Ironing

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Ironing a shirt Ironing a shirt.jpg
Ironing a shirt

Ironing is the use of a machine, usually a heated tool (an iron), to remove wrinkles from fabric. [1] The heating is commonly done to a temperature of 180–220 °Celsius (356-428 Fahrenheit), depending on the fabric. [2] Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material. While the molecules are hot, the fibers are straightened by the weight of the iron, and they hold their new shape as they cool. Some fabrics, such as cotton, require the addition of water to loosen the intermolecular bonds. Many modern fabrics (developed in or after the mid-twentieth century) are advertised as needing little or no ironing. Permanent press clothing was developed to reduce the ironing necessary by combining wrinkle-resistant polyester with cotton.

Contents

The first known use of heated metal to "iron" clothes is known to have occurred in China. [3] The electric iron was invented in 1882, by Henry W. Seeley. Seeley patented his "electric flatiron" on June 6, 1882 (U.S. Patent no. 259,054). [4]

Equipment

Iron

The iron is the small appliance used to remove wrinkles from fabric. It is also known as a clothes iron, steam iron, flat iron, smoothing iron or iron box.

On 15 February 1858 W. Vandenburg and J. Harvey patented an ironing table that facilitated pressing sleeves and pant legs. [5] A truly portable folding ironing board was first patented in Canada in 1875 by John B. Porter. The invention also included a removable press board used for sleeves. [6] In 1892 Sarah Boone obtained a patent in the United States for improvements to the ironing board, allowing for better quality ironing for shirt sleeves. [7]

Ironing board cover sizes

Size[ citation needed ]InchesCentimeters
A43 × 12110 × 30
B49 × 15124 × 38
C49 × 18124 × 45
D53 × 18135 × 45
E53 × 19135 × 49

Tailor's ham

A tailor's ham or dressmakers ham is a tightly stuffed pillow in the shape of a ham used as a mold when pressing curves such as sleeves or collars. [8]

Commercial equipment

Commercial dry cleaning and full-service laundry providers usually use a large appliance called a steam press to do most of the work of ironing clothes. Alternatively, a rotary iron may be used.

A tailor's stove Flat-iron-stove 2.jpg
A tailor's stove

Historically, larger tailors' shops included a tailor's stove, used to quickly and efficiently heat multiple irons. In many developing countries a cluster of solid irons, heated alternatively from a single heating source, are used for pressing clothes at small commercial outlets.

Automatization

Different machines have been shown to automatize ironing, as Effie and Panasonic Sustainable Maintainer. Both machines individually treat clothes and then fold them onto a shelf.

Woman ironing a shirt (Koln, Germany 1953) Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F001163-0012, Koln, Textilfabrik Bierbaum-Proenen.jpg
Woman ironing a shirt (Köln, Germany 1953)
A man ironing clothes using a charcoal iron box ManIroning.JPG
A man ironing clothes using a charcoal iron box
TextileTemperature[ citation needed ]Temperature [2] Dot mark
Toile 240 °C
Triacetate ("Estron", "Silene", "Tricell")200 °C220–250 °C
Cotton 204 °C / 400 °F180–220 °C* * * [9]
Linen (flax)230 °C / 445 °F215–240 °C* * * [9]
Viscose/Rayon190 °C150–180 °C* * [9]
Wool 148 °C / 300 °F160–170 °C* * [10]
Polyester 148 °C / 300 °F* [9]
Silk 148 °C / 300 °F140–165 °C* [10]
SympaTex * [9]
Acetate ("Arnel", "Celco", "Dicel")143 °C180 °C* [10]
Acrylic 135 °C180 °C
Lycra/spandex 135 °C
Nylon-6150 °C150 °C*
Nylon-66170 °C180–220 °C***
Dot markTemperature
*< 110 °C
* *< 150 °C
* * *< 200 °C

Another source suggests slightly higher temperatures, for example, 180-220 °C for cotton [2]

Chemistry

When the fabric is heated, the molecules are more easily reoriented. In the case of cotton fibres, which are derivatives of cellulose, the hydroxyl groups that crosslink the cellulose polymer chains are reformed at high temperatures, and become somewhat "locked in place" upon cooling the item. In permanent press pressed clothes, chemical agents such as dimethylol ethylene urea are added as crosslinking agents.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Rayon cellulose-based synthetic fiber

Rayon is a regenerated cellulose fiber that is made from natural sources such as wood and agricultural products. It has the same molecular structure as cellulose. The many types and grades of viscose fibers can imitate the feel and texture of natural fibers such as silk, wool, cotton, and linen. The types that resemble silk are often called artificial silk. The fibre is used to make textiles for clothing and other purposes. Viscose can mean:

Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using a solvent other than water. The modern dry cleaning process was developed and patented by Thomas L. Jennings.

Clothes dryer Appliance used for drying wet clothes

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Clothes iron Tool or appliance for smoothing cloth using heat and pressure

A clothes iron is a small appliance that, when heated, is used to press clothes to remove creases and help prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Domestic irons generally range in operating temperature from between 250 °F (121 °C) to 360 °F (182 °C). It is named for the metal (iron) of which the device was historically made, and the use of it is generally called ironing. Ironing works by loosening the ties between the long chains of molecules that exist in polymer fiber materials. With the heat and the weight of the ironing plate, the fibers are stretched and the fabric maintains its new shape when cool. Some materials, such as cotton, require the use of water to loosen the intermolecular bonds.

Cellulose acetate chemical compound

Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose. It was first prepared in 1865. Cellulose acetate is used as a film base in photography, as a component in some coatings, and as a frame material for eyeglasses; it is also used as a synthetic fiber in the manufacture of cigarette filters and playing cards. In photographic film, cellulose acetate replaced nitrate film in the 1950s, being far less flammable and cheaper to produce.

Lyocell regenerated cellulose fiber made from dissolving pulp

Lyocell is a form of rayon that consists of cellulose fibre made from dissolving pulp using dry jet-wet spinning. It was developed in 1972 by a team at the now defunct American Enka fibers facility at Enka, North Carolina. In 2003, this development was recognised by the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) by the awarding of their Henry E. Millson Award for Invention.

Clothes line rope stretched between two points in order to hang and dry laundry

A clothes line or washing line is any type of rope, cord, or twine that has been stretched between two points, outside or indoors, above the level of the ground. Clothing that has recently been washed is hung along the line to dry, using clothes pegs or clothespins. Washing lines are attached either from a post or a wall, and are frequently located in back gardens, or on balconies. Longer washing lines often have props holding up sections in the middle due to the weight of the usually wet clothing.

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Dress shirt garment with a collar and a full-length opening at the front, which is fastened using buttons or shirt studs

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Sanforization textile treatment process

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Dimethylol ethylene urea chemical compound

Dimethylol ethyleneurea is an organic compound derived from formaldehyde and urea. It is a colourless solid that is used for treating cellulose-based heavy fabrics to inhibit wrinkle formation. Dimethylol ethylene urea (DMEU) bonds with the hydroxyl groups present in long cellulose chains and prevents the formation hydrogen bonding between the chains, the primary cause of wrinkling. This treatment produces permanently wrinkle-resistant fabrics and is different from the effects achieved from using fabric softeners.

Wet processing engineering is one of the major streams in textile engineering refers to textile chemical processing engineering and applied science. The other three streams in textile engineering are yarn manufacturing engineering, fabric manufacturing engineering, and garments manufacturing engineering.

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A clothes steamer, also called a garment steamer or simply a steamer, is a device used for quickly removing wrinkles from garments and fabrics with the use of high temperature steam.

Wrinkle-resistant or permanent press fabrics are textiles that have been treated to resist external stress and hold their shape. Clothing made from this fabric does not need to be ironed and may be sold as non-iron, no-iron, wash and wear, durable press, and easy care. While fabric cleaning and maintenance may be simplified, some wearers experience decreased comfort.

Mary Florence Potts American inventor

Mary Florence Potts was an American businessperson and inventor. She invented clothes irons with detachable wooden handles that became prominent throughout North America and the European continent. She termed herself an "inventress".

References

  1. "Ironing". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
  2. 1 2 3 Fritz Schultze-Gebhardt, Karl-Heinz Herlinger "Fibers, 1. Survey" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wily-VCH, Weinheim, 2000. doi : 10.1002/14356007.a10_451
  3. Oldandinteresting.com
  4. Enchantedlearning.com
  5. U.S. Patent 19,390
  6. Mario Theriault, Great Maritime Inventions 1833–1950, Goose Lane, 2001, p. 31
  7. Mary Bellis (2011). "Sarah Boone". Inventors. About.com . Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  8. "Tailor's ham and Seam Roll Free Pattern". Sewing Princess. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 "Bra att veta vad man har på sig" (PDF). Ulla Popken. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-22. Retrieved 2010-02-04.
  10. 1 2 3 "General care" (PDF). Lanidor. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2010-02-04.