Iranian calendars

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The Iranian calendars (Persian : گاه‌شماری ایرانیGâh-Shomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran and formerly Persia. Template:برای Template:امروز / AD / SH / AH 'Calendars of Iran' 'Persian : گاهشماری ایرانی' ' Gâh-Shomâriye Irâni ) یک سری از تقویم هایی است که برای بیش از دو هزاره در ایران و در گذشته ایران استفاده شده یا استفاده شده است.

One of the longest chronological records in human history, the Iranian calendar has been modified time and time again during its history to suit administrative, climatic, and religious purposes. یکی از طولانی ترین پرونده های تاریخی در تاریخ بشر، تقویم ایران بارها و بارها در طول تاریخ خود اصلاح شده است تا به اهداف اداری، آب و هوایی و مذهبی برسد.As one of the few calendars designed in the era of accurate positional astronomy, the Persian calendar uses a very complex leap year structure which makes it the most accurate solar calendar in use today. [1] The modern Iranian calendar is currently the official calendar in Iran. تقویم فارسی به عنوان یکی از چند تقویم که در دوران نجوم دقیق موقعیتی طراحی شده است، از یک ساختار سالم بسیار پیچیده ای استفاده می کند که دقیق ترین تقویم خورشیدی را از امروز استفاده می کند. [2] تقویم مدرن ایران در حال حاضر تقویم رسمی در ایران است.It begins at the midnight nearest to the instant of the vernal equinox as determined by astronomical calculations for the Iran Standard Time meridian (52.5°E or GMT+3.5h). آن را در نیمه شب نزدیکترین لحظه عادی در بهار که توسط محاسبات نجومی برای زمان استاندارد ایران تعیین شده است. [[مریدین (جغرافیای)] مرز ((52.5 ° E یا GMT + 3.5h )It is, therefore, an observation-based calendar, unlike the Gregorian, which is rule-based. [3] The Iranian year usually begins within a day of 21 March of the Gregorian calendar. </ ref> سالن ایرانی معمولا در طول یک دوره آغاز می شود. روز 21 مارس تقویم گرگوری.To find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to a solar hijri year. برای پیدا کردن سال مربوطه از تقویم گرگوری، به 621 یا 622 (بسته به زمان سال) به سال خورشیدی هجری اضافه کنید.A short table of year correspondences between the Persian and Gregorian calendars is provided below. در زیر مقیاس کوتاه مربوط به تقویم فارسی و گرگوری در سال ارائه می شود.

Contents

History

Ancient calendars

Although the earliest evidence of Iranian calendrical traditions is from the second millennium BCE, predating the appearance of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster, the first fully preserved calendar is that of the Achaemenids. Throughout recorded history, Persians have been keen on the idea and importance of having a calendar. They were among the first cultures to use a solar calendar and have long favoured a solar over lunar and lunisolar approaches. The sun has always been a symbol in Iranian culture and is closely related to the folklore regarding Cyrus the Great. [4]

Old Persian calendar

Old Persian inscriptions and tablets indicate that early Iranians used a 360-day calendar based on the solar observation directly and modified for their beliefs. Days were not named. The months had two or three divisions depending on the phase of the moon. Twelve months of 30 days were named for festivals or activities of the pastoral year. A 13th month was added every six years to keep the calendar synchronized with the seasons.

The following table lists the Old Persian months. [5]

OrderCorresponding Julian months Old Persian Elamite spelling MeaningCorresponding Babylonian month
1March–AprilĀdukanaišaHadukannašuncertainNīsannu
2April–MayΘūravāharaTurmarPossibly "(Month of) strong spring"Ayyāru
3May–JuneΘāigracišSākurriziš"Garlic-collecting month"Sīmannu
4June–JulyGarmapadaKarmabataš"Heat-station (month)"Du'ūzu
5July–AugustTurnabazišĀbu
6August–SeptemberKarbašiyašUlūlū
7September–OctoberBāgayādišBakeyatiš"(Month) of the worship of baga (god, perhaps Mithra)"Tašrītu
8October–November*VrkazanaMarkašanaš"(Month) of wolf killing"Arahsamna
9November–DecemberĀçiyādiyaHašiyatiš"(Month) of the worship of the fire"Kisilīmu
10December–JanuaryAnāmakaHanamakaš"Month of the nameless god(?)"Tebētu
11January–February*ΘwayauvāSamiyamaš"The terrible one"Šabāţu
12February–MarchViyax(a)naMiyakannaš"Digging-up (month)"Addāru

There were four farming festivals, symmetrical about maidyoshahem:

FestivalTime from previous
hamaspathmaidyem75 days
maidyoshahem105 days
ayathrem105 days
maidyarem75 days

Two more festivals were later added, creating the six gahanbar:

FestivalTime from previous
hamaspathmaidyem (end of retirement)75 days
maidyozarem (spring)45 days
maidyoshahem (mid-summer)60 days
paitishahem (harvest)75 days
ayathrem (end of the summer)30 days
maidyarem75 days

Zoroastrian calendar

The first calendars based on Zoroastrian cosmology appeared in the later Achaemenid period (650 to 330 BCE). They evolved over the centuries, but month names changed little until now.

The unified Achaemenid Empire required a distinctive Iranian calendar, and one was devised in Egyptian tradition, with 12 months of 30 days, each dedicated to a yazata (Eyzad), and four divisions resembling the Semitic week. Four days per month were dedicated to Ahura Mazda and seven were named after the six Amesha Spentas. Thirteen days were named after Fire, Water, Sun, Moon, Tiri and Geush Urvan (the soul of all animals), Mithra, Sraosha (Soroush, yazata of prayer), Rashnu (the Judge), Fravashi, Bahram (yazata of victory), Raman (Ramesh meaning peace), and Vata, the divinity of the wind. Three were dedicated to the female divinities, Daena (yazata of religion and personified conscious), Ashi (yazata of fortune) and Arshtat (justice). The remaining four were dedicated to Asman (lord of sky or Heaven), Zam (earth), Manthra Spenta (the Bounteous Sacred Word) and Anaghra Raocha (the 'Endless Light' of paradise).

The month names and their modern versions are given in the following table.

Order Avestan name of the Yazata (in the genitive)Approximate meaning of the name Pahlavi Middle Persian Modern Iranian Persian
RomanizedEnglishRomanizedNative ScriptRomanized
1 Fravašinąm (Guardian spirits, souls of the righteous)FrawardīnفروردینFarvardīn
2 Ašahe Vahištahe "Best Truth" / "Best Righteousness"ArdwahištاردیبهشتOrdībehešt
3 Haurvatātō "Wholeness" / "Perfection"KhordādخردادKhordād
4 Tištryehe "Sirius"TīrتیرTīr
5 Amərətātō "Immortality"AmurdādامردادA-Mordād
6 Xšaθrahe Vairyehe "Desirable Dominion"ShahrewarشهریورShahrīvar
7 Miθrahe "Covenant"MihrمهرMehr
8 Apąm "Waters"ĀbānآبانĀbān
9 Āθrō "Fire"ĀdurآذرĀzar
10 Daθušō "The Creator" (i.e. Ahura Mazda)DayدیDey
11 Vaŋhə̄uš Manaŋhō "Good Spirit"WahmanبهمنBahman
12 Spəntayā̊ Ārmatōiš "Holy Devotion"Spandarmadاسپند|اسفندEspand / Esfand

The calendar had a significant impact on religious observance. It fixed the pantheon of major divinities, and also ensured that their names were uttered often, since at every Zoroastrian act of worship the yazatas of both day and month were invoked. It also clarified the pattern of festivities; for example, Mitrakanna or Mehregan was celebrated on Mithra day of Mithra month, and the Tiri festival (Tiragan) was celebrated on Tiri day of the Tiri month.

In 538 BC Cyrus the Great (uncertain if he was a Zoroastrian) conquered Babylon and the Babylonian luni-solar calendar came into use for civil purposes. Cambyses conquered Egypt in 525 BC. He was accompanied by Darius, a Zoroastrian who became ruler of the Persian empire in 517 BC. The Zoroastrians adopted the wandering Egyptian solar calendar of twelve months of thirty days plus five epagomenal days. As their year began in the spring (with the festival of norouz) the epagemonai were placed just before norouz.

In Egypt the star Sirius had significance since every 1460 years (the Sothic cycle) its heliacal rising (just before sunrise) marked the Egyptian new year and the inundation of the Nile. In Persia also the star had significance, since its heliacal rising there also coincided with the coming of the rain. The fourth Persian month was Tishtrya (Sirius, rain star). The vernal equinox at Greenwich fell on the first day of the first month from 487 to 483 BC (inclusive). Adopting S H Taqizadeh's date of 28 March 487 BC for the reform [6] the calendar for that year is as follows:

* denotes 1 Epagomene
Egyptian monthFirst dayPersian monthFirst day
423 March123*–28 March
522 April227 April
622 May327 May
721 June426 June
821 July526 July
920 August625 August
1019 September724 September
1119 October824 October
1218 November923 November
118*–23 December1023 December
222 January1122 January
321 February1221 February

The fourth month includes 20 July, the date of the heliacal rising of Sirius. In the first year the people carried on using the old calendar, anticipating festival dates by five days. As each day is named after a god, it is important to observe the celebrations on the right day. Thus the fravasis festival, which in the old calendar was kept between sunset on 30 Spandarmad and sunrise on 1 Frawardin, was now observed throughout the epagemonai. In the second year of the reform, the old 30 Spandarmad was the new 25 Spandarmad, so from then on the festival covered eleven days, up to the new 1 Frawardin. Five days was considered enough for other festivals, however.

In all the lands where the Persian calendar was used the epagemonai were placed at the end of the year. To offset the difference between the agricultural year and the calendar year (the tax-gathering season began after the harvest) the start of the araji (land-tax) year was delayed by one month every 120 years. A Roman historian, Quintus Curtius Rufus, describing a ceremony in 333 BC, writes:

The magi were followed by three hundred and sixty-five young men clad in purple robes, equal in number to the days of a whole year; for the Persians also divided the year into that number of days. [7]

After the conquests by Alexander of Macedon and his death, the Persian territories fell to one of his generals, Seleucus (312 BCE), starting the Seleucid dynasty of Iran. Based on the Greek tradition, Seleucids introduced the practice of dating by era rather than by the reign of individual kings. Their era became known as that of Alexander, or later the Seleucid era. Since the new rulers were not Zoroastrians, Zoroastrian priests lost their function at the royal courts, and so resented the Seleucids. Although they began dating by eras, they established their own era of Zoroaster.

That was the first serious attempt to determine the dates associated with the prophet Zoroaster's life. Priests had no Zoroastrian historical sources, and so turned to Babylonian archives famous in the ancient world. From these they learned that a great event in Persian history took place 228 years before the era of Alexander. In fact, this was the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus the Great in 539 BCE. But the priests misinterpreted this date to be the time the "true faith" was revealed to their prophet, and since Avestan literature indicates that revelation happened when Zoroaster was 30 years old, 568 BCE was taken as his year of birth. The date entered written records as the beginning of the era of Zoroaster, and indeed, the Persian Empire. This incorrect date is still mentioned in many current encyclopedias as Zoroaster's birth date.

Modifications by Parthians, Ardashir I, Hormizd I, Yazdgerd III

The Parthians (Arsacid dynasty) adopted the same calendar system with minor modifications, and dated their era from 248 BCE, the date they succeeded the Seleucids. Their names for the months and days are Parthian equivalents of the Avestan ones used previously, differing slightly from the Middle Persian names used by the Sassanians. For example, in Achaemenid times the modern Persian month 'Day' was called Dadvah (Creator), in Parthian it was Datush and the Sassanians named it Dadv/Dai (Dadar in Pahlavi).

When in April of AD 224 the Parthian dynasty fell and was replaced by the Sasanid, the new king, Ardashir I, abolished the official Babylonian calendar and replaced it with the Zoroastrian. This involved a correction to the places of the gahanbar, which had slipped back in the seasons since they were fixed. These were placed eight months later, as were the epagemonai, the 'Gatha' or 'Gah' days after the ancient Zoroastrian hymns of the same name. Other countries, such as the Armenians and Choresmians, did not accept the change. The new dates were:

No.NameAchaemenidChoresmianSasanianTime since previous
1maidyozarem(11-) 15 ii (Ardawahisht)15 v(11-) 15 x (Day)45 days
2maidyoshahem(11-) 15 iv (Tir)15 vii(11-) 15 xii (Spandarmad)60 days
3paitishahem(26-) 30 vi (Shahrivar)30 ix(26-) 30 ii (Ardawahisht)75 days
4ayathrem(26-) 30 vii (Mihr)30 x(26-)30 iii (Khordad)30 days
5maidyarem(11-) 15 x (Day)10 i(11-) 15 vi (Shahrewar)75 days
6hamaspathmaidyem(1-) 5 Epagomene30 iii(1-) 5 Epagomene80 days

In AD 224 the vernal equinox at Greenwich fell at noon on 21 March, which was 22 Shahrewar. Immediately after the reform 21 March corresponded to 27 Shahrewar. Here is the calendar for AD 225–6:

* = 1 Epagomene
Armenian
month
First dayEgyptian
month
First dayPersian
month
First day
126* September–1 October426 September126 September
231 October526 October226 October
330 November625 November325 November
430 December725 December425 December
529 January824 January524 January
628 February923 February623 February
730 March1025 March725 March
829 April1124 April824 April
929 May1224 May924*–29 May
1028 June123*–28 June1028 June
1128 July228 July1128 July
1227 August327 August1227 August

The change caused confusion and was immensely unpopular. The new epagemonai were referred to as "robber days". The people now observed the "Great" nowruz on 6 Frawardin, which was Zoroaster's birthday and corresponded to 1 Frawardin in the old calendar. The new 1 Frawardin was observed as the "lesser" nowruz. Hormizd I (AD 272–273) made the intervening days into festivals as well. In AD 273 the vernal equinox at Greenwich fell at 5 AM on 21 March.

Yazdegerd I reigned from AD 399–420. In AD 400 the equinox fell about 19 March, which was 9 Aban. According to al-Biruni, in that reign there was a double adjustment of the start of the araji year. The tenth-century astronomer Abu'l-asan Kusyar noted that during the reign of Osrow II (AD 589–628) the sun entered Aries in Adur. This happened throughout his reign. An araji era was introduced dating from AD 621, and the Yazdegerdi era dates from 16 June AD 632, so the Yazdegerdi era is eleven years behind the araji.

Muslim conquest

The Muslim rulers who took over from the middle of the seventh century used the Islamic calendar for administration, which caused hardship because the year was shorter – i.e. a tax which was formerly collected after the harvest would now have to be paid before the harvest. Traditionally the caliph Omar reintroduced the Persian calendar for tax collection purposes.[ citation needed ]

In AD 895 there was another double readjustment of the start of the araji year. It moved from 1 Frawardin (12 April) to 1 Khordad (11 June). By AD 1006 the vernal equinox, 15 March, was again coinciding with nowruz, 1 Frawardin. In that year, therefore, the epagemonai were delayed four months, moving from the end of Aban to their old position at the end of Spandarmad. This is the calendar for AD 1006/7:

* denotes 1 Epagomene
Armenian
month
First dayOld
Egyptian
month
First dayPersian
month
First day
115*–20 March415 March110*–15 March
219 April514 April214 April
319 May614 May314 May
418 June713 June413 June
518 July813 July513 July
617 August912 August612 August
716 September1011 September711 September
816 October1111 October811 October
915 November1210 November910 November
1015 December110*–15 December1010 December
1114 January214 January119 January
1213 February313 February128 February

The gahanbar didn't move quite to their old places, because the fifth moved to 20 Day, which was the old 15 Day, thus increasing the interval between the fourth and fifth to eighty days and reducing the interval between the fifth and sixth to 75 days. The new dates were:

No.NameDateTime since previous
1maidyozarem(11-) 15 ii (Ardawahisht)45 days
2maidyoshahem(11-) 15 iv (Tir)60 days
3paitishahem(26-) 30 vi (Shahrivar)75 days
4ayathrem(26-) 30 vii (Mihr)30 days
5maidyarem(16-) 20 x (Day)80 days
6hamaspathmaidyem(1-) 5 Epagomene75 days

Medieval era: Jalali calendar

In 1079 AD by the order of the Jalal Al Din Shah Seljuqi the Islamic Calendar which was and is based on the lunar system was replaced by the Khayyam Calendar and was called the Jalali Calendar. Khayyam and his team worked 8 years in Isfahan the capital of Iran during the Seljuq dynasty. The research and creation of Khayyam calendar was financially supported by the Jalal Al din Shah. Khayyam designed his calendar in which the beginning of the new year, season and month are aligned and he named the first day of the spring and the new year to be Norooz. Before Khayyam's Calendar Norooz was not a fixed day and each year could fall in late winter or early spring. Iranian owe the survival of the Norooz to Khayyam because he fixed the Norooz to be the first day of the Spring and the New Year and can not be changed. This has nothing to do with Zoroastrians. The credit goes to the genius of Khayyam and Financial support of Jalal Al Din Shah Seljuqi.

From 15 March AD 1079, when the calendar had slipped a further eighteen days, the araji calendar was reformed by repeating the first eighteen days of Frawardin. Thus 14 March was 18 Frawardin qadimi (old) or farsi and 15 March was 1 Frawardin jalali or maleki. This new calendar was astronomically calculated so that it did not have epagemonai – the months began when the sun entered a new sign of the zodiac.

About 120 years after the reform of AD 1006, when the vernal equinox was starting to fall in Ardawahisht, Zoroastrians made it again coincide with nowruz by adding a second Spandarmad. This Shensai calendar was a month behind the qadimi still used in Persia, being used only by the Zoroastrians in India, the Parsees. On 6 June 1745 (Old Style) some Parsees re-adopted the qadimi calendar, and in 1906 some adopted the Fasli calendar in which 1 Frawardin was equated with 21 March, so that there was a sixth epagomenal day every four years. In 1911 the jalali calendar became the official national calendar of Persia. In 1925 this calendar was simplified and the names of the months were modernised. 1 Farvardin is the day whose midnight start is nearest to the instant of vernal equinox. The first six months have 31 days, the next five thirty, and the twelfth has 29 days and 30 in leap years. Some Zoroastrians in Persia now use the Fasli calendar, having begun changing to it in 1930.

Modern calendar: Solar Hijri (SH)

Correspondence of Solar Hijri and Gregorian calendars (Solar Hijri leap years are marked *) [8]

33-year
cycle [9]
Solar Hijri yearGregorian yearSolar Hijri yearGregorian year
11354*21 March 1975 – 20 March 19761387*20 March 2008 – 20 March 2009
2135521 March 1976 – 20 March 1977138821 March 2009 – 20 March 2010
3135621 March 1977 – 20 March 1978138921 March 2010 – 20 March 2011
4135721 March 1978 – 20 March 1979139021 March 2011 – 19 March 2012
51358*21 March 1979 – 20 March 19801391*20 March 2012 – 20 March 2013
6135921 March 1980 – 20 March 1981139221 March 2013 – 20 March 2014
7136021 March 1981 – 20 March 1982139321 March 2014 – 20 March 2015
8136121 March 1982 – 20 March 1983139421 March 2015 – 19 March 2016
91362*21 March 1983 – 20 March 19841395*20 March 2016 – 20 March 2017
10136321 March 1984 – 20 March 1985139621 March 2017 – 20 March 2018
11136421 March 1985 – 20 March 1986139721 March 2018 – 20 March 2019
12136521 March 1986 – 20 March 1987139821 March 2019 – 19 March 2020
131366*21 March 1987 – 20 March 19881399*20 March 2020 – 20 March 2021
14136721 March 1988 – 20 March 1989140021 March 2021 – 20 March 2022
15136821 March 1989 – 20 March 1990140121 March 2022 – 20 March 2023
16136921 March 1990 – 20 March 1991140221 March 2023 – 19 March 2024
171370*21 March 1991 – 20 March 19921403*20 March 2024 – 20 March 2025
18137121 March 1992 – 20 March 1993140421 March 2025 – 20 March 2026
19137221 March 1993 – 20 March 1994140521 March 2026 – 20 March 2027
20137321 March 1994 – 20 March 1995140621 March 2027 – 19 March 2028
21137421 March 1995 – 19 March 1996140720 March 2028 – 19 March 2029
221375*20 March 1996 – 20 March 19971408*20 March 2029 – 20 March 2030
23137621 March 1997 – 20 March 1998140921 March 2030 – 20 March 2031
24137721 March 1998 – 20 March 1999141021 March 2031 – 19 March 2032
25137821 March 1999 – 19 March 2000141120 March 2032 – 19 March 2033
261379*20 March 2000 – 20 March 20011412*20 March 2033 – 20 March 2034
27138021 March 2001 – 20 March 2002141321 March 2034 – 20 March 2035
28138121 March 2002 – 20 March 2003141421 March 2035 – 19 March 2036
29138221 March 2003 – 19 March 2004141520 March 2036 – 19 March 2037
301383*20 March 2004 – 20 March 20051416*20 March 2037 – 20 March 2038
31138421 March 2005 – 20 March 2006141721 March 2038 – 20 March 2039
32138521 March 2006 – 20 March 2007141821 March 2039 – 19 March 2040
33138621 March 2007 – 19 March 2008141920 March 2040 – 19 March 2041

See also

References

Citations

  1. Harvard Mathematics Department (Calendar Converter page)
  2. [http: //www.math.harvard .edu / computing / javascript / تقویم / ریاضیات دانشگاه هاروارد (صفحه تقویم تبدیل)]
  3. M. بنابراین، بر خلاف [تقویم گرگوریان | گرگوریان] تقویم مبتنی بر مشاهدات است که مبتنی بر قانون است. <ref name = "heydari"> M. Heydari-Malayeri, A concise review of the Iranian calendar, Paris Observatory.
  4. ( Panaino 1990 )
  5. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Article "Calendars". By Antonio Panaino, Reza Abdollahy, Daniel Balland.
  6. Taqizadeh S H: Old Iranian Calendars, Royal Asiatic Society (1938).
  7. Curtius, iii, 10.
  8. Oertel, Holger (30 May 2009). "Persian calendar by Holger Oertel". Ortelius.de. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
  9. The Persian calendar for 3000 years, (Kazimierz M Borkowski), Earth, Moon, and Planetsss, 74 (1996), No. 3, pp 223–230.

Bibliography

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