Irkutsk

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Irkutsk

Иркутск
Irkutsk Collage.png
Clockwise, from the upper right corner: Clock Tower, Picture Gallery, Irkutsk panorama from the dam, Local Lore Museum, Khudozhestvenny Cinema, Kazan Church
Flag of Irkutsk (Irkutsk oblast).svg
Flag
Coat of Arms of Irkutsk.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: none
Location of Irkutsk
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Irkutsk
Location of Irkutsk
Outline Map of Irkutsk Oblast.png
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Irkutsk
Irkutsk (Irkutsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 52°17′N104°17′E / 52.283°N 104.283°E / 52.283; 104.283 Coordinates: 52°17′N104°17′E / 52.283°N 104.283°E / 52.283; 104.283
Country Russia
Federal subject Irkutsk Oblast [2]
Founded1661 [3]
Government
  Body Duma
  Mayor [4] Dmitri Berdnikov [4]
Area
[5]
  Total277 km2 (107 sq mi)
Elevation
440 m (1,440 ft)
Population
  Total587,891
  Estimate 
(2018) [7]
623,869 (+6.1%)
  Rank 24th in 2010
  Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
  Subordinated to City of Irkutsk [2] [1]
   Capital of Irkutsk Oblast [2] , Irkutsky District [2]
  Urban okrugIrkutsk Urban Okrug [8]
   Capital ofIrkutsk Urban Okrug [8] , Irkutsky Municipal District [9]
Time zone UTC+8 (MSK+5 Blue pencil.svg [10] )
Postal code(s) [11]
664xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 3952 [12]
City DayFirst Saturday of June
Twin towns Vilnius, Pforzheim, Shenyang, Ulaanbaatar, Kanazawa, Eugene, Novi Sad, Évian-les-Bains, Strömsund, Pordenone, Grenoble, Dijon, Simferopol, Krasnoyarsk Blue pencil.svg
OKTMO ID25701000001
Website web.archive.org/web/20070312014231/http://www.irkutsk.ru/

Irkutsk (Russian :Иркутск,IPA:  [ɪrˈkutsk] ) is the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Irkutsk Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Irkutsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in southeastern Siberia in the basins of the Angara, Lena, and Nizhnyaya Tunguska Rivers. The administrative center is the city of Irkutsk. It had a population of 2,428,750 at the 2010 Census.

The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.

Contents

Many distinguished Russians were sent into exile in Irkutsk for their part in the Decembrist revolt of 1825, and the city became an exile-post for the rest of the century. Some of the fine wooden houses still survive, contrasting with the dominant Soviet architecture. When the railway reached Irkutsk, it had earned the nickname of "The Paris of Siberia." The city saw bitter fighting in the Russian Civil War of 1918-20, and then became a major centre of aircraft manufacture.

Decembrist revolt coup détat

The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising took place in Imperial Russia on 26 December [O.S. 14 December] 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Tsar Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession. Because these events occurred in December, the rebels were called the Decembrists.

Trans-Siberian Highway (Federal M53 and M55 Highways) and Trans-Siberian Railway connect Irkutsk to other regions in Russia and Mongolia.

Etymology

Irkutsk was named after the Irkut River, whose name was derived from the Buryat word for "spinning" and was used as an ethnonym among local tribes as Yrkhu, Irkit, Irgit, and Irgyt. The city was formerly known as "Yandashsky" after the local Tuvan chief Yandasha Gorogi. [13]

Irkut River river in Russia

Irkut is a river in the Buryat Republic and Irkutsk Oblast of Russia. It is the Angara River's left tributary. It flows out of lake Ilchir which is situated 50 km away from the highest peak of the Eastern Sayan Mountains, Munku-Sardyk. The length of the river is 488 kilometers (303 mi). The area of its basin is 15,000 square kilometers (5,800 sq mi). The Irkut River freezes up in late October or mid-November and stays icebound until late April or early May. The city of Irkutsk is located at the mouth of the Irkut River on the Angara River.

Buryat or Buriat is a variety of the Mongolic languages spoken by the Buryats that is classified either as a language or major dialect group of Mongolian.

The old spelling of the name of the city was «Иркуцкъ». Before the revolution, the city was called "East Paris", "Siberian Petersburg", "Siberian Athens". Locals like to think of their city as "earth center".

History

Irkutsk Castle in 1735 Irkutsk Kreml 1735.jpg
Irkutsk Castle in 1735

In 1652, Ivan Pokhabov built a zimovye (winter quarters) near the site of Irkutsk for gold trading and for the collection of fur taxes from the Buryats. In 1661, Yakov Pokhabov built an ostrog (a small fort) nearby. [3] The ostrog gained official town rights from the government in 1686. The first road connection between Moscow and Irkutsk, the Siberian Route, was built in 1760, and benefited the town economy. Many new products, often imported from China via Kyakhta, became widely available in Irkutsk for the first time, including gold, diamonds, fur, wood, silk, and tea. In 1821, as part of the Mikhail Speransky's reforms, Siberia was administratively divided at the Yenisei River and Irkutsk became the seat of the Governor-General of East Siberia.

Yasak or yasaq, sometimes iasak, is a Turkic word for "tribute" that was used in Imperial Russia to designate fur tribute exacted from the indigenous peoples of Siberia.

Buryats ethnic group

The Buryats, numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia. They are the major northern subgroup of the Mongols.

Ostrog (fortress)

Ostrog is a Russian term for a small fort, typically wooden and often non-permanently manned. Ostrogs were encircled by 4–6 metres high palisade walls made from sharpened trunks. The name derives from the Russian word строгать (strogat'), "to shave the wood". Ostrogs were smaller and exclusively military forts, compared to larger kremlins that were the cores of Russian cities. Ostrogs were often built in remote areas or within the fortification lines, such as the Great Abatis Line.

Irkutsk Assembly of the Nobility in the early 1900s Irkutsk-club.jpg
Irkutsk Assembly of the Nobility in the early 1900s

In the early 19th century, many Russian artists, officers, and nobles were sent into exile in Siberia for their part in the Decembrist revolt against Tsar Nicholas I. Irkutsk became the major center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, and much of the city's cultural heritage comes from them; many of their wooden houses, adorned with ornate, hand-carved decorations, survive today, in stark contrast with the standard Soviet apartment blocks that surround them.

Nobility privileged social class

Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary, and vary by country and era. The Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", meaning literally "nobility obligates", explains that privileges carry a lifelong obligation of duty to uphold various social responsibilities of, e.g., honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership roles or positions, that lives on by a familial or kinship bond.

Tsar title given to a male monarch in Russia, Bulgaria and Serbia

Tsar, also spelled czar, or tzar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe, originally Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word Caesar, which was intended to mean "Emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official —but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank.

Nicholas I of Russia Emperor of Russia

Nicholas I was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He is best known as a political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's defeat in the Crimean War of 1853–56. His biographer Nicholas V. Riasanovsky says that Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, and an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to very hard work. He saw himself as a soldier—a junior officer totally consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. Trained as an engineer, he was a stickler for minute detail. In his public persona, says Riasanovsky, "Nicholas I came to represent autocracy personified: infinitely majestic, determined and powerful, hard as stone, and relentless as fate." His reign had an ideology called "Official Nationality" that was proclaimed officially in 1833. It was a reactionary policy based on orthodoxy in religion, autocracy in government, and Russian nationalism. He was the younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I. Nicholas inherited his brother's throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him and went on to become the most reactionary of all Russian leaders. His aggressive foreign policy involved many expensive wars, having a disastrous effect on the empire's finances.

Epiphany Cathedral and central Irkutsk in 1865 Irkutsk 1865.jpg
Epiphany Cathedral and central Irkutsk in 1865

By the end of the 19th century, there was one exiled man for every two locals. People of varying backgrounds, from members of the Decembrist uprising to Bolsheviks, had been in Irkutsk for many years and had greatly influenced the culture and development of the city. As a result, Irkutsk eventually became a prosperous cultural and educational center in Eastern Siberia.

In 1879, on July 4 and 6, the palace of the (then) Governor General, the principal administrative and municipal offices and many of the other public buildings were destroyed by fire, and the government archives, the library and the museum of the Siberian section of the Russian Geographical Society were completely ruined. [14] Three-quarters of the city was destroyed, including approximately 4,000 houses. [15] However, the city quickly rebounded, with electricity arriving in 1896, the first theater being built in 1897 and a major train station opened in 1898. The first train arrived in Irkutsk on August 16 of that year. By 1900, the city had earned the nickname of "The Paris of Siberia."

Irkutsk in 1918 Irkutsk. Cheshsko-slovatskie voiska v Irkutske.jpg
Irkutsk in 1918

During the Russian Civil War, which broke out after the October Revolution, Irkutsk became the site of many furious, bloody clashes between the "Whites" and the "Reds". In 1920, Aleksandr Kolchak, the once-feared commander of the largest contingent of anti-Bolshevik forces, was executed in Irkutsk, which effectively destroyed the anti-Bolshevik resistance.

Irkutsk was the administrative center of the short-lived East Siberian Oblast, which existed from 1936 to 1937. The city subsequently became the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast after East Siberian Oblast was divided into Chita Oblast and Irkutsk Oblast.

During the communist years, the industrialization of Irkutsk and Siberia in general was heavily encouraged. The large Irkutsk Reservoir was built on the Angara River between 1950 and 1959 in order to facilitate industrial development.

Epiphany Cathedral (built in 1718-1746) Church of the Epiphany (Irkutsk).jpg
Epiphany Cathedral (built in 1718–1746)

The Epiphany Cathedral, the governor's palace, a school of medicine, a museum, a military hospital and the crown factories are among the public institutions and buildings. [14] The Aleksandr Kolchak monument, designed by Vyacheslav Klykov, was unveiled in 2004. On July 27, 2004, the Irkutsk Synagogue (1881) was gutted by a conflagration.

In December 2016, 74 people in Irkutsk died in a mass methanol poisoning. [16] [17]

In 2018, it was reported men in Irkutsk only survive on average to 63. [18]

Geography

Irkutsk is located about 850 kilometres (530 mi) to the south-east of Krasnoyarsk, and about 520 kilometres (320 mi) north of Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. The city proper lies on the Angara River, a tributary of the Yenisei, 72 kilometers (45 mi) below its outflow from Lake Baikal and on the bank opposite the suburb of Glaskovsk. [14] The river, 580-meter (1,900 ft) wide, is crossed by the Irkutsk Hydroelectric Dam and three other bridges downstream.

The Irkut River, from which the town takes its name, is a smaller river that joins the Angara directly opposite the city. [14] The main portion of the city is separated from several landmarks—the monastery, the fort and the port, as well as its suburbs—by another tributary, the Ida (or Ushakovka) River. The two main parts of Irkutsk are customarily referred to as the "left bank" and the "right bank", with respect to the flow of the Angara River.

Irkutsk is situated in a landscape of rolling hills within the thick taiga that is typical in Eastern Siberia.

The population has been shrinking: 587,891(2010 Census); [6] 593,604(2002 Census); [19] 622,301(1989 Census). [20] . According to the regional plan, Irkutsk city will be combined with its neighboring industrial towns of Shelekhov and Angarsk to form a metropolitan area with a total population of over a million.

Climate

Irkutsk originally had a borderline subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwc). Since 2000, the temperatures have resembled a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb). Snow cover disappeared earlier, from late April in the 1930s to late March in the 1980s. Discontinuous permafrost depth had decreased from 200 m to 100 m during the same period.[ citation needed ]

Irkutsk is characterized by an extreme variation of temperatures between seasons. It can be very warm in the summer, and very cold in the winter. However, Lake Baikal has a tempering effect thanks to which temperatures in Irkutsk are not as extreme as elsewhere in Siberia. The warmest month of the year is July, when the average temperature is +18 °C (64 °F), the highest temperature recorded being +37.2 °C (99.0 °F). The coldest month of the year is January, when the average temperature is −18 °C (0 °F), and record low of −49.7 °C (−57.5 °F). Precipitation also varies widely throughout the year, with July also being the wettest month, when precipitation averages 113 millimeters (4.4 in). The driest month is February, when precipitation averages only 7.6 millimeters (0.30 in). Almost all precipitation during the Siberian winter falls as flurry, dry snow.

Climate data for Irkutsk (normals 1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)2.3
(36.1)
10.2
(50.4)
20.0
(68.0)
29.2
(84.6)
34.5
(94.1)
35.6
(96.1)
37.2
(99.0)
34.1
(93.4)
29.7
(85.5)
24.5
(76.1)
14.4
(57.9)
5.3
(41.5)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F)−12.8
(9.0)
−7.8
(18.0)
0.3
(32.5)
9.4
(48.9)
18.1
(64.6)
22.7
(72.9)
24.8
(76.6)
22.2
(72.0)
15.7
(60.3)
7.7
(45.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
−10.6
(12.9)
7.3
(45.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−17.8
(0.0)
−14.4
(6.1)
−6.4
(20.5)
2.5
(36.5)
10.2
(50.4)
15.4
(59.7)
18.3
(64.9)
15.9
(60.6)
9.2
(48.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−7.6
(18.3)
−15.3
(4.5)
1.0
(33.8)
Average low °C (°F)−21.8
(−7.2)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−12.2
(10.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
3.6
(38.5)
9.3
(48.7)
13.0
(55.4)
10.9
(51.6)
4.3
(39.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
−11.6
(11.1)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−4
(25)
Record low °C (°F)−49.7
(−57.5)
−44.7
(−48.5)
−37.3
(−35.1)
−31.8
(−25.2)
−14.3
(6.3)
−6
(21)
0.4
(32.7)
−2.7
(27.1)
−11.9
(10.6)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−46.3
(−51.3)
−49.7
(−57.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)13
(0.5)
8
(0.3)
12
(0.5)
18
(0.7)
37
(1.5)
78
(3.1)
114
(4.5)
91
(3.6)
52
(2.0)
21
(0.8)
20
(0.8)
16
(0.6)
480
(18.9)
Average rainy days00.04191518181716920105
Average snowy days2116131130.2002102023119
Average relative humidity (%)82766556556774787673798572
Mean monthly sunshine hours 9314920722326626424321818215293622,142
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net [21]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990) [22]

Administrative and municipal status

Irkutsk is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Irkutsky District, [2] even though it is not a part of it.[ citation needed ] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Irkutsk [1] —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[ citation needed ] As a municipal division, the City of Irkutsk is incorporated as Irkutsk Urban Okrug. [8]

Coat of arms

The original version of the coat of arms Coat of Arms of Irkutsk (Irkutsk oblast) (1790).png
The original version of the coat of arms
A fountain in Kirov Square Fountain Kirov's square 01.jpg
A fountain in Kirov Square

The coat of arms of Irkutsk features an old symbol of Dauria: a Siberian tiger with a sable in his mouth. When the coat of arms was devised in 1690, the animal was described as a tiger ("babr", a bookish word of Persian derivation) with a sable in his mouth. This image had been used by the Yakutsk customs office from about 1642. It has its origin in a seal of the Siberia Khanate representing a sable and showcasing the fact that Siberia (or rather Yugra) was the main source of sable fur throughout the Middle Ages. (Actually, the English word "sable" is derived from the Russian "sobol").

By the mid-19th century, the word "babr" had fallen out of common usage, but it was still recorded in the Armorial of the Russian Empire. Furthermore, the tigers became extinct in this part of Siberia. In the 1870s, a high-placed French heraldist with a limited command of Russian assumed that "babr" was a misspelling of "bobr", the Russian word for "beaver", and changed the wording accordingly. This modification engendered a long dispute between the local authorities, who were so confused by the revised description that they started to depict the "babr" as a fabulous animal, half-tiger and half-beaver.

The Soviets abolished the image altogether, but it was restored following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Economy

Energy

The 662.4 MW Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station was the first cascade hydroelectric power station in the Irkutsk region. The construction of the dam started in 1950 and finished in 1958. [23]

Industry

The largest industry in Irkutsk is Irkut, the Irkutsk Aviation Industrial Association, [24] which was set up in 1932 in the Transbaykal region of the Soviet Union. It is best known as being the manufacturer of the Su-30 family of interceptor/ground-attack aircraft. The Russian government has merged Irkut with Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Sukhoi, Tupolev, and Yakovlev into a new company named United Aircraft Building Corporation. [25]

There is the Irkutsk Aluminium Smelter which belongs to the Rusal Company. [26]

Transportation

Irkutsk railway station Irkutsk-Passagirsky.jpg
Irkutsk railway station
Tram in Irkutsk Irkutsk. Tramvai 1.JPG
Tram in Irkutsk

Important roads and railways like the Trans-Siberian Highway (Federal M53 and M55 Highways) and Trans-Siberian Railway connect Irkutsk to other regions in Russia and Mongolia. The city is also served by the Irkutsk International Airport and the smaller Irkutsk Northwest Airport.

The Federal road and railway to Moscow and Vladivostok pass through the other side of the Angara River from central Irkutsk.

Trams are one major mode of public transit in Irkutsk. Other modes are trolleybus, bus, fixed-route taxi (marshrutka) and cycling.

Culture

Irkutsk Academic Drama Theater Irkutskii dramaticheskii teatr.JPG
Irkutsk Academic Drama Theater

Television and mass media

There are many state-owned and privately owned television stations in Irkutsk, including state company IGTRK [27] and private ones, such as AS Baikal TV, [28] TV company AIST, [29] TV company Gorod, [30] and also other media outlets, like the VSP Newspaper Agency. [31] There is also a live webcam broadcasting from the city center. [32]

Education

Irkutsk is home to the East Siberian Education Academy (since 1909), Irkutsk State University (1918), Irkutsk State Medical University (1918), Baykalsky State University of Economics and Law (since 1932), Irkutsk State Technical University (since 1939), Irkutsk State Academy of Agriculture, Irkutsk State Linguistic University (1948), Irkutsk State Railway Transport University (since 1975), and a number of private colleges: Siberian Institute of Law, Economics and Management (since 1993), Institute of Economics of ISTU (since 1996), and others.

Science

As Irkutsk is within the influence of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, there are nine research institutes located in the Irkutsk Academgorodok suburb: the Institute of Geography, the Energy System Institute, the Institute of Geochemistry, the Institute of System Dynamics and Control Theory, the Earth's Crust Institute, the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Institute, the Institute of Chemistry, the Limnological Institute (formerly located on Lake Baikal's shore), the Institute of Plant Physics, Laser Physics Institute (a Branch of the Institute of Laser Physics in Novosobirsk). A number of institutes conduct research within Irkutsk State University: the Institute of Biology, the Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis, the Laboratory of Quantum Chemistry, the Institute of Applied Physics, the Interregional Institute of Social Studies, the Astronomical Observatory, and the Botanical Gardens. The East-Siberian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences is also located in Irkutsk and is represented by the following research organizations: the Scientific Center for Medical Ecology, the Institute for Paediatrics and Human Reproduction, the Institute for Microbiology and Epidemiology, the Institute for Medicine of the Workplace and Human Ecology, the Institute of Reconstructive and Restorative Surgery, the Institute of Surgery, and the Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics. Also, the Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Scientific and Technical Center has a branch in Irkutsk. Additionally, there are R&D institutes including GAZPROM R&D Institute (a Branch of a Moscow-based institute), the Irkutsk Institute of Rare and Precious Metals and Diamonds (Irgiredmet), part of the Petropavlovsk Group of Companies., [33] and the Vostoksibacademcenter of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences that publishes the Project Baikal journal.

Literature

Irkutsk was home to the well-known Russian writer Valentin Rasputin; many of his novels and stories take place in the Angara Valley. An essay on the cultural history of Irkutsk (and another one about the nearby Lake Baikal) is included in Rasputin's non-fiction collection Siberia, Siberia, which is also available in an English translation.

Museums

The Church of the Cross (1747-60) is a pinnacle of the Siberian Baroque architecture Exaltation of the Cross Church, Irkutsk, Russia.jpg
The Church of the Cross (1747–60) is a pinnacle of the Siberian Baroque architecture

Irkutsk [34] is a point of interest for tourists with its numerous museums and old architecture. The Taltsy Museum (Russian : Тальцы ), located on the Angara 47 kilometers (29 mi) South of Irkutsk, is an open-air museum of Siberian traditional architecture. Numerous old wooden buildings from villages in the Angara valley, which have been flooded after the construction of the Bratsk Dam and Ust-Ilimsk Dam, have been transported to the museum and reassembled there. One of the centerpieces of the collection is a partial recreation of the 17th-century ostrog (fortress) of Ilimsk, which consists of the original Spasskaya Tower and the Church of Our Lady of Kazan transported from the flooded ostrog in the mid-1970s, to which an exact modern copy of another tower of the ostrog and the Southern wall of the fortress were added in the early 2000s. [35]

The Botanic Garden of the Irkutsk State University known as the "Irkutsk Botanic Garden" is the only botanic garden as a living museum in Irkutsk Oblast and Baikalian Siberia. Its mission is "to protect and enrich the flora of the Lake Baikal area and the world for people through public education, collection, propagation, research, and conservation of plants". The garden is mainly an educational and scientific tool for the Irkutsk State University and maintains the largest plant collection of living plants in Eastern Siberia (more than 5000 plant taxa), a herbarium, and a seed bank. It occupies 27 hectares within Irkutsk city, 70 km (43 mi) West of Lake Baikal. It has a federal status of especially protected land and a nature memorial of Irkutsk.

Theaters

Irkutsk is also home to several theaters, including the Okhlopkov Drama Theater, one of Russia's oldest. [36]

Sports

Trud Stadium is due to be replaced by an indoor bandy and speed skating arena 07 Irkutsk. Na gorodskom stadione.jpg
Trud Stadium is due to be replaced by an indoor bandy and speed skating arena

Bandy is popular in the city. There are several clubs, most notably Baykal-Energiya [37] of the Russian Bandy Super League, which can draw spectator crowds of 30,000. [38] It is also the centre of women's bandy in Russia with the club Rekord, [39] which provides most players to the national team. [40]

In Irkutsk, there are 384 sports facilities, of which 200 are municipal ones. Among them there are 23 swimming pools, 14 ski bases, a sports palace, 154 courts, 165 gyms, an athletics arena, a racetrack, 7 stadiums — Trud, Rekord, Dynamo, Zenit, Aviator, Lokomotiv-2, sports complex of Irktusk and the main football arena — Lokomotiv for 3 thousand seats.[ citation needed ]

2012 Women's Bandy World Championship [41] was hosted in Irkutsk and received praise from Federation of International Bandy. [42] 2014 Bandy World Championship was played in the city. [43] [44] The final of Russian Bandy Super League 2016 was played at Rekord Stadium. [45] The 2019 Bandy World Championship was scheduled to also be hosted in Irkutsk. [46] The decision was reconsidered, though. [47] Then it was thought that Irkutsk might get the right to host the 2020 tournament instead, if FIB was given guarantees that the planned indoor arena would be ready for use in time. [48] It will also be an indoor speed skating arena. [49] Its construction started in October 2018 [50] and is expected to be ready for use by March 2020, just in time for the Bandy World Championship. [51]

Twin towns and sister cities

Irkutsk is twinned with: [52] [53]

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

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Bratsk is a city in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Angara River near the vast Bratsk Reservoir. Population: 246,319 (2010 Census); 259,335 (2002 Census); 255,705 (1989 Census).

Tayshet Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Tayshet is a town and the administrative center of Tayshetsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located 669 kilometers (416 mi) from Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 35,485 (2010 Census); 38,535 (2002 Census); 42,391 (1989 Census).

Ust-Ilimsk Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Ust-Ilimsk is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Angara River. Population: 86,610 (2010 Census); 100,592 (2002 Census); 109,280 (1989 Census); 53,000 (1977).

Usolye-Sibirskoye Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Usolye-Sibirskoye is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Angara River. Population: 83,327 (2010 Census); 90,161 (2002 Census); 106,496 (1989 Census).

Cheremkhovo Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Cheremkhovo is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Population: 52,647 (2010 Census); 60,107 (2002 Census); 73,636 (1989 Census).

Ust-Kut Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Ust-Kut is a town and the administrative center of Ust-Kutsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located 961 kilometers (597 mi) from Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Located on a western loop of the Lena River, the town spreads out for over 20 kilometers (12 mi) along the left bank, near the point where the Kuta River joins from the west. Population: 45,375 (2010 Census); 49,951 (2002 Census); 61,165 (1989 Census).

Bodaybo Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Bodaybo is a town and the administrative center of Bodaybinsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vitim River at its confluence with the Bodaybo River, located 1,290 kilometers (800 mi) from Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 15,340 (2010 Census); 16,504 (2002 Census); 20,939 (1989 Census); 12,800 (1968).

Zima (town) Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Zima is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located at the point where the Trans-Siberian Railway crosses the Oka River. Population: 32,508 (2010 Census); 34,899 (2002 Census); 41,814 (1989 Census).

Svirsk Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Svirsk is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Angara River 150 kilometers (93 mi) northwest of Irkutsk. Population: 13,650 (2010 Census); 15,500 (2002 Census); 19,214 (1989 Census); 21,000 (1974).

Slyudyanka Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Slyudyanka is a town and the administrative center of Slyudyansky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located at the southern tip of Lake Baikal, 126 kilometers (78 mi) south of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 18,574 (2010 Census); 19,118 (2002 Census); 19,872 (1989 Census).

Sayansk Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Sayansk is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River 270 kilometers (170 mi) northwest of Irkutsk. Population: 40,800 (2010 Census); 43,468 (2002 Census); 38,169 (1989 Census).

Shelekhov Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Shelekhov is a town and the administrative center of Shelekhovsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located 20 kilometers (12 mi) southwest of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. It is located on the plains between the rivers Irkut and Olha. The official day of the city is celebrated on 12 July.

Kirensk Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Kirensk is a town and the administrative center of Kirensky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kirenga and Lena Rivers, 950 kilometers (590 mi) north of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 12,640 (2010 Census); 13,712 (2002 Census); 16,137 (1989 Census).

Zheleznogorsk-Ilimsky Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Zheleznogorsk-Ilimsky is a town and the administrative center of Nizhneilimsky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located 478 kilometers (297 mi) north of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 26,079 (2010 Census); 29,093 (2002 Census); 32,326 (1989 Census).

Tulun Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Tulun is a town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Iya River, 390 kilometers (240 mi) northwest of Irkutsk. Population: 44,611 (2010 Census); 51,848 (2002 Census); 52,903 (1989 Census).

Vikhorevka Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Vikhorevka is a town in Bratsky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Vikhorevka River, 916 kilometers (569 mi) northwest of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast, and 46 kilometers (29 mi) southwest of Bratsk. Population: 22,520 (2010 Census); 24,763 (2002 Census); 23,872 (1989 Census).

Biryusinsk Town in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Biryusinsk is a town in Tayshetsky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Biryusa River, 682 kilometers (424 mi) northwest of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 8,981 (2010 Census); 10,004 (2002 Census); 12,066 (1989 Census).

Balagansky District District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Balagansky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Balagansky Municipal District. The area of the district is 6,634.7 square kilometers (2,561.7 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Balagansk. Population: 9,194 (2010 Census); 9,973. The population of Balagansk accounts for 44.7% of the district's total population.

Irkutsky District District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Irkutsky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Irkutsky Municipal District. It is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 11,300 square kilometers (4,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Irkutsk. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 84,322.

Balagansk Work settlement in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia

Balagansk is an urban locality and the administrative center of Balagansky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. It is located on the left bank of the Angara River, downstream from Svirsk and 285 kilometres (177 mi) by road northwest of Irkutsk and to the southeast of Sayansk. Population: 4,109 (2010 Census); 4,307 (2002 Census); 4,136 (1989 Census).

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 Charter of Irkutsk Oblast
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Law #49-OZ
  3. 1 2 Lantzeff, George V., and Richard A. Pierce (1973). Eastward to Empire: Exploration and Conquest on the Russian Open Frontier, to 1750. Montreal: McGill-Queen's U.P.
  4. 1 2 "Мэр – Официальный портал города Иркутска" . Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  5. "Федеральная служба государственной статистики Российской Федерации – База данных показателей муниципальных образований" . Retrieved March 17, 2016.
  6. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  8. 1 2 3 Law #88-oz
  9. Law #94-oz
  10. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  11. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  12. "International Calling Codes – Pg2". The-acr.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  13. Dameshek (2002), p. 16
  14. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Irkutsk"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 796.
  15. Kennan, George (1891). Siberia and the Exile System. London: James R. Osgood, McIlvaine & Co. pp. 1–2.
  16. Nechepurenko, Ivan (19 December 2016). "In Russia, Dozens Dies After Drinking Alcohol Substitute". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  17. "Russia bath lotion poisoning: Putin orders crackdown as death toll rises". BBC. 21 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  18. Sarah Rainsford (29 December 2018). "Putin's Russia: Icy Siberia reveals cracks in society". BBC.com. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  19. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  20. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  21. "Pogoda.ru.net- Climate Data for Irkutsk 1981–2010" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 30, 2015.
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  23. "Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Station History". Irkutskenergo. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
  24. John Pike (2002-09-18). "Irkutsk Aviation Industrial Association – Russian Defense Industry". GlobalSecurity.org . Retrieved 2014-02-07.
  25. "Russian Aircraft Industry Seeks Revival Through Merger." The New York Times. February 22, 2006
  26. "Страница не найдена". Rusal.ru. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  27. "IGTRK – Irkutsk branch of the State Television an Radio Broadcast Company". Irkutsk.rfn.ru. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  28. "AS Baikal TV". AS Baikal TV. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  29. "TV Company AIST". Aisttv.ru. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  30. "gorodtv.ru. Domain is, probably, for sale". gorodtv.ru. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  31. "VSP Newspaper Agency". Vsp.ru. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  32. Live webcam in Irkutsk Archived April 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  33. "Аналитическая служба". Petropavlovsk.net. Archived from the original on September 14, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
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  35. В «Тальцах» завершается реконструкция южной стены Илимского острога Archived February 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (Re-creation of the southern wall of the Ilimsk ostrog in the Taltsy Museum is approaching its completion) (in Russian)
  36. "Irkutsk: Libertine Legacy by the Lakeside | Beyond Moscow". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  37. "Хоккейный клуб "Байкал-Энергия". Официальный сайт". Baikal-energy.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  38. baikal-energy bandy on YouTube
  39. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 20, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  40. "Bandy2010.com". Bandy2010.com. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  41. "WCS 2012 home page". Baikal-bandy.ru. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  42. emh solutions. "A very well organized World Championship for Women in Irkutsk made a great success". Worldbandy.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
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  46. Annual Congress in Sandviken, Sweden on Jan 30 2017 2017-01-28
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  52. (in Russian) Sister cities of Irkutsk Archived February 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  53. (in Russian) МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЕ ОТНОШЕНИЯ И – Известия ИГЭА Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine

Sources