Hungarian troops marching in nearby Zalău, five days earlier
|Location||Ipp, Kingdom of Hungary (present-day Ip, Sălaj, Romania)|
|Date||13/14 September 1940 |
|genocide (targeted killing of the local ethnic Romanians), ethnic cleansing, reprisal|
|Weapons||Machine guns, rifles, revolvers, bayonets|
|Deaths||between 152–158 ethnic Romanians + 16 reported deserters|
|Perpetrator||Royal Hungarian Army, locals, Nemzetőrség members|
The events of the Ip massacre escalated in the early hours of 14 September 1940, in Ip, Sălaj (Northern Transylvania; Hungarian : Ipp). After two Hungarian soldiers died there in an accidental explosion, rumors spread that they had been killed by Romanians. After another incident the Hungarian Army, influenced by the rumor, indiscriminately killed around 150 ethnic Romanians in the nearby locations and surrounding areas.
Ip is a commune in Sălaj County, Romania. It is composed of five villages: Cosniciu de Jos (Alsókaznacs), Cosniciu de Sus (Felsőkaznacs), Ip, Zăuan (Szilágyzovány) and Zăuan-Băi (Zoványfürdő).
Northern Transylvania was the region of the Kingdom of Romania that during World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. With an area of 43,104 km2 (16,643 sq mi), the population was largely composed of both ethnic Romanians and Hungarians. After World War II, the Paris Peace Treaties returned Northern Transylvania to Romania.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia and northern Slovenia. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America and Israel. Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. With 13 million speakers, it is the family's largest member by number of speakers.
After the Vienna Award of 30 August 1940, as a result of the German-Italian arbitration, northwestern Transylvania became part of Hungary again, it contained the northwestern part of the homonymous region and the Székely lands. A total of eight of 23 Transylvanian counties included in the interwar period were entirely alienated, and another three were split. Thus, Sălaj County was also attached to Hungary. On 7 September 1940 the Second Army arrived to Ipp (present-day Ip) where they made a short stop. After preparing to leave, more acquired grenades exploded in one of the sling-carts and in the detonation two soldiers died. The negligence of the proper storage was quickly identified but soon rumor had it that it was a willful action. This view escalated rapidly.
The Second Vienna Award, also known as the Second Vienna Diktat was the second of two territorial disputes arbitrated by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Rendered on 30 August 1940, it assigned the territory of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary.. Romania was in this way forced by the Axis Powers to cede a part of Transylvania to Hungary.
Transylvania is a historical region which is located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, and occasionally the Romanian part of Banat.
Sălaj County is a county (județ) of Romania, located in the north-west of the country, in the historical regions of Crișana and Transylvania. It is bordered to the north by Satu Mare and Maramureș counties, to the west and south-west by Bihor County, and to the south-east by Cluj County. Zalău is the county seat as well as its largest city.
On 8 September 1940, the Second Army entered the city of Zalău.
Zalău is the seat of Sălaj County, Romania. In 2011, its estimated population was 56,202.
On 13 September the military commander of the district of Szilágysomlyó (present-day Șimleu Silvaniei) informed that nearby the villages of Alsókaznacs, Felsőkaznacs, Márkaszék, Porc, Lecsmér, Somály and Kémer (present-day Cosniciu de Jos, Cosniciu de Sus, Marca, Porț, Leșmir, Șumal, Camăr) armed Romanian groups were looting. According to the report their number was between 80–100. Based on this report the 32. Regiment stationing in Zilah (present-day Zalău) assigned a group to investigate the area. Meanwhile the road, they arrived to Szilágynagyfalu (present-day Nușfalău) where they had been informed a few days before in Ipp two soldiers died in a detonation thus the same day they entered the commune where they conducted a raid instantly.
Șimleu Silvaniei is a town in Sălaj County, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 16,066 people. Is located near the ancient Dacian fortress Dacidava.
After the reconnaissance 18 suspicious persons were found and 16 had been executed, according to the official reports, because of their attempts to desert. Overnight, the Hungarian troops were residing in the local school when they were shot at from the street with a machine gun around 03:00 AM (some witnesses attested that the shootings came from a flat in the center, and five persons with machine guns were captured). In retaliation, between 152 and 158 ethnic Romanians were killed.Some sources have stated that the Hungarian Army was supported by local vigilantes.
In practice the soldiers in panic went house by house and shot everybody indiscriminately. On 14 September, in Somlyócsehi (present-day Cehei), one person was killed. In the nearby Felsőkaznacs and Szilágcseres forests (present-day Cosniciu de Sus and Cerișa) 55 persons were killed. According to some other sources, the area most affected was Sălaj, where 477 Romanians were massacred.
Cluj-Napoca, commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest, Budapest and Belgrade. Located in the Someșul Mic River valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province of Transylvania. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.
Jibou ; Hungarian: Zsibó[ˈʒiboː]; German: Siben) is a town in Sălaj County, Transylvania, Romania. In 2011 it had a population of 10,407. Jibou includes the town proper and other four villages: Rona, Cuceu (Kucsó), Husia (Hosszúújfalu) and Var (Szamosőrmező).
The Kolozsvár Ghetto was one of the lesser-known Jewish ghettos of the World War II era. The ghetto was located in the city of Kolozsvár, Kingdom of Hungary. Between the signing of the Treaty of Trianon in 1920 and the Second Vienna Award in 1940, Cluj was a part of Romania. In 1947, the Paris Peace Treaties gave Northern Transylvania to Romania.
The Treznea massacre occurred in the village of Treznea (Ördögkút) in north-western Transylvania on 9 September 1940, during the handing over of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary after the Second Vienna Award.
George Bariț, often rendered as George Barițiu, was a Romanian historian, philologist, playwright, politician, businessman and journalist, the founder of the Romanian language press in Transylvania.
Câlnic is a commune in Alba County, Romania, composed of two villages, Câlnic and Deal (Dál). Câlnic village is known for its castle, which is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
The history of Cluj-Napoca covers the time from the Roman conquest of Dacia, when a Roman settlement named Napoca existed on the location of the later city, through the founding of Cluj and its flourishing as the main cultural and religious center in the historic province of Transylvania, until its modern existence as a city, the seat of Cluj County in north-western Romania.
The Reformed Church in Romania is the organization of the Calvinist church in Romania. The majority of its followers are of Hungarian ethnicity and Hungarian is the main church language. The large majority of the Church's parishes are in Transylvania; according to the 2002 census, 701,077 people or 3.15% of the total population belong to the Reformed Church. About 95% of the members were of Hungarian ethnicity.
Alimpiu Barbuloviciu was the Vicar Forane of the Greek Catholic Vicariate of Șimleu Silvaniei (1873–1913) and the head of the branch of Astra in Sălaj County.
Țara Călatei, The Land of Călata, is a region in Transylvania, Romania. It is one of the many areas in Western Romania with a significant Hungarian population, and it is a stronghold of old Transylvanian Hungarian folk traditions.
The 1848–1849 massacres in Transylvania were committed in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. According to Egyed Ákos, 14,000 to 15,000 civilians were massacred in Transylvania in this period. The victims were composed of 7,500–8,500 Hungarians, 4,400–6,000 Romanians, and about 500 Saxons, Armenians, Jews, and members of other groups.
Béla Nagy Abodi was Hungarian painter, and professor of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cluj-Napoca.
Sărmașu massacre refers to the torture and massacre of 165 people, primarily Jews, committed by Hungarian paramilitaries in Sărmașu, Mureș County.
Emil Giurgiuca was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian poet.
Alexandru I. Lapedatu was Cults and Arts and State minister of Romania; President of the Senate of Romania; member of the Romanian Academy, and its President and General Secretary.