Ion Mihai Pacepa

Last updated

Ion Mihai Pacepa
Ion Mihai Pacepa 1975cr.jpg
Pacepa in 1975
Born (1928-10-28) 28 October 1928 (age 90)
NationalityRomanian
Espionage activity
AllegianceFlag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania (defected)
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Service branch Securitate
Service years1951–78 (defected)
Rank RO-Army-OF8.png Lieutenant General [1]

Ion Mihai Pacepa (Romanian pronunciation:  [iˈon miˈhaj paˈt͡ʃepa] ; born 28 October 1928) is a former three-star general in the Securitate, the secret police of Communist Romania, who defected to the United States in July 1978 following President Jimmy Carter's approval of his request for political asylum. He is the highest-ranking defector from the former Eastern Bloc. At the time of his defection, General Pacepa simultaneously had the rank of advisor to President Nicolae Ceauşescu, acting chief of his foreign intelligence service and a state secretary of Romania's Ministry of Interior.

Securitate secret police agency of Communist Romania

The Securitate was the popular term for the Departamentul Securității Statului, the secret police agency of the Socialist Republic of Romania. Previously, before the communist regime, Romanian secret police was called Siguranța Statului. It was founded on 30 August 1948, with help from the Soviet NKVD, while Romania was practically under the Red Army's occupation. Following the overthrow of Nicolae Ceaușescu in 1989, the DSS lived on until 1991, when Parliament approved a law reorganizing the DSS into various subdivisions.

Defection Giving up of allegiance to one state for allegiance to another in a manner considered illegitimate by the first state

In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state. More broadly, it involves abandoning a person, cause, or doctrine to which one is bound by some tie, as of allegiance or duty.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Contents

Subsequently, he worked with the American Central Intelligence Agency in various operations against the former Eastern Bloc. The CIA described his cooperation as "an important and unique contribution to the United States". [2]

Central Intelligence Agency National intelligence agency of the United States

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States.

Activity in the Romanian Intelligence

Ion Mihai Pacepa's father (born in 1893) grew up in Alba Iulia, the capital of the principality of Transylvania, which at that time was part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, where he worked in his own father's small kitchenware factory. On 1 December 1918, Transylvania was united with Romania, and in 1920, Pacepa's father moved to Bucharest, working for the local branch of the American car company General Motors.

Alba Iulia County capital in Alba County, Romania

Alba Iulia, is a city that serves as the seat of Alba County in the west-central part of Romania. Located on the Mureș River in the historical region of Transylvania, it has a population of 63,536.

Transylvania Historical region of Romania

Transylvania is a historical region which is located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, and occasionally the Romanian part of Banat.

General Motors American automotive manufacturing company

General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was originally founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company. The company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, and one of the world's largest. As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

Born in Bucharest in 1928, Ion Mihai Pacepa studied industrial chemistry at the Politehnica University of Bucharest between 1947 and 1951, but just months before graduation he was drafted by the Securitate, and got his engineering degree only four years later. He was assigned to the Directorate of Counter-sabotage of the Securitate. In 1955, he was transferred to the Directorate of Foreign Intelligence. [3]

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.

Politehnica University of Bucharest university

Politehnica University of Bucharest is a technical university in Bucharest, Romania. It was founded in 1818 as "Academic School for Philosophy, Mathematical Sciences and Surveying Engineers". Later the technical superior school was renamed few times, in 1864 as School of Bridges and Roads, Mines and Architecture, and the name "Politehnica" was introduced in 1920 when the university was renamed Polytechnic School of Bucharest. Politehnica University is classified by the Ministry of Education as an advanced research and education university. Teaching is conducted in Romanian and at the Faculty of Engineering in Foreign Languages teaching is conducted in one of the languages: English, French and German.

Engineering applied science

Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other things, including bridges, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application. See glossary of engineering.

In 1957, Pacepa was appointed head of the Romanian intelligence station in Frankfurt, West Germany, where he served two years. In October 1959, Minister of the Interior Alexandru Drăghici appointed him as head of Romania's brand new industrial espionage department, called S&T (short for Ştiinţă şi Tehnologie, meaning "science and technology" in Romanian) of Directorate I, being the head of Romanian industrial espionage, which he managed until his defection in 1978. [3] He was involved with the establishment of Romania's automobile industry, [4] and with the development of its microelectronic, polymer, and antibiotic industries.

Frankfurt Place in Hesse, Germany

Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, and its 746,878 (2017) inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, and its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km (25 mi) to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area.

West Germany Federal Republic of Germany in the years 1949–1990

West Germany was the informal name for the Federal Republic of Germany, a country in Central Europe, in the period between its formation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War period, the western portion of Germany was part of the Western Bloc. The Federal Republic was created during the Allied occupation of Germany after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Its (provisional) capital was the city of Bonn. The Cold War era West Germany is unofficially historically designated the "Bonn Republic".

Alexandru Drăghici Romanian politician, military officer

Alexandru Drăghici was a Romanian communist activist and politician. He was Interior Minister in 1952 and from 1957 to 1965, and State Security Minister from 1952 to 1957. In these capacities, he exercised control over the Securitate secret police during a period of active repression against other Communist Party members, anti-communist resistance members and ordinary citizens.

Between 1972 and 1978, Pacepa was also President Nicolae Ceauşescu's adviser for industrial and technological development and the deputy chief of the Romanian foreign intelligence service.

Defection

Pacepa defected during July 1978 by walking into the American Embassy in Bonn while in Germany, where he had been sent by Ceauşescu with a message to Chancellor Helmut Schmidt. He was flown secretly to the U.S. presidential airport near Washington, in a United States military airplane.

Bonn Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000. About 24 km (15 mi) south-southeast of Cologne, Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants. It is famously known as the birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven in 1770. Beethoven spent his childhood and teenage years in Bonn.

Helmut Schmidt Chancellor of West Germany 1974-1982

Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), who served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1974 to 1982.

In a letter to his daughter, Dana, published in the French newspaper Le Monde in 1980 and broadcast over and over by Radio Free Europe, Pacepa explained the reason for defecting: "In 1978 I got the order to organize the killing of Noël Bernard, the director of Radio Free Europe's Romanian program who had infuriated Ceausescu with his commentaries. It was late July when I got this order, and when I ultimately had to decide between being a good father and being a political criminal. Knowing you, Dana, I was firmly convinced that you would prefer no father to one who was an assassin." [ citation needed ]

Noël Bernard died in 1981 of cancer, after being allegedly irradiated by the Securitate. [ citation needed ]

Pacepa's defection destroyed the intelligence network of communist Romania, and through the revelations of Ceausescu's activity, it affected the latter's international credibility and respectability. An article published by The American Spectator in 1988 summed up the devastation caused by Pacepa's "spectacular" defection: "His passage from East to West was a historic event, for so carefully had he prepared, and so thorough was his knowledge of the structure, the methods, the objectives, and the operations of Ceausescu's secret service, that within three years the entire organization had been eliminated. Not a single top official was left, not a single major operation was still running. Ceauşescu had a nervous breakdown, and gave orders for Pacepa's assassination. At least two squads of murderers have come to the United States to try to find him, and just recently one of Pacepa's former agents — a man who had performed minor miracles in stealing Western technology in Europe at Romanian behest — spent several months on the East Coast, trying to track down the general. They didn't succeed." [5]

During September 1978, Pacepa received two death sentences from Communist Romania, and Ceauşescu decreed a bounty of $2 million US dollars for his death. Yasser Arafat and Muammar al-Gaddafi set one more million dollars reward each. [6] During the 1980s, Romania's political police enlisted Carlos the Jackal to assassinate Pacepa in America in exchange for one million dollars. [7] Documents found in the Romanian intelligence archives show that the Securitate had given Carlos a whole arsenal to use in "Operation 363" for assassinating Pacepa in the United States. Included were 37 kg. plastic explosive EPP/88, 7 submachine guns, one Walther PP pistol serial # 249460 with 1306 bullets, 8 Stechkin pistols with 1049 bullets, and 5 hand grenades UZRG-M.

Carlos was unable to find Pacepa, but on 21 February 1980, he bombed a part of Radio Free Europe's headquarters in Munich, which was broadcasting news of Pacepa's defection. Five Romanian diplomats in West Germany, who had helped Carlos the Jackal in this operation, were expelled from the country.

On 7 July 1999, Romania's Supreme Court Decision No. 41/1999 cancelled Pacepa's death sentences and ordered that his properties, confiscated by Ceauşescu's orders, be returned to him. Romania's government refused to comply. In December 2004, the new government of Romania restored Pacepa's rank of general.

According to Michael Ledeen in 2016, the two death sentences remain in effect and Pacepa "has lived in secret" since his defection. [8]

Writings and political views

Pacepa is a columnist for the Internet conservative blog site PJ Media . He also writes articles for The Wall Street Journal and various American conservative publications, such as National Review Online , The Washington Times , the online newspaper FrontPage Magazine and the World Net Daily .

Red Horizons

During 1987, Pacepa published a book, Red Horizons: Chronicles of a Communist Spy Chief. A Romanian translation of Red Horizons printed in the U.S. was infiltrated into Communist Romania, and a Mao-style pocketbook of Red Horizons was illegally printed in Communist Hungary (now a valuable collector item). In 1988, Red Horizons was serialized on Radio Free Europe, arousing "huge interest among Romanians". According to Radio Romania, "the streets of Romania's towns were empty" during the RFE serialization of Red Horizons. On 25 December 1989, during the last part of the Romanian Revolution, Ceauşescu and his wife, Elena, were sentenced to death at the end of a trial where most of the accusations came almost word-for-word out of Red Horizons. (A second edition, published in March 1990, contained the transcript of Ceauşescu's trial, which was based on facts presented in Red Horizons.) [9]

On 1 January 1990, the book began being serialized in the new official Romanian newspaper Adevărul (The Truth), which on that day replaced the Communist Scînteia (The Spark). In its lead, Adevărul explained that the book's serialization by Radio Free Europe had "played an incontestable role" in overthrowing Ceauşescu" according to the text on the back cover of the book's second edition, published during 1990. Red Horizons was subsequently republished in 29 countries, and it was made into a documentary movie by the Hungarian TV.

In 2010, The Washington Post recommended that Red Horizons be included on the list of books that should be read in schools, next to Whittaker Chambers's Witness. In 2011, Red Horizons was re-published as an e-book by Google. Its hard copies are still in book stores.

During 1993, Pacepa published The Kremlin's Legacy, in which he tried to wean his native country away from its continued dependency on a Communist-style police state. During 1999, he authored the trilogy The Black Book of the Securitate, which has become a bestseller in Romania. [10]

Alleged assassinations by the KGB

In a 2006 article, Pacepa describes a conversation he had with Nicolae Ceauşescu, who told him about "ten international leaders the Kremlin killed or tried to kill": László Rajk and Imre Nagy from Hungary; Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu and Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej from Romania; Rudolf Slánský and Jan Masaryk from Czechoslovakia; Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran; Palmiro Togliatti from Italy; US President John F. Kennedy; and CCP Chairman Mao Zedong. Pacepa provides some additional details, such as an alleged plot to kill Mao Zedong with the help of Lin Biao organized by the KGB. [9]

Programmed to Kill: Lee Harvey Oswald, the Soviet KGB, and the Kennedy Assassination

In 2007, Ivan R. Dee published Pacepa's book Programmed to Kill: Lee Harvey Oswald, the Soviet KGB, and the Kennedy Assassination that argues Lee Harvey Oswald was recruited as a KGB agent. [11] According to Pacepa, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev ordered the assassination of Kennedy, then changed his mind but was unable to stop Oswald. [12] Pacepa wrote that Jack Ruby was subsequently instructed to kill Oswald in order to silence him. [11] The work was said to rely heavily on the work of the Warren Commission, the House Select Committee on Assassinations, and Edward Jay Epstein. [12]

In a review of Pacepa's book published in Human Events, Michael Ledeen, former adviser for terrorism to President Reagan, writes: "A new book from General Ion Mihai Pacepa is cause for celebration, because he is among a tiny handful of people who know a lot about the intelligence services of the Soviet Empire, and because he writes about it with rare lucidity, always with an eye to helping us understand our world. His first book, 'Red Horizons,'is indubitably the most brilliant portrait of a Communist regime I've ever read. 'Programmed to Kill' is equally fascinating. Pacepa painstakingly takes us through the documentary evidence, including invaluable material on Soviet bloc cyphers that throws new light on Oswald's letters to KGB officers in Washington and Mexico City. … No novelist could have written a more exciting story, made all the more compelling because of Pacepa's first-hand involvement in the Russians' efforts to hide their Oswald connection." [13] In H-Net Reviews, Stan Weeber called Programmed to Kill "a superb new paradigmatic work on the death of President Kennedy" and "a 'must read' for everyone interested in the assassination of President Kennedy." [14]

Publishers Weekly stated "those inclined to suspect a conspiracy was behind JFK's murder will likely remain unpersuaded by Pacepa's circumstantial, speculative case" and that Programmed to Kill offered "no convincing Soviet motive for the assassination." [12] According to author Joseph Goulden in The Washington Times , Pacepa's belated account "rests rather flimsily on circumstantial evidence and supposition." [15] In a review for Studies in Intelligence , Hayden B. Peake called Pacepa's theory an "imaginative story" and "implausible". [11]

Alleged Soviet role in supporting terrorism in the Middle East

In a 2006 article written during the Second Lebanon War, Pacepa says the Soviet Union spread anti-Semitic propaganda across the Middle East to increase hatred for the Jews, and by extension Israel and America. Pacepa writes that Soviet propagandists described America as a "Jewish fiefdom" and spread the idea that Israel planned to make the Islamic Middle East into a "Jewish colony." Furthermore, he describes Soviet Union's alleged role in propagating and funding terrorist groups in the Middle East. [16]

Alleged Soviet campaign against the Vatican

Pacepa alleged that the Soviet Union tried to discredit the Papacy. In a 2007 article, he stated: "In my other life, when I was at the center of Moscow's foreign-intelligence wars, I myself was caught up in a deliberate Kremlin effort to smear the Vatican, by portraying Pope Pius XII as a coldhearted Nazi sympathizer." [17]

In 2012, Pacepa revealed he was writing a book called Disinformation that gives details of the Seat 12 plot and the Soviet "science" of framing. It is co-authored by Pius XII expert and professor of law at the University of Mississippi, Ronald J. Rychlak. In an interview, Pacepa claimed that the original idea to blacken the Pontiff's reputation came from Joseph Stalin in 1945, who wanted the Church out of the Ukraine. On 3 June 1945, his Radio Moscow proclaimed that Pius XII had been "Hitler's Pope." But the insinuation fell flat as it came the day after Pius XII had condemned the "satanic spectre of Nazism" on Vatican Radio. Moreover, Pius was being lauded for his wartime efforts to protect religious minorities by, among others, President Roosevelt, Winston Churchill (who described him as "the greatest man of our time"), and Albert Einstein. Stalin's disinformation efforts were rejected by that contemporary generation "that had lived through the real history and knew who Pope Pius XII really was," Pacepa explained. He said the KGB tried again, promoting Rolf Hochhuth's 1963 play The Deputy. As that generation "had not lived through that history and did not know better, [this] time it worked." [18] [19] [20]

Disinformation

In 2013, Pacepa published Disinformation: Former Spy Chief Reveals Secret Strategies for Undermining Freedom, Attacking Religion, and Promoting Terrorism co-authored with law professor Ronald J. Rychlak, who studies the history of religion.

Iraq and WMD

Pacepa supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In opposition, large anti-war demonstrations were held in cities across the world. Pacepa contends that these protests were contrived and anti-American, which Russia assisted. [21] Pacepa wrote during October 2003 that it was "perfectly obvious to me" that the Russian GRU agency helped Saddam Hussein to destroy, hide, or transfer his chemical weapons prior to the American invasion of Iraq during 2003. [22] To this end, he claims that an operation for the removal of chemical weapons ("Operation Sarindar") was prepared by the Soviet Union for Libya, and that such a plan existed and was implemented in Iraq. [22]

Published books

Selected articles

See also

Related Research Articles

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej was a Romanian communist politician. He was the first Communist leader of Romania from 1947 to 1965, serving as first secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1944 to 1954 and from 1955 to 1965, and as the first Communist Prime Minister of Romania from 1952 to 1955.

Active measures term for the actions of political warfare conducted by the Soviet and Russian security services

Active measures is a term for the actions of political warfare conducted by the Soviet and Russian security services to influence the course of world events, in addition to collecting intelligence and producing "politically correct" assessment of it. Active measures range "from media manipulations to special actions involving various degrees of violence". Beginning in the 1920s, they were used both abroad and domestically. They included disinformation, propaganda, counterfeiting official documents, assassinations, and political repression, such as penetration into churches, and persecution of political dissidents.

Nicu Ceaușescu Romanian politician, child of leader Nicolae Ceaușescu and Elena Ceaușescu

Nicu Ceaușescu was a Romanian physicist and communist politician who was the youngest child of Romanian leader Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu. He was a close associate of his father's political regime and considered the President's heir presumptive.

Monica Lovinescu Romanian writer

Monica Lovinescu was a Romanian essayist, short story writer, literary critic, translator, and journalist, noted for her activities as an opponent of the Romanian Communist regime. She published several works under the pseudonyms Monique Saint-Come and Claude Pascal. She is the daughter of literary figure Eugen Lovinescu. She was married to the literary critic Virgil Ierunca.

Alexandru Nicolschi was a Romanian communist activist, Soviet agent and officer, and Securitate chief under the Communist regime. Active until the early 1960s, he was one of the most recognizable leaders of violent political repression.

Gheorghe Pintilie Romanian general and intelligence agent

Gheorghe Pintilie was a Soviet intelligence agent, Russian citizen and naturalised Romanian communist activist of Ukrainian origin, and the first Director of the Securitate. As such, he was one of the main organizers of the repression in Communist Romania, responsible for the arrest, deportation, and internment of around 400,000 people.

Emil Bodnăraș Romanian general and politician

Emil Bodnăraș was an influential Romanian Communist politician, an army officer, and a Soviet agent. He was involved in many of the events of Communist Romania, thus making him a complex figure of Romanian Communism.

Noel Bernard was a Romanian journalist, known for being the head of the Romanian-language department of Radio Free Europe (RFE). His mysterious death is believed by some to have been caused by Communist Romania's secret police, the Securitate, which is known to have previously sought his neutralisation.

Radu was, according to Ion Mihai Pacepa, a radiological weapon used against dissenters and critics by Nicolae Ceaușescu's Securitate. "Radu" is a Romanian name and in this context it is a reference to "radiation". The supposed weapon was intended to lead to cancer which would result in death within months after the exposure.

Pope Pius XII and Russia describes relations of the Vatican with the Soviet Union, Russia, the Orthodox Church, United Oriental Churches resulting in the eradication of the Church in most parts of the Soviet Union during the Stalinist era. Most persecutions of the Church occurred during the pontificate of Pope Pius XII.

Bartolomeu Anania, born Valeriu Anania, was a Romanian Orthodox bishop, translator, writer and poet; he was the Metropolitan of Cluj, Alba, Crişana and Maramureş.

Valeriu Graur was a political dissident of Bessarabia, a member of the National Patriotic Front of Moldova.

Nicolae Pleșiță Romanian intelligence official

Nicolae Pleșiță was a Romanian intelligence official and secret police investigator. From 1980 to 1984, he led the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Securitate, the secret service of Communist Romania. He was described by the New York Times and Associated Press at the time of his death as "a die-hard Communist and ruthless chief of the Securitate secret police."

Virgil Măgureanu, is a Romanian sociologist that was the head of the main intelligence service of Romania, Serviciul Român de Informații, or SRI between March 26, 1990 and April 25, 1997.

Ștefan Andrei politician from Romania

Ștefan Andrei was a Romanian communist politician who served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania from 1978 to 1985. He was arrested after the 1989 overthrow of the Nicolae Ceaușescu regime.

Seat 12

Seat 12, also known as Operation Seat 12, was a disinformation campaign of communist propaganda during the Cold War to discredit the moral authority of the Vatican because of its outspoken anticommunism. The plot was disclosed in 2007 by Ion Mihai Pacepa, a general who headed the Romanian secret service before defecting to the West in 1978.

Aleksandr Sakharovsky

Aleksandr Michael Sakharovsky was a Soviet General who was head of the First Chief Directorate of the KGB from 1955 until 1970. Sakharovsky oversaw the KGB foreign intelligence division during some of the key events of the Cold War, including the Hungarian uprising and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Vasile Patilineț Romanian politician

Vasile Patilineț was a Romanian communist activist, politician and diplomat. A worker and native of the industrial Jiu Valley, he joined the Romanian Communist Party in 1945 and steadily rose through its ranks, entering the central committee a decade later. Subsequently, he became a close ally of Nicolae Ceaușescu, whose rise to power in 1965 he helped facilitate. A significant player in the early years of the latter's rule, he became steadily alarmed by the dictator's excesses and began plotting against him by the late 1970s. He was sent as ambassador to Turkey in 1980, and six years later, upon finishing his service at Ankara, was killed in a suspicious car accident.

<i>Disinformation</i> (book) book

Disinformation: Former Spy Chief Reveals Secret Strategies for Undermining Freedom, Attacking Religion, and Promoting Terrorism is a non-fiction book about disinformation tactics and history rooted in information warfare. It was written by former three-star general in the Securitate, the secret police of Socialist Republic of Romania, Ion Mihai Pacepa, and law professor Ronald J. Rychlak. It was published in 2013 along with a companion film, Disinformation: The Secret Strategy to Destroy the West.

References

  1. Red Horizons: the 2nd Book. The True Story of Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu's Crimes, Lifestyle, and Corruption, 1990. ISBN   0-89526-746-2
  2. "Red past in Romania's present", by Arnaud de Borchgrave, The Washington Times, 14 January 2004
  3. 1 2 Deletant, Dennis (1995) Ceauşescu and the Securitate: Coercion and Dissent in Romania, 1965–1989. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. pp. 322–323. ISBN   1563246333.
  4. "What I Learned as a Car Czar". The Wall Street Journal. 2 June 2009.
  5. http://www.unz.org/Pub/AmSpectator-1988apr-00047
  6. Regnery, Alfred S. "Book Inspired Counter-Revolution", published in Human Events, 22 October 2001
  7. "The Securitate Arsenal for Carlos," Ziua , Bucharest, 2004
  8. Leeden, Michael (4 September 2016). "The Greatest Spy Speaks About The Threat To America". Forbes. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  9. 1 2 Pacepa, Ion Mihai (28 November 2006) "The Kremlin's Killing Ways" Archived 8 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine , National Review Online.
  10. "Romania’s Rebirth" Archived 14 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine , National Review Online, 27 July 2006
  11. 1 2 3 Peake, Hayden B. (June 2007). Vaart, Andres (ed.). "The Intelligence Officer's Bookshelf" (pdf). Intelligence in Public Literature. Studies in Intelligence. Washington, D.C.: Center for the Study of Intelligence. 52 (2): 88–89. ISSN   1527-0874. OCLC   30965384 . Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  12. 1 2 3 Publishers Weekly (25 June 2007). "Programmed to Kill: Lee Harvey Oswald, the Soviet KGB, and the Kennedy Assassination". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  13. Kennedy Assassination and Soviet KGB Connection Explored in Book. Human Events (28 December 2007). Retrieved on 2016-11-16.
  14. H-Net Reviews. H-net.org. Retrieved on 16 November 2016.
  15. Goulden, Joseph (11 November 2007). "The art of conspiracy theory". The Washington Times. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  16. What does Moscow have to do with the recent war in Lebanon?. National Review. Retrieved on 16 November 2016.
  17. "Moscow's Assault on the Vatican", National Review Online, 25 January 2007
  18. Authors: Pope Pius XII Was Framed by KGB. Newsmax.com. Retrieved on 16 November 2016.
  19. Claims that Pius XII Was Framed Gaining Support. ncregister.com. Retrieved on 16 November 2016.
  20. Claims that Pius XII Was Framed Gaining Support, Part 2. ncregister.com. Retrieved on 16 November 2016.
  21. Spontaneous anti-American demonstrations? Think again National Review Online 18 March 2003
  22. 1 2 "Ex-spy fingers Russians on WMD". Archived from the original on 4 April 2005. Retrieved 12 April 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), The Washington Times, 2 October 2003