|Died||March 4, 1927 81) (aged|
|Alma mater|| College of Physicians and Surgeons |
University of Göttingen
|Known for||Discovery of saccharin |
Founder, American Chemical Journal
|Awards|| Priestley Medal (1923)|
Willard Gibbs Award (1914)
|Institutions|| EK University, Tübingen |
Johns Hopkins University
|Doctoral advisor||Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig|
|Doctoral students|| William Henry Emerson |
William A. Noyes
Ira Remsen (February 10, 1846 – March 4, 1927) was a chemist who, along with Constantin Fahlberg, discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.
Constantin Fahlberg was a Russian chemist who discovered the sweet taste of anhydroorthosulphaminebenzoic acid in 1877–78 when analysing the chemical compounds in coal tar at Johns Hopkins University for Professor Ira Remsen. Later Fahlberg gave this chemical "body" the trade name Saccharin.
Sodium saccharin is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy. It is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. Saccharin is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, cookies, and medicines.
Ira Remsen was born in New York City and earned an M.D. from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1867. Remsen subsequently studied chemistry in Germany, studying under chemist Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig, receiving a PhD from University of Göttingen in 1870.In 1872, after researching pure chemistry at University of Tübingen, Remsen returned to the United States and became a professor at Williams College, where he wrote the popular text Theoretical Chemistry. Remsen's book and reputation brought him to the attention of Daniel Coit Gilman, who invited him to become one of the original faculty of Johns Hopkins University. Remsen accepted and founded the department of chemistry there, overseeing his own laboratory. In 1879 Remsen founded the American Chemical Journal, which he edited for 35 years.
The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, colloquially known as P&S and formerly Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, is the graduate professional medical school of Columbia University. Located at the Columbia University Irving Medical Center in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan with its affiliate New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Founded in 1767 by Samuel Bard as the medical department of King's College, the College of Physicians and Surgeons was the first medical school in the thirteen colonies and hence, the United States, to award the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree. Beginning in 1993, P&S also was the first U.S. medical school to hold a white coat ceremony.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
In 1879 Fahlberg, working with Remsen in a post-doctoral capacity, made an accidental discovery that changed Remsen's career. Eating rolls at dinner after a long day in the lab researching coal tar derivatives, Fahlberg noticed that the rolls tasted initially sweet but then bitter.Since his wife tasted nothing strange about the rolls, Fahlberg tasted his fingers and noticed that the bitter taste was probably from one of the chemicals in his lab. The next day at his lab he tasted the chemicals that he had been working with the previous day and discovered that it was the oxidation of o-toluenesulfonamide he had tasted the previous evening. He named the substance saccharin and he and his research partner Remsen published their finding in 1880. Later Remsen became angry after Fahlberg, in patenting saccharin, claimed that he alone had discovered saccharin. Remsen had no interest in the commercial success of saccharin, from which Fahlberg profited, but he was incensed at the perceived dishonesty of not crediting him as the head of the laboratory.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal. It has both medical and industrial uses. It may be applied to the affected area to treat psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff). It may be used in combination with ultraviolet light therapy. Industrially it is a railway tie preservative and used in the surfacing of roads.
Throughout his academic career, Remsen was known as an excellent teacher, rigorous in his expectations but patient with the beginner. "His lectures to beginners were models of didactic exposition, and many of his graduate students owe much of their later success in their own lecture rooms to the pedagogical training received from attendance upon Remsen's lectures to freshmen."
In 1901 Remsen was appointed the president of Johns Hopkins, where he proceeded to found a School of Engineering and helped establish the school as a research university. He introduced many of the German laboratory techniques he had learned and wrote several important chemistry textbooks. In 1912 he stepped down as president, due to ill health, and retired to Carmel, California.
In 1923 he was awarded the Priestley medal.He died on March 4, 1927.
After his death, the new chemistry building, completed in 1924, was named after him at Johns Hopkins. His ashes are located behind a plaque in Remsen Hall; he is the only person buried on campus.[ citation needed ]
His Baltimore house was added to the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1975.
Remsen Hall in Queens College is also named for him.[ citation needed ]
In 1946, to commemorate the centenary of Remsen, the Maryland chapter of the American Chemical Society, began awarding the Remsen award, in his honor.Awardees are frequently of the highest caliber, and included a sequence of 16 Nobel laureates between 1950 and 1980.
Robert Ghormley Parr was an American theoretical chemist who was a Professor of Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. Founded in 1876 at New York University, the ACS currently has nearly 157,000 members at all degree levels and in all fields of chemistry, chemical engineering, and related fields. It is the world's largest scientific society by membership. The ACS is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization and holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., and it has a large concentration of staff in Columbus, Ohio.
The Priestley Medal is the highest honor conferred by the American Chemical Society (ACS) and is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry. Established in 1922, the award is named after Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen who immigrated to the United States of America in 1794. The ACS formed in 1876, spearheaded by a group of chemists who had met two years previously in Priestley's home.
Robert Howard Grubbs, ForMemRS, is an American chemist and the Victor and Elizabeth Atkins Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology in Southern California. He was a co-recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on olefin metathesis. He is a co-founder of Materia, a University spin-off startup to produce catalysts.
Gilbert Stork was an organic chemist. For a quarter of a century he was the Eugene Higgins Professor of Chemistry Emeritus at Columbia University. He is known for making significant contributions to the total synthesis of natural products, including a lifelong fascination with the synthesis of quinine. In so doing he also made a number of contributions to mechanistic understanding of reactions, and performed pioneering work on enamine chemistry, leading to development of the Stork enamine alkylation. It is believed he was responsible for the first planned stereocontrolled synthesis as well as the first natural product to be synthesised with high stereoselectivity.
Peter B. Dervan is the Bren Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology. The primary focus of his research is the development and study of small organic molecules that can sequence-specifically recognize DNA, a field in which he is an internationally recognized authority. The most important of these small molecules are pyrrole–imidazole polyamides. Dervan is credited with influencing "the course of research in organic chemistry through his studies at the interface of chemistry and biology" as a result of his work on "the chemical principles involved in sequence-specific recognition of double helical DNA". He is the recipient of many awards, including the National Medal of Science (2006).
The Irving Langmuir Prize in Chemical Physics is awarded annually, in even years by the American Chemical Society and in odd years by the American Physical Society. The award is meant to recognize and encourage outstanding interdisciplinary research in chemistry and physics, in the spirit of Irving Langmuir. A nominee must have made an outstanding contribution to chemical physics or physical chemistry within the 10 years preceding the year in which the award is made. The award will be granted without restriction, except that the recipient must be a resident of the United States.
William Gould Young was an American physical organic chemist and professor at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). He served as Vice Chancellor at UCLA for 13 years, was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. The chemistry building at UCLA bears his name.
Samuel Colville Lind was a radiation chemist, referred to as "the father of modern radiation chemistry". He was elected a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences in 1930. He served as president of the American Electrochemical Society in 1927 and the American Chemical Society in 1940. Among his awards was the Ira Remsen Award in 1947, and the Priestley Medal in 1952.
Melanie Sarah Sanford is an American chemist, who currently works at the University of Michigan, where she holds the positions of Moses Gomberg Collegiate Professor of Chemistry and Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Chemistry.
Charles R. Martin is an American Distinguished Professor of chemistry at University of Florida. He is a nanotechnology expert and a pioneer of membrane-based template synthesis of nanomaterials. He is listed as one of the World's Top 100 Chemists of the past decade (2000–2010) by Thompson Reuters. He is also a musician and songwriter in Gainesville, Florida. He is also the author of this Wikipedia page.
The Local Section of the American Chemical Society has awarded the Herty Medal since 1933 in honor of Charles Herty. The medallion is solid gold and is inscribed with the words "pro scientia et patria - Herty 1933." The Latin phrase translates roughly as "for science and country".
Martha J. B. Thomas, MBA (1926–2006) was an American chemical engineer and analytical chemist. She is particularly known for her work on phosphorus.
Sarah Elizabeth Reisman is a Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology and winner of the Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award and Tetrahedron Young Investigator Award for Organic Synthesis.
Vicki Helene Grassian is a Distinguished Professor at University of California, San Diego in the Departments of NanoEngineering, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Scripps Institution of Oceanography. She also holds the Distinguished Chair in Physical Chemistry and serves Executive Associate Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences.
Madeleine Jacobs was the CEO of the American Chemical Society (ACS) from 2004 to 2014, and the president and CEO of the Council of Scientific Society Presidents from 2015 to 2016.
Nina Matheny Roscher (1938—2001) was an American chemist and advocate for women and minorities in science. She also researched the history of women in chemistry, publishing the book Women Chemists (1995). She served as professor and chair of the chemistry department at American University in Washington, D.C. She received the ACS Award for Encouraging Women into Careers in the Chemical Sciences (1996) and the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring (1998).
The Polanyi Medal is a biennial award of the Royal Society of Chemistry for outstanding contributions to the field of gas kinetics. The medal is presented at the International Symposium on Gas Kinetics after a plenary lecture given by the prize winner.
The Priestley medal awarded every three years by the American Chemical Society for distinguished services to chemistry, will be bestowed upon Dr. Ira Remsen, President Emeritus of Johns Hopkins University, at ceremonies in Milwaukee, Wis., on Sept. 12, in connection with the annual meeting of the society, it was announced here last night.
It was the intention of the Maryland Section that Remsen Memorial Lecturers should be chemists of outstanding ability, as exemplified by Ira Remsen's long and devoted career as an exponent of the highest standard in teaching and reserach [sic] in chemistry. That the intentions of the Section have been fulfilled is attested by the great honor and esteem that have become associated with the receipt of the Remsen Lectureship.
The year 1946 marks the one-hundredth anniversary of the birth of Ira Remsen, first professor of chemistry and second president of The Johns Hopkins University. The chemists of Maryland, through the Maryland Section of the American Chemical Society, have appropriately chosen this year to initiate a series of lectures in his honor, and Professor Roger Adams of the University of Illinois was selected as the first Remsen Lecturer.
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