|Native name||இரணைமடு குளம்|
|River sources||Kanakarayan Aru|
|Catchment area||227 sq mi (588 km2)|
|Managing agency||Department of Irrigation,|
Northern Provincial Council
|Max. length||6 mi (10 km)|
|Max. width||1 mi (2 km)|
|Max. depth||34 ft (10 m)|
|Water volume||106,500 acre⋅ft (131,365,816 m3)|
|Surface elevation||101 ft (31 m)|
Iranamadu Tank (Tamil : இரணைமடு குளம் Iraṇaimaṭu Kuḷam; Sinhala : ඉරණමඩු වැව) is an irrigation tank in northern Sri Lanka, approximately 3 mi (5 km) south east of Kilinochchi.
Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Douglas, and Chindians. Tamil is an official language of three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. It is also the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. It is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.
Sinhala, also known as Sinhalese, is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million. Sinhala is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. Sinhala is written using Sinhala script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script closely related to the Kadamba script.
An irrigation tank or tank is an artificial reservoir of any size. They are mainly found in India.. It can also have a natural or man-made spring included as part of a structure. Tanks are part of an ancient tradition of harvesting and preserving the local rainfall and water from streams and rivers for later use, primarily for agriculture and drinking water, but also for sacred bathing and ritual. Often a tank was constructed across a slope so to collect and store water by taking advantage of local mounds and depressions. Tank use is especially critical in parts of South India without perennial rainfall where water supply replenishment is dependent on a cycle of dry seasons alternating with monsoon seasons.
In 1902 the Director of Irrigation H. T. S. Ward came up with proposals for building a new irrigation tank on the Kanakarayan Aru in northern Ceylon. 227 sq mi (588 km2) and was to hold 26 ft (8 m) of water, began in July 1902 but was delayed by the World War I. Construction was completed in 1921 and the tank was filled and spilling in November 1921. The tank was created by joining up two low lying swamps of the Kanakarayan Aru. Construction was carried out manually and the labourers were housed in a new colony - present day Kilinochchi. The tank cost Rs. 194,000 to construct. The tank's name was derived from the Tamil words for two (iranai) and pond (madu).Work in the tank, which had a catchment area of
Kanakarayan Aru is a river in Northern Province, Sri Lanka. The river rises in eastern Vavuniya District, near Omanthai, before flowing north through Vavuniya District, Mullaitivu District and Kilinochchi District. The river empties into the Chundikkulam Lagoon.
Ceylon was the British Crown colony of present day Sri Lanka between 1815 and 1948. Initially the area it covered did not include the Kingdom of Kandy, which was a protectorate, but from 1817 to 1948 the British possessions included the whole island of Ceylon, now the nation of Sri Lanka.
In human geography, a catchment area is the area from which a city, service or institution attracts a population that uses its services. For example, a school catchment area is the geographic area from which students are eligible to attend a local school.
In the 1940s a severe drought in the Jaffna islands resulted in large numbers of people migrating to the Kilinochchi area where they were given free land to farm near the Iranamadu tank. 30 ft (9 m) of water, increasing storage capacity to 71,000 acre⋅ft (87,577,210 m3). An additional sluice was built on the right bank and the tank was extended onto lands on both banks. The bund was raised to 32 ft (10 m) in 1954 to give a storage capacity of 82,000 acre⋅ft (101,145,511 m3).In 1951 the tank bund was raised to hold
Bunding, also called a bund wall, is a constructed retaining wall around storage "where potentially polluting substances are handled, processed or stored, for the purposes of containing any unintended escape of material from that area until such time as a remedial action can be taken."
A sluice is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate. A mill race, leet, flume, penstock or lade is a sluice channelling water toward a water mill. The terms sluice, sluice gate, knife gate, and slide gate are used interchangeably in the water and wastewater control industry.
By the late 1960s the tank had a water spread are of 5,750 acres (2,327 ha). The bund was 9,850 ft (3,002 m) long. There was a controlled overflow spill on the left bank. The left bank sluice was 5 ft by 4 ft whilst the right bank sluice was 4 ft by 2 ft 8 in. The tank was capable of irrigating 18,844 acres (7,626 ha) of land. The bund was raised to 34 ft (10 m) in 1975 to give a storage capacity of 106,500 acre⋅ft (131,365,816 m3).
Concerns were raised about the integrity of the bund during the monsoon rains of 1983. 32 ft (10 m) and so Vigneswaran ordered that water levels not exceed that amount.An investigation by K. Vigneswaran, Deputy Director of Irrigation, in early 1984 found that the bund was too weak to hold water higher than
The tank was 6 mi (10 km) long, 1 mi (2 km) wide and 34 ft (10 m) in 2012. It was capable of irrigating 20,882 acres (8,451 ha) via 20 mi (32 km) of channels. By 2014 the tank was capable of irrigating 21,985 acres (8,897 ha).
In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait. The word is cognate to canal, and sometimes shows in this form, e.g. the Hood Canal.
Jaffna peninsula, which has a population of nearly 600,000, has no perennial rivers and is heavily reliant on groundwater.Unregulated water extraction for industrial, agricultural and domestic use has resulted in acute water scarcity. The water is also polluted due to the absence of a sewerage system and seawater intrusion caused by indiscriminate limestone quarrying. In the 1960s Deputy Director of Irrigation of S. Arumugam developed the River for Jaffna project (known as the Arumugam plan), which involved diverting the freshwater discharged by the Kanakarayan Aru into the heart of the Jaffna peninsula via the Vadamarachchi Lagoon. Whilst parts of the projects were completed in the 1960s, the crucial Mulliyan channel linking Chundikkulam Lagoon with Vadamarachchi Lagoon wasn't built. In 1983 the Sri Lankan government approved the completion of the project but the outbreak of the Sri Lankan Civil War put an end to the plans.
In 2006 the Sri Lankan government developed a new plan to supply water to Jaffna peninsula, the Jaffna and Kilinochchi Water Supply and Sanitation Project, which involved drawing water from Iranamadu Tank and transferring via pipeline to the peninsula. km 800mm diameter ductile iron pipe located alongside the existing left bank irrigation channel. From Paranthan the raw water would flow, under the influence of gravity, to Pallai via a new 20.5 km 600mm diameter high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe located alongside the A9 highway. At Pallai the raw water would be treated at a new water treatment plant before being pumped, via 45 km 600mm diameter ductile iron treated water main running alongside existing roads, to 17 new and 11 refurbished elevated water towers on the peninsula, and ground sumps at Kaddudai and Araliturai. The water towers will supply water, via 520 km 63-300mm diameter unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC)/medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) pipes, to Chavakachcheri, Jaffna, Kodikamam, Kopay, Navatkuli and Pallai. The ground sump at Kaddudai will pump water, via transmission mains, to Karaitivu and Velanaitivu. The ground sump at Araliturai on Velanaitivu will then pump water, via transmission mains, onto Pungudutivu, Mandativu, Nainativu, Analativu and Eluvaitivu.However, to ensure that farmers in Kilinochchi District continued to receive adequate supplies of water for irrigation, the tank bund would be repaired and raised by 2 feet to store and extract an additional 27,000m3 of water a day. A new raw water intake would be constructed near the tank's left bank main channel sluice. The raw water would then flow, under the influence of gravity, from the tank to Paranthan via a new 12
The whole project, including sewerage and sanitation improvement in Jaffna, is expected to cost $164.04 million (Rs 17,880 million) of which $90 million will come from an Asian Development Bank loan, $40 million from a French Development Agency loan and the remaining $34.04 million from the Sri Lankan government. The project is expected to be completed in February 2017 and result in 60,000 new water connections benefiting 300,000 people and 20,000 mains sewer connections benefiting 80,000 people.
In 1950s and 1960s the Ceylonese government, with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme and Food and Agriculture Organization, developed the Mahaweli Master Plan to use the waters of the Mahaweli River basin to irrigate Dry Zone land in northern and eastern Ceylon, and generate electricity. million and was divided into three phases. Phase 1 (Polgolla Diversion) was constructed in the 1970s. Following the 1977 parliamentary election the new government introduced the Accelerated Mahaweli Project which shortened the period from 30 years to 5/6 years but increased the cost from Rs. 6,700 million to Rs. 15,000 million. Phase 2 (Victoria-Minipe Diversion) was completed in the 1980s but phase 3 (Moragahakanda Project) was abandoned due to water scarcity and the outbreak of the Sri Lankan Civil War. The Moragahakanda Project had originally intended to connect the Mahaweli basin to the Kanakarayan Aru via a new canal - the North Central Province Canal.The 30-year plan was to cost Rs. 6,700
A modified Moragahakanda Project commenced in January 2007 with the construction of Moragahakanda Reservoir and Kalu Ganga Reservoir. million loan from the China Development Bank and the Kalu Ganga Reservoir was finance by loans from Japan International Cooperation Agency ($109 million) Saudi Fund for Development ($46 million) Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development ($37 million) and OPEC Fund for International Development ($16 million).The Moragahakanda Reservoir was financed by a $558
The North Central Province Canal Project (NCPCP) was launched in 2015. million of which $453 million will come from an Asian Development Bank loan, $108 million from the Sri Lankan government and the remaining $114 million from other financiers. Phase 1 is expected to be completed by the end of 2024. Phase 2 of the NCPCP includes the construction of the North Central Province Canal between Manankattiya to Chemamadu Kulam on the Kanakarayan Aru near Omanthai. Phase 2 is expected to cost Rs. 130 billion and be completed by 2029.Phase 1 of the NCPCP includes the construction of the Kalu Ganga–Moragahakanda Transfer Canal between Kalu Ganga Reservoir and Moragahakanda Reservoir and construction of the Upper Elahera Canal connecting Moragahakanda Reservoir to existing reservoirs (Eruwewa, Huruluwewa, Mahakanadarawa and Manankattiya). Phase 1 is expected to cost $675
Kilinochchi is the main town of Kilinochchi District, Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Kilinochchi is situated at the A9 road some 100 km (62 mi) south-east of Jaffna. It was the administrative center and de facto capital of the LTTE until 2 January 2009, when troops of the Sri Lankan Army recaptured the city.
The Vanni, also spelled Wanni, is the name given to the mainland area of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. It covers the entirety of Mannar, Mullaitivu and Vavuniya Districts, and most of Kilinochchi District, and has an area of approximately 7,650 square kilometres (2,950 sq mi). The population and infrastructure of the Vanni were devastated by the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Kala Wewa, built by the King Datusena in 307 B.C, is a twin reservoir complex which has a capacity of 123 million cubic meters. This reservoir complex has facilitated with a stone made spillway and three main sluices. From the central major sluice, a 40 feet wide central conveys water to feed thousands of acres of paddy lands and ends at the historical capital Anuradhapura city tank Tissa Wewa meandering over 87 km (54 mi) at a slope of 6 inches per mile and is another wonder of primeval hydraulic engineering facility in ancient Ceylon.
Chundikkulam Lagoon is a lagoon in Jaffna District and Kilinochchi District, north-east Sri Lanka. The town of Chundikkulam is located on a narrow piece of land between the lagoon and the Indian Ocean. The lagoon is sometimes referred to as Elephant Pass Lagoon.
Sanmugam Arumugam was a Ceylon Tamil irrigation engineer and writer.
Iranamadu Airport is an air force station and domestic airport in Iranamadu in northern Sri Lanka. Located approximately 9.5 km (5.9 mi) south east of the town of Kilinochchi, the airport is also known as Kilinochchi Airport and SLAF Iranamadu. Originally built by the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2003, it was captured by the Sri Lankan military in 2009 and taken over by the Sri Lanka Air Force.
Ridi Bendi Ela is a major irrigation scheme in North Western Province, Sri Lanka. The main reservoir of the irrigation scheme is the Magalle tank which is located in Nikawaratiya. The reservoir has a total capacity of 7480 Acft and a depth at the spilling level of 17 ft and 11 inch. Total length of the tank bund is 5463 ft. 23 km long Ridi Bendi ela feeder canal provide neally 80% of annual water inflow.
The Randenigala Dam is a large hydroelectric embankment dam at Rantembe, in the Central Province of Sri Lanka. Construction of the dam began in November 1982, and was completed in approximately 4 years. The dam and power station was ceremonially opened by then President J. R. Jayawardene in 1986.
The Moragahakanda Dam, officially as Kulasinghe Reservoir, is a large gravity dam, and the main component of the larger and more complex Moragahakanda — Kalu Ganga Project, currently under construction across the Amban River at Elahera, in the Matale District of Sri Lanka. Construction began on 25 January 2007. The maiden waters of the dam was released in January 2017. Morgahakanda/Kaluganga project is the last of the Great Mahaveli project
The Kalu Ganga Dam is a large gravity dam, and the second vital component of the larger and more complex Moragahakanda — Kalu Ganga Project, currently under construction across the Kalu Ganga at Pallegama, in the Matale District of Sri Lanka. Construction of the project was launched by President Mahinda Rajapaksa on 25 January 2007. The maiden waters of the dam was released in July 2018.
The Bowatenna Dam is a 100 ft (30 m) high gravity dam at Bowatenna, in the Central Province of Sri Lanka. The dam was built in June 1981, and is used primarily for irrigation. A 40 MW power station is also constructed 5,800 ft (1,800 m) downstream, for hydroelectric power generation.
Bakamuna is a village town in Sri Lanka. It is located within North Central Province. It has many ancient ruins in Sri Lanka such as Buduruwayaya temple, Oru bedi Siyambalawa, and the city is located near Moragahakanda reservoir with Mahaweli River tributary Amban Ganga. At the time of King Mahasen, the village was known as "Bakka amuna - Bakka Dam".
Chunnakam Power Station was a thermal power station in Chunnakam in northern Sri Lanka. Commissioned in 1958, the station is owned and operated by the state-owned Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB). It was decommissioned in 2013, and replaced by the Uthuru Janani Power Station, which is constructed less than 100m south of the Chunnakam Power Station.
The Rambakan Oya Dam is an embankment dam in Maha Oya, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. The reservoir was designed and constructed by the Sri Lanka Mahaveli Authority and currently functions under the direction of the Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources Management. It have been created by building an Earthen dam of which is about 1225m in length across the river of Mundeni Aru.
Giant's Tank is an irrigation tank in northern Sri Lanka, approximately 10 mi (16 km) south east of Mannar.
Muthuiyankaddu Kulam is an irrigation tank in northern Sri Lanka, approximately 4 mi (6 km) north west of Oddusuddan.
Vavuni Kulam is an irrigation tank in northern Sri Lanka, approximately 2 mi (3 km) south east of Mallavi.
The Mahaweli Development programme is known as the largest multipurpose national development programme in the history of Sri Lanka and is also considered as the keystone of the government's development programme that was initiated in 1961.
2018 Northern Province floods in Sri Lanka caused from heavy rainfall in five main districts of Northern Province including Jaffna, Mannar, Mullaithivu, Vavuniya and Kilinochchi beginning around 22 December 2018 on a full moon Poya Day. As of 22 December according to Disaster Management Centre (DMC), more than 45000 people from mere nearly 14000 families were reported to have been affected. According to the reports two casualties have been reported so far due to the flash floods. The floods receded in all 5 main districts of the Northern Province with significant damages to agricultural crops.