|Born||April 1, 1907|
|Died||November 22, 1979 72) (aged|
|Notable works||Because of the Violets|
Irina Evgenyevna Saburova (Russian : Ирина Евгеньевна Сабурова, 1 April 1907 – 22 November 1979) was a Russian writer, poet, translator, and magazine editor.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
Saburova was born in Riga, Latvia, and lived there and at her father's estate until 1915. She received her education in both German and Russian high schools, and then attended the French Institute in Riga. In 1917-18 she lived in Finland, afterwards returning to Riga and living there until 1943. She started writing at the age of eight; her first story was published in the Riga journal The Lighthouse in 1923. She contributed to various papers in Riga and the Soviet Union until the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states in 1940. From 1933 to 1940 she edited the journal For You, and worked as a translator.
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 637,827 inhabitants (2018), it is also the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava river. Riga's territory covers 307.17 km2 (118.60 sq mi) and lies 1–10 m above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain.
Latvia, officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. Since its independence, Latvia has been referred to as one of the Baltic states. It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). The country has a temperate seasonal climate.
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.
During World War II she went to Berlin and then to Munich where she remained for the rest of her life. After 1953 she became a regular contributor to several international Russian papers, including The New Russian Word (New York City) and Unity (Melbourne). She worked as a translator at Radio Station Liberty in Munich from 1953 to 1973. Her first husband, Alexander Perfilyev, was a poet and journalist; her second husband, Baron von Rosenburg, an officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, died in 1958. From the 1940s through the 1970s she gave lectures and recitals in Bern, Switzerland, New York, Washington DC, Philadelphia, and many other cities.She was known for her fairy-tale novellas, but she also wrote historical and anti-utopian novels.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva was a Russian and Soviet poet. Her work is considered among some of the greatest in twentieth century Russian literature. She lived through and wrote of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Moscow famine that followed it. In an attempt to save her daughter Irina from starvation, she placed her in a state orphanage in 1919, where she died of hunger. Tsvetaeva left Russia in 1922 and lived with her family in increasing poverty in Paris, Berlin and Prague before returning to Moscow in 1939. Her husband Sergei Efron and her daughter Ariadna Efron (Alya) were arrested on espionage charges in 1941; and her husband was executed. Tsvetaeva committed suicide in 1941. As a lyrical poet, her passion and daring linguistic experimentation mark her as a striking chronicler of her times and the depths of the human condition.
Anna Andreyevna Gorenko, better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova, was one of the most significant Russian poets of the 20th century. She was shortlisted for the Nobel Prize in 1965 and received second-most (three) nominations for the award the following year.
Nadezhda Yakovlevna Mandelstam was a Russian writer and educator, and the wife of the poet Osip Mandelstam who died in 1938 in a transit camp to the gulag of Siberia. She wrote two memoirs about their lives together and the repressive Stalinist regime: Hope Against Hope (1970) and Hope Abandoned (1974), both first published in the West in English, translated by Max Hayward.
Paul Walden was a native Latvian chemist known for his work in stereochemistry and history of chemistry. In particular he invented the stereochemical reaction known as Walden inversion and synthesized the first room-temperature ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate.
Irina Borisovna Ratushinskaya was a Russian Soviet dissident, poet and writer.
Margarita Iosifovna Aliger was a Soviet poet, translator, and journalist.
Vera de Bosset Stravinsky was a Russian-born American dancer and artist. She is better known as the mistress and, ultimately, second wife of the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, who married her in 1940.
Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov was a Russian poet and playwright associated with the Russian Symbolist movement. He was also a philosopher, translator, and literary critic.
Teffi was a Russian humorist writer. Teffi was the pseudonym of Nadezhda Alexandrovna Lokhvitskaya, and after her marriage Nadezhda Alexandrovna Buchinskaya (Бучи́нская). Together with Arkady Averchenko she was one of the prominent authors of the magazine Satiricon. Her year of birth is variously reported in the range 1871–1876, with the most recent findings suggesting May 1872. Teffi's sister Mirra Lokhvitskaya (1869–1905) was a notable Russian poet.
Vizma Belševica was a Latvian poet, writer and translator. She was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Pattiann Rogers is an American poet, and is on the faculty of the low residency MFA Program in Creative Writing at Pacific University. She is a recipient of the Lannan Literary Award for Poetry.
Boris Konstantinovich Zaytsev was a Russian prose writer and dramatist, and a member of the Moscow literary group Sreda.
James E. Falen is a professor emeritus of Russian at the University of Tennessee. He published a translation of Eugene Onegin by Alexander Pushkin in 1990 which was also influenced by Nabokov's translation, but preserved the Onegin stanzas (ISBN 0809316307). This translation is considered to be the most faithful one to Pushkin's spirit according to Russian critics and translators.
Marina Tarlinskaja is a Russian-born American linguist specializing in the statistical analysis of verse.
Georgy Viktorovich Adamovich was a Russian poet of the acmeist school, and a literary critic, translator and memoirist. He also lectured on Russian literature at universities in the United States and the United Kingdom.
Yuri Konstantinovich Terapiano was a Russian poet, writer, translator, literary critic and a prominent figure in White émigré cultural life.
Elizaveta Grigorevna Polonskaya, born Movshenson (Russian: Мовшенсо́н; June 26 [O.S. June 14] 1890 – January 11, 1969), was a Russian Jewish poet, translator, and journalist, the only female member of the Serapion Brothers.
Mikhail Andreyevich Osorgin was a Russian writer, journalist, and essayist.
The literature of Tennessee in the United States includes fiction, poetry, and nonfiction. Representative authors include Shelby Foote, Nikki Giovanni, Alex Haley, Mary Noailles Murfree, John Crowe Ransom, and Allen Tate.
Cecilia Banu was a scholar of Iranian studies, a poet and a translator from the Persian language to Russian. She is best known for her multi-volume translation of the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi.