The Invasion of Lingayen Gulf (Filipino: Paglusob sa Golpo ng Lingayen), 6–9 January 1945, was an Allied amphibious operation in the Philippines during World War II. In the early morning of 6 January 1945, a large Allied force commanded by Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf began approaching the shores of Lingayen. U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Navy warships began bombarding suspected Japanese positions along the coast of Lingayen from their position in Lingayen Gulf for three days. On 9 January, the U.S. 6th Army landed on a 20 mi (32 km) beachhead between the towns of Lingayen and San Fabian.
During World War II, the Lingayen Gulf proved a strategically important theater of war between American and Japanese forces. On 22 December 1941, the Japanese 14th Army—under Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma—landed on the Eastern part of the gulf at Agoo, Caba, Santiago and Bauang, where they engaged in a number of relatively minor skirmisheswith the defenders, which consisted of a poorly equipped contingent of predominantly American and Filipino troops, and managed to successfully invade and occupy the gulf. Following the defeat, the next day General Douglas MacArthur issued the order to retreat from Luzon and withdraw to Bataan. For the next three years, the gulf remained under Japanese occupation prior to the Lingayen Gulf Landings.
Beginning on 6 January 1945, a heavy naval and air bombardment of suspected Japanese defenses on Lingayen began. Underwater demolitions began, but found no beach obstacles, and encountered sparse opposing forces. Aircraft and naval artillery bombardment of the landing areas also occurred, with kamikazes attacking on the 7th. On the 8th, it was observed that in the town of Lingayen, as a response to the pre-landing bombardment, Filipinos had begun to form a parade, complete with United States and Philippine flags; fire was shifted away from that area.
At 09:30 on 9 January 1945, about 68,000 GIs under General Walter Krueger of the U.S. 6th Army—following a devastating naval bombardment—landed at the coast of Lingayen Gulf meeting no opposition. A total of 203,608 soldiers were eventually landed over the next few days, establishing a 20 mi (32 km) beachhead, stretching from Sual, Lingayen and Dagupan (XIV Corps) to the west, and San Fabian (I Corps) to the east. The total number of troops under the command of MacArthur was reported to have even exceeded the number that Dwight D. Eisenhower controlled in Europe. Within a few days, the assault forces had quickly captured the coastal towns and secured the 20-mile-long (32 km) beachhead, as well as penetrating up to five miles (8 km) inland.
Despite their success in driving out the Japanese forces stationed there, they suffered relatively heavy losses; particularly to their convoys, due to kamikaze attacks. From December 13, 1944 - January 13, 1945, a total of 24 ships were sunk and another 67 were damaged by kamikazes, though this number includes landings on Luzon, outside of Lingayen Gulf, and the Philippine island of Mindoro. Ships damaged included the battleships USS Mississippi, New Mexico and Colorado (the latter was accidentally hit by friendly fire), the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, the light cruiser USS Columbia, and the destroyers USS Long and USS Hovey. Following the landings, the Lingayen Gulf was turned into a vast supply depot for the rest of the war to support the Battle of Luzon.
Following are the allied Naval vessels damaged and sunk by kamikaze strikes between 3-13 January, 1945 at the Battle of Lingayen Gulf. Two of the ships were not technically damaged by kamikazes, the Destroyer/Minesweepers Hovey, which was sunk by an aerial torpedo, and the Palmer which was sunk by two bombs from an enemy dive bomber. The third Destroyer/Minesweeper sunk, the Long, was sunk by a kamikaze strike. Hovey, Long, and Palmer, three of the four ships sunk, were all classified as Destroyer/Minesweepers and were relatively small craft at 314 feet in length.
The Omanney Bay, a large escort carrier, was severely damaged by a Yokosuka P1Y kamikaze carrying two bombs, and later had to be scuttled by a torpedo. Although a large variety of ship classes were hit, Destroyer/Minesweepers made up three of the four ships sunk, and may have been targeted because they were smaller, isolated while performing their sweeping duties, and by necessity in the front of the convoy, as they had to sweep for mines before the larger ships of the allied force could advance into the Gulf. The naval historian Samuel Eliot Morison noted that at least on January 6, minesweepers bore the brunt of the attack because they were isolated from other ships, and had fewer and less sophisticated anti-aircraft weapons than larger ships. By January 12, most of the ships hit were larger cargo ships supplying troops that had already landed.
Nearly all the ships were American, except those designated by HMAS for ships in the British commonwealth, or SS for Liberty Ships, usually operated by America's Merchant Marines. Those ships struck more than once have a number in parenthesis to the right of the name of the ship. An asterisk indicates a ship that was sunk. Time is in Naval military time.
|Naval vessels damaged and sunk by kamikazes at Lingayen Gulf, 3-13 Jan 1945|
|3 Jan 1945||0728||USS Cowanesque||Transport Oiler||Minor||2||1|
|3 Jan 1945||1712||*USS Ommaney Bay||Escort Carrier||Sunk (Scuttled)||93||65|
|5 Jan 1945||1651||USS Helm||Destroyer||Minor||0||6|
|5 Jan 1945||1706||USS Louisville (1)||Heavy Cruiser||Moderate||1||59|
|5 Jan 1945||1735||HMAS Australia (1)||Heavy Cruiser||Minor||30||46|
|5 Jan 1945||1735||HMAS Arunta||Destroyer||Minor||2||4|
|5 Jan 1945||1739||USS Apache||Fleet Tug||Minor||0||3|
|5 Jan 1945||1740||USS LCI-(G)-70||Small Troop Carrier||Moderate||6||9|
|5 Jan 1945||1745||USS Manilla Bay||Escort Carrier||Moderate||32||56|
|5 Jan 1945||1750||USS Savo Island||Escort Carrier||Negligible||0||0|
|6 Jan 1945||1105||USS Alan M. Sumner||Destroyer||Extensive||14||29|
|6 Jan 1945||1145||USS Richard P. Leary||Destroyer||Minor||0||1|
|6 Jan 1945||1159||USS New Mexico||Battleship||Minor||30||87|
|6 Jan 1945||1201||USS Walke||Destroyer Escort||Extensive||13||34|
|6 Jan 1945||1215||*USS Long||Destroyer/Minesweeper||Sunk||1||35|
|6 Jan 1945||1252||USS Brooks||Destroyer Transport||Extensive||3||11|
|6 Jan 1945||1424||USS Columbia||Light Cruiser||Minor||0||1|
|6 Jan 1945||1427||USS O'Brien||Destroyer||Moderate||0||0|
|6 Jan 1945||1437||USS Minneapolis||Heavy Cruiser||Minor||0||2|
|6 Jan 1945||1545||USS Orca||Oiler Transport||Minor||0||4|
|6 Jan 1945||1720||USS California||Battleship||Minor||45||151|
|6 Jan 1945||1720||USS Newcomb||Destroyer||Minor||2||15|
|6 Jan 1945||1729||USS Columbia (2)||Light Cruiser||Extensive||13||44|
|6 Jan 1945||1730||USS Louisville (2)||Heavy Cruiser||Extensive||32||56|
|6 Jan 1945||1732||USS Southard||Destroyer/Minesweeper||Moderate||0||6|
|6 Jan 1945||1734||HMAS Australia (2)||Heavy Cruiser||Serious||14||26|
|7 Jan 1945||0430||*USS Hovey||Destroyer/Minesweeper||Sunk||46||3|
|7 Jan 1945||1835||*USS Palmer||Destroyer/Minesweeper||Sunk||28||38|
|8 Jan 1945||0545||USS LST-912||Tank Landing Ship||Minor||4||3|
|8 Jan 1945||0720||HMAS Australia (3)||Heavy Cruiser||Minor||0||0|
|8 Jan 1945||0739||HMAS Australia (4)||Heavy Cruiser||Extensive||0||0|
|8 Jan 1945||0751||USS Kadashan Bay||Escort Carrier||Serious||0||3|
|8 Jan 1945||0755||USS Callaway||Large Attack Transport||Minor||29||22|
|8 Jan 1945||1857||USS Kitkun Bay||Escort Carrier||Extensive||17||36|
|8 Jan 1945||1903||HMAS Westralia||Large Troop Carrier||Minor||0||0|
|9 Jan 1945||0700||USS Hodges||Destroyer Escort||Minor||0||0|
|9 Jan 1945||0745||USS Columbia (3)||Light Cruiser||Serious||24||68|
|9 Jan 1945||1302||USS Mississippi||Battleship||Minor||23||63|
|9 Jan 1945||1311||HMAS Australia (5)||Heavy Cruiser||Minor||0||0|
|10 Jan 1945||1710||USS Le Ray Wilson||Destroyer Escort||Extensive||6||7|
|10 Jan 1945||1915||USS Du Page||Large Attack Transport||Minor||32||157|
|12 Jan 1945||1658||USS Gilligan||Destroyer Escort||Extensive||12||13|
|12 Jan 1945||1727||USS Richard W. Suesens||Destroyer Escort||Slight||0||11|
|12 Jan 1945||753||USS Belknap||Destroyer Transport||Extensive||38||49|
|12 Jan 1945||1815||USS LST-700 (1)||Tank Landing Ship||Extensive||0||6|
|12 Jan 1945||1250||SS Otis Skinner||Liberty Ship Cargo||Extensive||0||0|
|12 Jan 1945||1830||SS Kyle V. Johnson||Liberty Ship Cargo||Extensive||129||0|
|12 Jan 1945||1830||USS LST-778||Tank Landing Ship||None||0||0|
|12 Jan 1945||1830||SS David Dudley Field||Liberty Ship, Cargo||Minor||0||0|
|12 Jan 1945||1830||SS Edward N. Wescott||Liberty Ship, Cargo||Substantial||0||13|
|13 Jan 1945||1810||USS LST-700 (2)||Tank Landing Ship||Extensive||2||2|
|13 Jan 1945||1821||USS Zeilin||Large Attack Transport||Extensive||8||32|
|13 Jan 1945||858||USS Salamaua||Escort Carrier||Extensive||15||88|
On 9 January 2008, Gov. Amado Espino, Jr. and Vice Gov. Marlyn Primicias-Agabas of Pangasinan institutionalized the commemoration to honor the war veterans. The resolution named 9 January as Pangasinan Veterans' Day. In the 63rd anniversary commemoration of the Lingayen Gulf Landing, President Fidel Ramos appealed to U.S. President George W. Bush for 24,000 surviving war veterans, to pass two legislative bills pending since 1968 at the US House of Representatives — the Filipino Veterans' Equity Act of 2006 and the Filipino Veterans' Equity of 2005 sponsored by former Senator Daniel Inouye.
USS Phoenix (CL-46), was a light cruiser of the Brooklyn-class cruiser family. She was the third Phoenix of the United States Navy. After World War II the ship was transferred to Argentina in 1951 and was ultimately renamed General Belgrano in 1956. General Belgrano was sunk during the Falklands War in 1982 by the British nuclear-powered submarine HMS Conqueror, the only ship to have been sunk in combat by a nuclear-powered submarine during wartime.
The Lingayen Gulf is a large gulf on northwestern Luzon in the Philippines, stretching 56 km (35 mi). It is framed by the provinces of Pangasinan and La Union and sits between the Zambales Mountains and the Cordillera Central. The Agno River drains into Lingayen Gulf.
USS Claxton (DD-571), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Thomas Claxton, born in Baltimore, Maryland.
USS Long (DD-209/DMS-12), named for John Davis Long (1838–1915), Secretary of the Navy from 1897 to 1902, was a Clemson-class destroyer of the United States Navy.
USS Denver (CL-58) was a Cleveland-class light cruiser. Denver launched on 4 April 1942 by New York Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, New Jersey; sponsored by Miss L. J. Stapleton, daughter of the Mayor of Denver; and commissioned on 15 October 1942, Captain Robert Carney in command. It was the second ship named for the city of Denver, Colorado.
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1945:
USS Newcomb (DD-586) was a Fletcher-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was the only ship named for Commodore Frank H. Newcomb of the United States Revenue Cutter Service, Congressional Gold Medal recipient from the Spanish–American War.
USS Hopewell (DD-681) was a Fletcher-class destroyer in service the United States Navy from 1943 to 1947 and from 1951 to 1970. She was finally sunk as a target in 1972.
USS Hogan (DD-178/DMS-6) was a Wickes-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was the first ship named for Seaman Daniel Hogan.
USS Howard (DD–179), (DMS-7) was a Wickes-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was named for Charles W. Howard, who was killed in the American Civil War aboard USS New Ironsides.
USS Halligan (DD-584) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Rear Admiral John Halligan, Jr. (1876–1934).
USS Hovey (DD-208/DMS-11) was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was the only ship named for Ensign Charles Hovey (1885–1911).
The Battle of Luzon, was a land battle of the Pacific Theater of Operations of World War II by the Allied forces of the U.S., its colony the Philippines, and allies against forces of the Empire of Japan. The battle resulted in a U.S. and Filipino victory. The Allies had taken control of all strategically and economically important locations of Luzon by March 1945, although pockets of Japanese resistance held out in the mountains until the unconditional surrender of Japan. While not the highest in U.S. casualties, it is the highest net casualty battle U.S. forces fought in World War II, with 192,000 to 205,000 Japanese combatants dead, 8,000 American combatants killed, and over 150,000 Filipinos, overwhelmingly civilians who were murdered by Japanese forces, mainly during the Manila massacre of February, 1945.
USS Heywood L. Edwards (DD-663) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Lieutenant Commander Heywood L. Edwards (1905–1941), captain of the destroyer USS Reuben James, the first U.S. Navy ship sunk in World War II. Following the war, the ship was transferred to Japan and renamed Ariake. The ship served with the Japanese until 1974 and was scrapped in 1976.
The Shinyo were Japanese suicide motorboats developed during World War II. They were part of the wider Japanese Special Attack Units program.
"Destroyer minesweeper" was a designation given by the United States Navy to a series of destroyers that were converted into high-speed ocean-going minesweepers for service during World War II. The hull classification symbol for this type of ship was "DMS." Forty-two ships were so converted, beginning with USS Dorsey (DD-117), converted to DMS-1 in late 1940, and ending with USS Earle (DD-635), converted to DMS-42 in mid 1945. The type is now obsolete, its function having been taken over by purpose-built ships, designated as "minesweeper (high-speed)" with the hull classification symbol MMD.
USS Salute (AM-294), was a U.S. Navy oceangoing minesweeper, laid down on 11 November 1942 by Winslow Marine Railway and Shipbuilding Co., Seattle, Washington; launched on 6 February 1943; sponsored by Miss Patricia Lindgren; and commissioned on 4 December 1943, Lt. R. H. Nelson in command.
USS LSM-135 was a LSM-1-class landing ship medium built for the United States Navy during World War II. Like many of her class, she was not named and is properly referred to by her hull designation.
The South China Sea raid was an operation conducted by the United States Third Fleet between 10 and 20 January 1945 during the Pacific War of World War II. The raid was undertaken to support the liberation of Luzon in the Philippines, and targeted Japanese warships, supply convoys and aircraft in the region.