181US 12.svg US 12 west (Michigan Avenue) Saline, Ypsilanti Western end of US 12 concurrency; signed as exits 181A (west) and 181B (east) westbound; Ypsilanti signed eastbound only, Saline signed westbound only
Ypsilanti 183.084294.645183Business plate.svg
US 12.svg Bus. US 12 east (Huron Street) Downtown Ypsilanti
Western terminus of BUS US 12
183.986296.097184Grove StreetExit was removed in 1967; was a complete interchange with westbound access via right-in/right-out to Emerick Street [103] [104]
Ypsilanti Township 185.023297.766185US 12.svg US 12 east (Michigan Avenue) Willow Run Airport Eastern end of US 12 concurrency; eastbound exit and westbound entrance
186.227299.703186 Willow Run Airport Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
187.129301.155187Rawsonville Road
Wayne Van Buren Township 190.240306.162190Belleville Road Belleville
192.572309.915192Haggerty RoadWest access to Lower Huron Metropark
193.368311.196193Huron River DriveExit removed in 1973; was an eastbound exit and westbound entrance via Northline Road [105] [106]
Romulus 193.978–
194.002
312.177–
312.216
194I-275.svg I-275  Flint, Toledo Signed as exits 194A (south) and 194B (north) eastbound; westbound exit uses collector-distributor lane; exit 17 on I-275
195.434314.521196Wayne Road Wayne
196.368316.024197Vining Road
197.804318.335198Airport Sign.svg Merriman Road Detroit Metro Airport Collector-distributor lanes connect with exit 199; signed as exits 198A (Metro Airport) and 198B (Merriman Road north) eastbound
198.548319.532199Middle Belt RoadConnected to exit 198
Taylor 200.317322.379200Ecorse Road Inkster Directional access from I-94 to Ecorse Road (eastbound to eastbound and westbound to westbound only); Inkster signed westbound only
202.002325.091202US 24.svg US 24 (Telegraph Road)
Allen Park 204.388–
204.399
328.931–
328.948
204M-39.svg M-39 (Southfield Freeway) / Pelham RoadExit 1 on M-39
206.398332.165206Oakwood BoulevardSigned as exits 206A (south) and 206B (north) westbound
Dearborn 207.626–
208.011
334.142–
334.761
208Schaefer Road, Greenfield RoadEastbound exit to Greenfield Road and westbound entrance from southbound Greenfield Road only; Schaefer Road access via trumpet interchange with unnamed road to Ford River Rouge Complex and partial cloverleaf interchange to Schaefer and Butler roads
208.882336.163209Rotunda DriveWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
209.795337.632210AUS 12.svg US 12 (Michigan Avenue) / Wyoming Avenue Dearborn Signed as exit 210 eastbound; no westbound exit to Wyoming Avenue; access from Wyoming Avenue to eastbound I-94 at exit 210B
Detroit 210.048–
210.352
338.039–
338.529
210BM-153.svg M-153 (Ford Road) / Addison AvenueWestbound exit and eastbound entrance; eastbound entrance via Weir Street
210.669339.039211ALonyo AvenueWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
211.268340.003211BCentral Avenue, Cecil AvenueWestbound exit and eastbound entrance; service drives connect to Central Avenue
211.793340.848212ALivernois AvenueSigned as exit 212 westbound
212.597342.142212BWarren AvenueWestbound exit is via exit 213A
212.819–
212.841
342.499–
342.534
213AWest Grand Boulevard, Warren AvenueWestbound exit and eastbound entrance; former eastbound exit removed 2012 [107]
213.363–
213.407
343.374–
343.445
213BI-96.svg I-96 (Jeffries Freeway) Lansing, Bridge to Canada Exit 190A on I-96
213.598–
213.700
343.753–
343.917
214ALinwood Avenue, Grand River Avenue Signed as exit 214 westbound; second eastbound entrance from 14th Street; signs eastbound omit Linwood Avenue
214.414345.066214BTrumbull AvenueEastbound exit and westbound entrance
214.712–
214.744
345.545–
345.597
215M-10.svg M-10 (Lodge Freeway) Downtown Detroit, Southfield Signed as exits 215A (south) and 215B (north); exit 4 on M-10
215.229–
215.562
346.377–
346.913
215CM-1.svg M-1 (Woodward Avenue) / John R. Street / Brush Street
215.868–
215.882
347.406–
347.428
216AI-75.svg I-75 (Chrysler Freeway) Flint, Toledo Exit 53 on I-75; includes entrances from Warren Avenue
216.013347.639216BRussell StreetEastbound exit only
216.603348.589217AChene Street, East Grand BoulevardNo westbound exit or entrance from southbound East Grand Boulevard to westbound I-94; westbound access to East Grand Boulevard northbound only at exit 217B
217.333349.764217BMount Elliott AvenueSigned as exit 217 (Mount Elliott Avenue, East Grand Boulevard) westbound
218.226351.201218M-53.svg M-53 (Van Dyke Avenue)
219.016352.472219M-3.svg M-3 (Gratiot Avenue)
219.560353.348220AFrench RoadNo westbound exit
219.978–
220.086
354.020–
354.194
220BConner Avenue Detroit City Airport No access from southbound Conner Avenue to eastbound I-94
221.387–
221.622
356.288–
356.666
222A Outer Drive, Chalmers Avenue
222.292357.744222BHarper AvenueEastbound exit and westbound entrance
223.048358.961223Cadieux Road
223.755360.099224AMoross Road
Harper Woods 224.430361.185224BAllard Avenue, Eastwood DriveNo entrances to I-94; signs eastbound omit Eastwood Drive
225.352–
225.376
362.669–
362.708
225M-102.svg M-102 (8 Mile Road, Vernier Road)Eastern terminus of M-102; additional westbound entrance from southbound Harper Avenue
Macomb EastpointeSt. Clair Shores city line226.893365.1492279 Mile Road
EastpointeRosevilleSt. Clair Shores city tripoint227.967366.87722810 Mile Road
RosevilleSt. Clair Shores city line228.742–
229.426
368.125–
369.225
229I-696.svg I-696 west Lansing
11 Mile Road
Eastern terminus of I-696
230.014370.17223012 Mile Road
Roseville 230.890371.581231M-3.svg M-3 (Gratiot Avenue)Eastbound exit to northbound M-3 and westbound entrance only
231.354372.328232Little Mack Avenue
Clinton Township 234.209376.923234Harper AvenueSigned as exits 234A (south) and 234B (north)
Harrison Township 234.873377.991235Shook RoadWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
235.909–
235.921
379.659–
379.678
236 Metropolitan Parkway
Mt. Clemens 237.266381.843237North River Road Mt. Clemens
HarrisonChesterfield township line240.027–
240.259
386.286–
386.659
240M-59.svg M-59  Selfridge ANGB, Utica Signed as exits 240A (east) and 240B (west) eastbound; eastern terminus of M-59; roadway continues beyond terminus as William P. Rosso Highway
Chesterfield Township 241.193388.16324121 Mile Road
243.453391.800243M-3.svg M-3 south Utica
M-29.svg M-29 north Algonac, New Baltimore
Northern terminus of M-3; southern terminus of M-29; signs eastbound omit M-3 and Utica; signs westbound omit Algonac
246.737397.085247M-19.svg M-19 north Richmond, New Haven Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; southern terminus of M-19
Lenox Township 248.118399.30724826 Mile Road Marine City Westbound access to New Haven
St. Clair CascoColumbus township line257.185413.899257 Richmond, St. Clair Signs eastbound omit Richmond
St. Clair Township 262.131421.859262Wadhams Road
Kimball Township 266.330428.617266Business Loop 94.svg BL I-94 east (Gratiot Road) Marysville Signs westbound omit BL I-94; western terminus of BL I-94
KimballPort Huron township line269.525433.758269Range Road, Dove StreetSigns westbound omit Dove Street
Port Huron Township 271.271–
271.820
436.568–
437.452
271I-69.svg I-69 west Flint, Lansing Western end of I-69 concurrency; signs eastbound omit Lansing; exit 198 on I-69
271.529436.984Business Loop 69.svg BL I-69 east Port Huron Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; western terminus of BL I-69
273.826440.680274Water Street, Lapeer Avenue Port Huron Signed as 274A (Lapeer Avenue) and 274B (Water Street) eastbound; indirect access to Lapeer Avenue via Lapeer Connector (former M-146); no direct eastbound entrance to Blue Water Bridge
Port Huron 275.102442.734275Business Loop 69.svgBusiness Loop 94.svgM-25.svg BL I-69 west / BL I-94 west / M-25 (Pine Grove Avenue) Downtown Port Huron Eastbound last exit before Canada; eastern terminus of BL I-69/BL I-94; southern terminus of M-25; signs eastbound omit BL I-69/BL I-94; no exit number westbound
274.770442.199Toll Plaza (eastbound)
U.S. Customs (westbound)
St. Clair River 275.304–
275.398
443.059–
443.210
Blue Water Bridge (tolled)
Ontario 402 crown.svg Highway 402 east London Continuation into Ontario
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
Signage along I-194/M-66, the "Sojourner Truth Downtown Parkway" Interstate 194 Michigan.jpg
Signage along I-194/M-66, the "Sojourner Truth Downtown Parkway"

There are nine highways related to I-94 in Michigan. The first is the spur into downtown Battle Creek numbered I-194 and nicknamed "The Penetrator" [108] and officially called the "Sojourner Truth Downtown Parkway". [109] This auxiliary Interstate Highway runs for about three miles (4.8 km) to connect I-94 northward into downtown. The other eight highways are business loops of I-94 that connect various cities' downtowns with the main freeway. Unlike I-194, these loops are not freeways. Located from west to east along I-94's routing in Michigan, they serve Benton Harbor–St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Battle Creek, Marshall, Albion, Jackson, Ann Arbor, and Port Huron. [6]

See also

Notes

  1. The Michigan State Highway Department was reorganized into the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation on August 23, 1973. [14] The name was shortened to its current form in 1978. [15]
  2. AASHO was renamed the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) on November 11, 1973. [19]
  3. At the time the United States Numbered Highway System was created, the highway along the modern US 12 through Coldwater and Ypsilanti to Detroit was numbered US 112. [20]
  4. The other highway so designated is a section of US 131. [94]

Related Research Articles

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M-3 is a north–south state trunkline highway in the Detroit metropolitan area of the US state of Michigan. For most of its length, the trunkline is known as Gratiot Avenue. The trunkline starts in Downtown Detroit and runs through the city in a northeasterly direction along one of Detroit's five major avenues. The highway passes several historic landmarks and through a historic district. It also connects residential neighborhoods on the city's east side with suburbs in Macomb County and downtown.

M-14 is an east–west state trunkline highway in the southeastern portion of the US state of Michigan. Entirely freeway, it runs for 22.250 miles (35.808 km) to connect Ann Arbor with Detroit by way of a connection with Interstate 96 (I-96). The western terminus is at a partial interchange with I-94 west of Ann Arbor. From there, the freeway curves around the north side of Ann Arbor and runs concurrently with US Highway 23 (US 23). East of that section, M-14 passes through woodlands and fields in Washtenaw County. In Wayne County, the freeway returns to a suburban area of mixed residential neighborhoods and light industrial areas. It crosses two different rivers and a pair of rail lines as it approaches Detroit's inner suburbs, where it terminates at an interchange between I-96 and I-275.

M-10 is a north–south state trunkline highway in the Metro Detroit area of Michigan in the United States. The southernmost portion follows Jefferson Avenue in downtown Detroit, and the southern terminus is at the intersection of Jefferson and M-3 next to the entrance to the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel. The northern terminus is in West Bloomfield Township at the intersection with Orchard Lake Road. The highway has several names as it runs through residential and commercial areas of the west side of Detroit and into the suburb of Southfield. It is called the John C. Lodge Freeway, The Lodge, James Couzens Highway and Northwestern Highway.

M-59 is an east–west state trunkline highway that crosses the northern part of Metropolitan Detroit in the US state of Michigan. It runs between Howell at Interstate 96 (I-96) and I-94 on the Chesterfield–Harrison township line near the Selfridge Air National Guard Base. While primarily a multi-lane surface highway, it is a full freeway from just east of the Pontiac downtown near Opdyke Road to just east of the Mound Road/Merrill Road exit in Utica. The various surface highway segments are named either Highland Road, Huron Street or Hall Road, with the latter known as an area for shopping and dining. The rural sections west of Pontiac pass through Oakland County lake country crossing through two state recreational areas.

M-17 is a 6.390-mile-long (10.284 km) state trunkline highway in the U.S. state of Michigan, connecting the cities of Ypsilanti and Ann Arbor in Washtenaw County. It was once part of a highway that spanned the southern Lower Peninsula of Michigan before the creation of the U.S. Highway System in 1926. The designation once extended into downtown Detroit, but the eastern terminus was progressively scaled back in the late 1960s to the current location in Ypsilanti. The changes made to the highways in Washtenaw County spawned Business M-17, a business loop for 11 years between 1945 and 1956.

M-153 is a state trunkline highway in the Metro Detroit area of the US state of Michigan. It is also known as Ford Road for nearly its entire length, except for its westernmost portion where the highway follows a short expressway to M-14. Named for William Ford, father of Henry Ford, Ford Road runs from near Dixboro to the Dearborn–Detroit border. The M-153 designation continues along Wyoming Avenue where it terminates at a junction with Interstate 94 (I-94) and US Highway 12 (US 12) on the city line.

M-39 is a 16-mile-long (26 km) north–south state trunkline highway in Metro Detroit area of the US state of Michigan that runs from Lincoln Park, on the south end, to Southfield on the north. The official southern terminus of M-39 is at the corner of Southfield Road and Lafayette Boulevard in Lincoln Park, one block southeast of the junction of Interstate 75 and two blocks northwest of M-85. From there the highway heads northward. The first 2.3 miles (3.7 km) of the highway follows Southfield Road, a divided highway in the Downriver area. It then transitions into the Southfield Freeway, which is a 13.7-mile-long (22.0 km) freeway that runs from Allen Park north through Dearborn, and then the west side of Detroit, to Southfield. The northern terminus is at M-10 in Southfield.

M-146 was a state trunkline highway in the US state of Michigan that initially served as a bypass for traffic going around Port Huron and as a short cut for traffic between U.S. Highway 25 and M-21. Later it connected to the Blue Water Bridge before it was truncated to its final form. Segments of M-146 still exist today as state highways as part of Interstate 94 (I-94) and I-69 and the Lapeer Connector.

Interstate 69 (I-69) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that will eventually run from the Mexican border in Texas to the Canadian border at Port Huron, Michigan. In Michigan, it is a state trunkline highway that enters the state south of Coldwater and passes the cities of Lansing and Flint in the Lower Peninsula. A north–south freeway from the Indiana–Michigan border to the Lansing area, it changes direction to east–west after running concurrently with I-96. The freeway continues to Port Huron before terminating in the middle of the twin-span Blue Water Bridge while running concurrently with I-94 at the border. There are four related business loops for I-69 in the state, connecting the freeway to adjacent cities.

There are currently eight business routes of Interstate 94 (I-94) in the US state of Michigan. These business routes connect I-94 to the downtown business districts of neighboring cities. These eight routes are all business loops which bear the Business Loop I-94 designation. These loops are former routings of I-94's two predecessors in Michigan: US Highway 12 (US 12) or US 25. The westernmost BL I-94 runs through the twin cities of Benton Harbor and St. Joseph along the former routing of US 12 and US 31/US 33 that now includes a section of the Lake Michigan Circle Tour in the state. The loops in Kalamazoo, Battle Creek, Marshall, Albion, and Jackson were also formerly segments of US 12 which were later designated as separate version of Business US Highway 12 through their respective cities before becoming BL I-94s in 1960. The route of the business loop through Ann Arbor was previously US 12 and then later M-14 before receiving its current moniker. The BL I-94 through Port Huron was previously US 25 and then Business US Highway 25.

There are currently four business routes of Interstate 69 (I-69) in the US state of Michigan. Designated Business Loop Interstate 69, they are all former routings of I-69's predecessor highways, US Highway 27 (US 27), M-78 or M-21, in whole or in part. The BL I-69 in Coldwater and the one in Charlotte were both parts of US 27 before the freeway bypassed those two cities in 1967 and the early 1970s, respectively. The BL I-69 through Lansing and East Lansing was previously part of M-78 and Temporary I-69 until it was redesignated in 1987. Before 1984, the loop in Port Huron was originally part of M-21 and was initially a business spur numbered Business Spur Interstate 69. It was later redesignated when it was extended to run concurrently with that city's BL I-94 which was originally part of I-94's predecessor, US 25. Each business loop follows streets through each city's downtown areas and connects to I-69 on both ends, giving traffic a route through the downtown and back to the freeway.

There have been six business routes of Interstate 96 (I-96) in the US state of Michigan. There are two business loops designated Business Loop Interstate 96 : one through Lansing and one through Howell. Both follow the old route of US Highway 16 (US 16), with appropriate connections to I-96. There are three former business spurs that were designated Business Spur Interstate 96. One connected to the carferry docks in Muskegon, running concurrently with part of Business US 31 along former US 16, but it has been eliminated. The second spur ran into downtown Portland until it was decommissioned in 2007. Two routes in the Detroit area—a loop through Farmington and a spur into Detroit—both using Grand River Avenue, and meeting at the temporary end of I-96 near Purdue Avenue, were eliminated when I-96 was moved to the completed Jeffries Freeway in 1977. These Detroit-area business routes are still state-maintained as unsigned highways.

There have been nine business routes for Interstate 75 in the US state of Michigan. Numbered either Business Loop Interstate 75 or Business Spur Interstate 75 depending if they are a full business loop or a business spur, these highways are former routings of I-75's predecessor highways in the state. They were designated as I-75 was completed through the various areas of Michigan. The business loop in Pontiac runs through that city's downtown along a section of Woodward Avenue and a segment of roadway formerly used by M-24. The former Saginaw business loop was once a part of US Highway 23 (US 23), as was most of the original Bay City business loop. The roadways that make up the business loops in West Branch and Roscommon were previously part of M-76, I-75's predecessor through that part of the state. In Northern Michigan, the Grayling and Gaylord BL I-75s were part of US 27, and the two business routes in St. Ignace and Sault Ste. Marie in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan were part of US 2. A tenth business route, a loop through Indian River has been proposed. Each of the business loops connects to I-75 on both ends and runs through their respective cities' downtown areas. The two business spurs only connect to I-75 on one end and run into the appropriate downtown.

US Highway 25 (US 25) was a part of the United States Numbered Highway System in the state of Michigan that ran from the Ohio state line near Toledo and ended at the tip of The Thumb in Port Austin. The general routing of this state trunkline highway took it northeasterly from the state line through Monroe and Detroit to Port Huron. Along this southern half, it followed undivided highways and ran concurrently along two freeways, Interstate 75 (I-75) and I-94. Near the foot of the Blue Water Bridge in Port Huron, US 25 turned north and northwesterly along the Lake Huron shoreline to Port Austin.

There have been five different business routes of US Highway 23 in the state of Michigan. These business routes were designated along former sections of US Highway 23 (US 23) to provide signed access from the main highway to the downtowns of cities bypassed by new routings of US 23. Two are still extant, connecting through downtown Ann Arbor and Rogers City. Three others have been decommissioned. The former Business US 23 in Fenton was split in half during the 1970s and later completely turned back to local control in 2006. The former business loops through Saginaw and Bay City were renumbered as business loops of Interstate 75 in the 1960s.

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Route map:

KML file (edithelp)
    KML is from Wikidata


    I-94.svg Interstate 94
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