Ip massacre

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Ip massacre
Zilah 1940. szeptember 8.jpg
Hungarian troops marching in nearby Zalău, five days earlier
LocationIpp, Kingdom of Hungary (present-day Ip, Sălaj, Romania)
Date13/14 September 1940
03:00 (CET)
Attack type
genocide (targeted killing of the local ethnic Romanians), ethnic cleansing, reprisal
Weapons Machine guns, rifles, revolvers, bayonets
Deathsbetween 152–158 ethnic Romanians + 16 reported deserters
Perpetrator Royal Hungarian Army, locals, Nemzetőrség members

The events of the Ip massacre escalated in the early hours of 14 September 1940, in Ip, Sălaj (Northern Transylvania; Hungarian : Ipp). After two Hungarian soldiers died there in an accidental explosion, rumors spread that they had been killed by Romanians. After another incident the Hungarian Army, influenced by the rumor, indiscriminately killed around 150 ethnic Romanians in the nearby locations and surrounding areas.

Ip, Sălaj Commune in Sălaj County, Romania

Ip is a commune in Sălaj County, Romania. It is composed of five villages: Cosniciu de Jos (Alsókaznacs), Cosniciu de Sus (Felsőkaznacs), Ip, Zăuan (Szilágyzovány) and Zăuan-Băi (Zoványfürdő).

Northern Transylvania

Northern Transylvania was the region of the Kingdom of Romania that during World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. With an area of 43,104 km2 (16,643 sq mi), the population was largely composed of both ethnic Romanians and Hungarians. After World War II, the Paris Peace Treaties returned Northern Transylvania to Romania.

Hungarian language language spoken in and around Hungary

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia and northern Slovenia. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America and Israel. Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. With 13 million speakers, it is the family's largest member by number of speakers.

Contents

Background

After the Vienna Award of 30 August 1940, as a result of the German-Italian arbitration, northwestern Transylvania became part of Hungary again, it contained the northwestern part of the homonymous region and the Székely lands. A total of eight of 23 Transylvanian counties included in the interwar period were entirely alienated, and another three were split. Thus, Sălaj County was also attached to Hungary. On 7 September 1940 the Second Army arrived to Ipp (present-day Ip) where they made a short stop. After preparing to leave, more acquired grenades exploded in one of the sling-carts and in the detonation two soldiers died. The negligence of the proper storage was quickly identified but soon rumor had it that it was a willful action. This view escalated rapidly. [1]

Second Vienna Award award

The Second Vienna Award, also known as the Second Vienna Diktat was the second of two territorial disputes arbitrated by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Rendered on 30 August 1940, it assigned the territory of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary.. Romania was in this way forced by the Axis Powers to cede a part of Transylvania to Hungary.

Transylvania Historical region of Romania

Transylvania is a historical region which is located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, and occasionally the Romanian part of Banat.

Sălaj County County in Nord-Vest, Romania

Sălaj County is a county (județ) of Romania, located in the north-west of the country, in the historical regions of Crișana and Transylvania. It is bordered to the north by Satu Mare and Maramureș counties, to the west and south-west by Bihor County, and to the south-east by Cluj County. Zalău is the county seat as well as its largest city.

On 8 September 1940, the Second Army entered the city of Zalău. [2]

Zalău County seat in Sălaj County, Romania

Zalău is the seat of Sălaj County, Romania. In 2011, its estimated population was 56,202.

On 13 September the military commander of the district of Szilágysomlyó (present-day Șimleu Silvaniei) informed that nearby the villages of Alsókaznacs, Felsőkaznacs, Márkaszék, Porc, Lecsmér, Somály and Kémer (present-day Cosniciu de Jos, Cosniciu de Sus, Marca, Porț, Leșmir, Șumal, Camăr) armed Romanian groups were looting. According to the report their number was between 80–100. Based on this report the 32. Regiment stationing in Zilah (present-day Zalău) assigned a group to investigate the area. Meanwhile the road, they arrived to Szilágynagyfalu (present-day Nușfalău) where they had been informed a few days before in Ipp two soldiers died in a detonation thus the same day they entered the commune where they conducted a raid instantly. [3]

Șimleu Silvaniei Town in Sălaj County, Romania

Șimleu Silvaniei is a town in Sălaj County, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 16,066 people. Is located near the ancient Dacian fortress Dacidava.

After the reconnaissance 18 suspicious persons were found and 16 had been executed, according to the official reports, because of their attempts to desert. Overnight, the Hungarian troops were residing in the local school when they were shot at from the street with a machine gun around 03:00 AM (some witnesses attested that the shootings came from a flat in the center, and five persons with machine guns were captured). In retaliation, between 152 and 158 ethnic Romanians were killed. [1] [4] Some sources have stated that the Hungarian Army was supported by local vigilantes. [5]

In practice the soldiers in panic went house by house and shot everybody indiscriminately. On 14 September, in Somlyócsehi (present-day Cehei), one person was killed. In the nearby Felsőkaznacs and Szilágcseres forests (present-day Cosniciu de Sus and Cerișa) 55 persons were killed. According to some other sources, the area most affected was Sălaj, where 477 Romanians were massacred. [6]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 A történelem tanúi – Erdély – bevonulás (1940), pg. 25; ISBN   978-963-251-473-4 (in Hungarian)
  2. Fătu, Mihai; Mușat, Mircea; Bodea, Gheorghe (1985). Teroarea horthysto-fascistă în nord-vestul României: Septembrie 1940 – Octombrie 1944. Bucharest: Political Publishing House.
  3. Illésfalvi Péter: A román-magyar kapcsolatok katonai vonatkozásai 1940–1944 között (Pertinence of the Romanian-Hungarian military relations between 1940–1944), Háború, hadsereg, összeomlás Magyarország katonai részvétele és szerepe a második világháborúban. Szerk. Markó György, Zrínyi, Budapest, 2005. pp. 93–103. (in Hungarian) (War, army, downfall – The participation and role of Hungary in WWII)
  4. Ţurlea, Petre (1996). Ip și Trăznea: Atrocități maghiare și acțiune diplomatică românească. Bucharest: Encyclopedic Publishing House. ISBN   973-45-0181-X.
  5. Lehrer, Milton G. (1991). Pătroiu, Ion, ed. Ardealul pământ românesc. Problema Ardealului văzută de un american (in Romanian). Cluj-Napoca: Vatra Românească. ISBN   973-29-0010-5.
  6. "VII – Transilvania în cel de-al Doilea Război Mondial". Istoria României. Transilvania (in Romanian). II. Cluj-Napoca: George Barițiu Publishing House. 1997. p. 34.