Iran and Red and Black Colonization

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"Iran and Red and Black Colonization" (Persian : ایران و استعمار سرخ و سیاه) was the title of an article written by Ahmad Rashidi Motlagh published in Ettela'at newspaper on 7 January 1978. [1] The article was used to attack Ruhollah Khomeini, described as an Indian Sayyed, who later founded the Islamic Republic of Iran. [2] [3]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

<i>Ettelaat</i> Persian language daily newspaper

Ettela'at is a Persian language daily newspaper published in Iran. It is among the oldest publications in the country, and the oldest running Persian daily newspaper in the world. The paper has a conservative stance and focuses on political, cultural, social and economic news.

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and marja. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

Contents

Background

The hostilities between Iran and Iraq ended with a treaty proposed in 1975. Iranians were allowed to travel to Iraq in 1976. As result many tapes and writings of the Ayatollah Khomeini, who was in exile in Iraq, were brought into Iran. Disapproval of the Shah was increasing in Iranian mosques. People were demanding that the Constitution of 1906/07 be fully restored. Articles in the constitution included: the right to free elections, a government responsible to the elected legislative body or the Majles , a Shah with limited authority, and a committee of Mujtahids to veto bills not deemed to be in accord with Muslim law. [2] [4]

Iran–Iraq relations Diplomatic relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq

Iran–Iraq relations extend for millennia into the past. The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq share a long border and an ancient cultural and religious heritage. In ancient times Iraq formed part of the core of Persia for about a thousand years.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

1975 Algiers Agreement

The 1975 Algiers Agreement was an agreement between Iran and Iraq to settle their border disputes and conflicts, and it served as basis for the bilateral treaties signed on 13 June and 26 December 1975. The agreement was meant to end the disputes between Iraq and Iran on their borders in Shatt al-Arab and Khuzestan, but the main reason for Iraq was to end the Kurdish rebellion. Less than six years after signing the treaty, on 17 September 1980, Iraq abolished the treaty but under international law, one nation cannot unilaterally reject a previously ratified treaty, and the treaty had no clause providing for abrogation by one nation only.

In October 1977, the mysterious death of Khomeini's son Mostafa caused the people's dissatisfaction to grow, in part because journalists Nikki Keddie and Yann Richard attributed his death to SAVAK, Iran's secret police. [2] In January 1978, in an attempt to reduce religious opposition inciting people against the Shah, the Iranian newspaper Ettela'at published an article entitled "Iran and Red and Black Colonization" which attacked Ruhollah Khomeini. [2] The article was published one week after a speech by President Jimmy Carter in which he referred to Iran as an "island of stability" in one of the more troubled areas of the world. [5]

Mostafa Khomeini Iranian religious servant

Sayyid Mostafa Khomeini was an Iranian cleric and the son of Ayatollah Khomeini. He died before the 1979 revolution.

Nikki R. Keddie is an American scholar of Eastern, Iranian, and women's history. She is Professor Emerita of History at University of California, Los Angeles.

Yann Richard, born in 1948 in Joncy (Saône-et-Loire), France, professor emeritus of the Sorbonne nouvelle (Paris) is a specialist of modern Shiʿism, the history of contemporary Iran as well as Persian literature.

Events

On 4 January 1978, the article "Iran and Red and Black Colonization" was sealed in the Imperial Court and sent from Prime Minister Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, who is thought to have written it, [6] to Information Minister Daryush Homayun for publication in one of Iran's newspapers. [7] The regime saw the article as a way to attack its religious opponents. It was published on 7 January 1978 in Ettela'at , printed in red ink on page 7 in the section known as "Comments and Ideas". [2] The article contained offensive content about Ayatollah Khomeini, who was described as a foreign agent. [8] Khomeini was attacked as an adventurer who was faithless and devoted to colonialism. [9] The article described him as an Indian Sayyed who had lived for some time in India, and had contact with British colonial centres. [3] The article was written at the Imperial Court based on documents that had been collected by SAVAK. Because the original text of the article was relatively tame, the Shah had allegedly ordered it to be rewritten and its tone had then become more insulting.

Amir-Abbas Hoveyda Iranian politician

Amir-Abbas Hoveyda was an Iranian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran from 27 January 1965 to 7 August 1977. He was prime minister for 13 years and is the longer serving prime minister in Iran's history. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance in Mansur's cabinet. After the Iranian Revolution, he was tried by the newly established Revolutionary Court for "waging war against God" and "spreading corruption on earth" and executed.

Dariush Homayoon Government minister of Iran

Daryoush Homayoun (Persian: داریوش همایون;

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Ahmad Rashidi Motlagh was the fictitious name of the author of "Iran and Red and Black Colonization". [1] [7] According to Bahman Baktiari, the main authors of the article were Daryush Homayun and Farhad Nikukhah, a low-ranking ministry official. [1] The day that the article was published fell on the anniversary of the unveiling when Reza Shah had declared the law banning women from wearing the hijab. [10]

Kashf-e hijab

On 8 January 1936, pro-western ruler Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (Persia) issued a decree known as Kashf-e hijab banning all Islamic veils, an edict that was swiftly and forcefully implemented. The government also banned many types of male traditional clothing. Since then, the Hijab issue has become a deep wound in the Iranian politics. One of the enduring legacies of Reza Shah has been turning dress into an integral problem of Iranian politics.

Reza Shah Shah of the Imperial State of Iran

Reza Shah Pahlavi, commonly known as Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

Hijab veil worn by Muslim women

A hijab in common English usage is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest. The term can refer to any head, face, or body covering worn by Muslim women that conforms to Islamic standards of modesty. Hijab can also refer to the seclusion of women from men in the public sphere, or it may denote a metaphysical dimension, for example referring to "the veil which separates man or the world from God."

Reaction

One day after the publication of the article, it was met with huge protests in Qom. [11] Classes at Qom's seminary were cancelled. People went to the homes of Marja' in Tehran and Qom to show their support. [4] In the evening, at the Azam mosque of Qom, they chanted slogans such as "Long live Khomeini" and "Death to the Pahlavi regime". [10]

Qom City in Iran

Qom is the seventh metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province. It is located 140 km to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census its population was 1,201,158. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.

Qom Seminary largest traditional Islamic school of higher learning

The Qom Seminary is the largest Islamic seminary (hawza) in Iran, established in 1922 by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi in Qom.

Marja highest clerical rank in Usuli Twelver Shia Islam

In Shia Islam, marjaʿ, also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī, literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics. After the Qur'an and the prophets and imams, marājiʿ are the highest authority on religious laws in Usuli Shia Islam.

On 9 January, the protests continued and grew larger. The Bazaar was closed. In the afternoon, police began firing into the crowd killing and injuring many people. The day after the shootings, people gathered to protest and to commemorate the deaths in many Iranian cities including: Tabriz, Yazd, Isfahan, Shiraz, Jahrom, and Ahwaz. [4] [10]

The article's publication was generally recognized as the beginning of the Iranian Revolution [5] and four hundred days later the Pahlavi dynasty was overthrown. This article had the effect of placing Khomeini at the center of the revolutionary movement. [1]

See also

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Iranian Revolution Revolution in Iran to overthrow the Shah replace him with Ayatollah Khomeini.

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Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari Iranian Shia faqih

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1978 Qom protests refers to the demonstrations against the Pahlavy dynasty ignited by the Iran and Red and Black Colonization article published in Ettela'at newspaper on 7 January 1978. The article insulted Khomeini, describing him as Indian Sayyed, who later founded the Islamic Republic of Iran.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 James Buchan (15 October 2013). Days of God: The Revolution in Iran and Its Consequences. Simon and Schuster. p. 147. ISBN   978-1-4165-9777-3.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Nikki R. Keddie (2006). Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution. Yale University Press. p. 225. ISBN   0-300-12105-9.
  3. 1 2 Hossein Shahidi (11 May 2007). Journalism in Iran: From Mission to Profession. Routledge. p. 9. ISBN   978-1-134-09391-5.
  4. 1 2 3 Zariri, Reza. "19th day of Dey (month)". Noor magze. Zamane Magezin. Retrieved 2005.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. 1 2 Christopher Andrew; Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones (13 September 2013). Eternal Vigilance?: 50 Years of the CIA. Routledge. p. 143. ISBN   978-1-135-22246-8.
  6. Fakhreddin AZIMI; Fakhreddin Azimi (30 June 2009). QUEST FOR DEMOCRACY IN IRAN C: a century of struggle against authoritarian rule. Harvard University Press. p. 207. ISBN   978-0-674-02036-8.
  7. 1 2 Shahedi, Mozaffar. "How was prepared the article named "Iran and the red and black colonialism" (PDF). magiran. Iran . Retrieved 2014.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  8. Bahman Baktiari (1996). Parliamentary Politics in Revolutionary Iran: The Institutionalization of Factional Politics. University Press of Florida. p. 49. ISBN   978-0-8130-1461-6.
  9. Tabaraeiyan, Sfa’aldin. "The bombing of the article and its effects". Noormags. magazine of Iran's contemporary history. Retrieved 2003.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  10. 1 2 3 International Affairs Department. "Kawthar Volume One" (PDF). International Affairs Department.
  11. Keddie, Nikki R.; Richard, Yann (2006). Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution (Updated ed.). Yale University Press. p. 225. ISBN   0300121059.