Isabella of Angoulême

Last updated
Isabella of Angoulême
IsabelledAngouleme.jpg
Queen consort of England
Tenure24 August 1200 – 19 October 1216
Coronation 8 October 1200
Countess of Angoulême
Reign16 June 1202 – 4 June 1246
Predecessor Aymer
Successor Hugh I
Countess of La Marche
Tenure10 May 1220 – 4 June 1246
Bornc.1186/c.1188
Died4 June 1246
Fontevraud Abbey, France
Burial
Fontevraud Abbey
Spouse
John, King of England
(m. 1200;died 1216)

Hugh X of Lusignan (m. 1220)
Issue
more...
by John:

Henry III, King of England
Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall
Joan, Queen of Scotland
Isabella, Holy Roman Empress
Eleanor, Countess of Pembroke and Leicester
by Hugh:

Contents

Hugh XI of Lusignan
Aymer de Valence
Alice, Countess of Surrey
William, Earl of Pembroke
Isabella of Lusignan
House Taillefer
Father Aymer, Count of Angoulême
Mother Alice of Courtenay
Seal of Isabella of Angouleme (Municipal Archives, Angouleme) SealOfIsabellaOfAngouleme.jpg
Seal of Isabella of Angoulême (Municipal Archives, Angoulême)

Isabella of Angoulême (French : Isabelle d'Angoulême, IPA:  [izabɛl dɑ̃ɡulɛm] ; c. 1186 [1] /1188 [2] – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also suo jure Countess of Angoulême from 1202 until 1246.

Isabella had five children by the king, including his heir, later Henry III. In 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, by whom she had another nine children.

Some of Isabella's contemporaries, as well as later writers, claim that Isabella formed a conspiracy against King Louis IX of France in 1241, after being publicly snubbed by his mother, Blanche of Castile, for whom she had a deep-seated hatred. [3] In 1244, after the plot had failed, Isabella was accused of attempting to poison the king. To avoid arrest, she sought refuge in Fontevraud Abbey, where she died two years later, but none of this can be confirmed.

Queen of England

Isabella was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulême, by Alice of Courtenay, [4] who was sister of Peter II of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople and granddaughter of King Louis VI of France.

Isabella became Countess of Angoulême in her own right on 16 June 1202, by which time she was already queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on 24 August 1200, in Angoulême, a year after he annulled his first marriage to Isabel of Gloucester. She was crowned queen in an elaborate ceremony on 8 October at Westminster Abbey in London. [5] Isabella was originally betrothed to Hugh IX le Brun, Count of Lusignan, [6] son of the Count of La Marche. As a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all of their French lands, and armed conflict ensued.

At the time of her marriage to John, the blonde-haired blue-eyed Isabella was already renowned by some for her beauty [7] and has sometimes been called the Helen of the Middle Ages by historians. [8] Isabella was much younger than her husband and possessed a volatile temper similar to his own. King John was infatuated with his young, beautiful wife; however, his acquisition of her had at least as much to do with spiting his enemies as romantic love. She was already engaged to Hugh IX le Brun when she was taken by John. It was said that he neglected his state affairs to spend time with Isabella, often remaining in bed with her until noon. However, these were rumors spread by John's enemies to discredit him as a weak and grossly irresponsible ruler, given that at the time John was engaging in a desperate war against King Philip of France to hold on to the remaining Plantagenet duchies. The common people began to term her a "siren" or "Messalina", which spoke volumes as to popular opinion. [9] Her mother-in-law, Eleanor of Aquitaine, readily accepted her as John's wife. [10]

On 1 October 1207 at Winchester Castle, Isabella gave birth to a son and heir, named Henry III after the King's father, Henry II. He was quickly followed by another son, Richard, and three daughters, Joan, Isabella, and Eleanor. All five children survived into adulthood and made illustrious marriages; all but Joan produced offspring of their own.

Second marriage

When King John died in October 1216, Isabella's first act was to arrange the speedy coronation of her nine-year-old son at the city of Gloucester on 28 October. As the royal crown had recently been lost in The Wash, along with the rest of King John's treasure, she supplied her own golden circlet to be used in lieu of a crown. [11] The following July, less than a year after his crowning as King Henry III of England, she left him in the care of his regent, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and returned to France to assume control of her inheritance of Angoulême.

In the spring of 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, "le Brun", Seigneur de Luisignan, Count of La Marche, the son of her former fiancé, Hugh IX, to whom she had been betrothed before her marriage to King John. It had been previously arranged that her eldest daughter Joan should marry Hugh, and the little girl was being brought up at the Lusignan court in preparation for her marriage. Hugh, however, upon seeing Isabella, whose beauty had not diminished, [12] preferred the girl's mother. Joan was provided with another husband, King Alexander II of Scotland, whom she wed in 1221.

Isabella had married Hugh without the consent of the king's council in England, as was required of a queen dowager. That council had the power not only to assign to her any subsequent husband, but to decide whether she should be allowed to remarry at all. That Isabella flouted its authority moved the council to confiscate her dower lands and to stop the payment of her pension. [13] Isabella and her husband retaliated by threatening to keep Joan, who had been promised in marriage to the King of Scotland, in France. The council first responded by sending furious letters to the Pope, signed in the name of young King Henry, urging him to excommunicate Isabella and her husband, but then decided to come to terms with Isabella, to avoid conflict with the Scottish king, who was eager to receive his bride. Isabella was granted the stannaries in Devon, and the revenue of Aylesbury for a period of four years, in compensation for her confiscated dower lands in Normandy, as well as the £3,000 arrears for her pension. [13]

Isabella had nine more children by Hugh X. Their eldest son Hugh XI of Lusignan succeeded his father as Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême in 1249.

Isabella's children from her royal marriage did not join her in Angoulême, remaining in England with their eldest brother Henry III.

Rebellion and death

Described by some contemporaries as "vain, capricious, and troublesome," [14] Isabella could not reconcile herself with her less prominent position in France. Though Queen mother of England, Isabella was now mostly regarded as a mere Countess of La Marche and had to give precedence to other women. [15] In 1241, when Isabella and Hugh were summoned to the French court to swear fealty to King Louis IX of France's brother, Alphonse, who had been invested as Count of Poitou, their mother, the Queen Dowager Blanche openly snubbed her. This so infuriated Isabella, who had a deep-seated hatred of Blanche for having fervently supported the French invasion of England during the First Barons' War in May 1216, that she began to actively conspire against King Louis. Isabella and her husband, along with other disgruntled nobles, including her son-in-law Raymond VII of Toulouse, sought to create an English-backed confederacy which united the provinces of the south and west against the French king. [16] She encouraged her son Henry in his invasion of Normandy in 1230, but then did not provide him the support she had promised.

In 1244, after the confederacy had failed and Hugh had made peace with King Louis, two royal cooks were arrested for attempting to poison the King; upon questioning they confessed to having been in Isabella's pay. [14] Before Isabella could be taken into custody, she fled to Fontevraud Abbey, where she died on 4 June 1246. [17]

By Isabella's own prior arrangement, she was first buried in the Abbey's churchyard, as an act of repentance for her many misdeeds. On a visit to Fontevraud, her son King Henry III of England was shocked to find her buried outside the Abbey and ordered her immediately moved inside. She was finally placed beside Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Afterwards, most of her many Lusignan children, having few prospects in France, set sail for England and the court of Henry, their half-brother.[ citation needed ]

Issue

  1. King Henry III of England (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272). Married Eleanor of Provence, by whom he had issue, including his heir, King Edward I of England.
  2. Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272). Married firstly Isabel Marshal, secondly Sanchia of Provence, and thirdly Beatrice of Falkenburg. Had issue.
  3. Joan (22 July 1210 – 1238), the wife of King Alexander II of Scotland. Her marriage was childless.
  4. Isabella (1214–1241), the wife of Emperor Frederick II, by whom she had issue.
  5. Eleanor (1215–1275), who would marry firstly William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke; and secondly Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, by whom she had issue.
  1. Hugh XI of Lusignan (1221–1250), Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême. Married Yolande de Dreux, Countess of Penthièvre and of Porhoet, by whom he had issue.
  2. Aymer of Lusignan (1222–1260), Bishop of Winchester
  3. Agnès de Lusignan (1223–1269). Married William II de Chauvigny (d. 1270), and had issue.
  4. Alice of Lusignan (1224 – 9 February 1256). Married John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, by whom she had issue.
  5. Guy of Lusignan (c. 1225 – 1264), killed at the Battle of Lewes. (Tufton Beamish maintains that he escaped to France after the Battle of Lewes and died there in 1269).
  6. Geoffrey of Lusignan (c. 1226 – 1274). Married in 1259 Jeanne, Viscountess of Châtellerault, by whom he had issue.
  7. Isabella of Lusignan (c.1226/1227 – 14 January 1299). Married firstly before 1244 Maurice IV, seigneur de Craon (1224–1250), [18] by whom she had issue; she married secondly, Geoffrey de Rancon. [19]
  8. William of Lusignan (c. 1228 – 1296). 1st Earl of Pembroke. Married Joan de Munchensi, by whom he had issue.
  9. Marguerite de Lusignan (c. 1229 – 1288). Married firstly in 1243 Raymond VII of Toulouse; secondly c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars and had issue

Ancestry

She was played by actress Zena Walker in the TV series The Adventures of Robin Hood episode "Isabella" (1956), before her marriage to John, but not as a 12-year-old. [20] She was portrayed by actress Victoria Abril in the 1976 film Robin and Marian . [21] She was played by actress Cory Pulman in the episode "The Pretender" (1986) of the TV series Robin of Sherwood . She was portrayed by actress Léa Seydoux in the 2010 film Robin Hood . [22]

Sources


Further reading

Related Research Articles

William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke Anglo-Norman noble, allied with Henry III

William de Valence, born Guillaume de Lusignan, was a French nobleman and knight who became important in English politics due to his relationship to King Henry III of England. He was heavily involved in the Second Barons' War, supporting the King and Prince Edward against the rebels led by Simon de Montfort. He took the name de Valence after his birthplace, Valence, near Lusignan.

Isabella of Lusignan was a daughter of Hugh X of Lusignan and his wife Isabella of Angoulême, Dowager Queen of England. Isabella was half-sister to King Henry III of England. She was Dame de Beauvoir-sur Mer et de Mercillac.

Angoulême (L'Angoumois) in western France was part of the Carolingian Empire as the kingdom of Aquitaine. Under Charlemagne's successors, the local Count of Angoulême was independent and was not united with the French crown until 1308. By the terms of the Treaty of Brétigny (1360) the Angoumois, then ruled by the Counts of Angoulême, was ceded as English territory to Edward III. In 1371 it became a fief of the Duke of Berry, before passing to Louis I, Duke of Orleans, both of whom were cadets of the French royal family. From then on it was held by cadets of the Valois House of Orleans, until Francis, Count of Angoulême, became King of France in 1515. Angoumois was definitively incorporated into the French crown lands, as a duchy.

House of Lusignan dynasty

The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages. It also had great influence in England and France.

Hugh X of Lusignan Count of La Marche

Hugh X de Lusignan, Hugh V of La Marche or Hugh I of Angoulême succeeded his father Hugh IX as Seigneur de Lusignan and Count of La Marche in November 1219 and was Count of Angoulême by marriage.

Hugh IX of Lusignan French noble

Hugh IX "le Brun" of Lusignan was the grandson of Hugh VIII. His father, also Hugh, was the co-seigneur of Lusignan from 1164, marrying a woman named Orengarde before 1162 or about 1167 and dying in 1169. Hugh IX became seigneur of Lusignan in 1172, seigneur of Couhé and Chateau-Larcher in the 1190s, and Count of La Marche on his grandfather's death. Hugh IX died on the Fifth Crusade at the siege of Damietta on 5 November 1219.

Battle of Taillebourg 1242 battle between England and France

The Battle of Taillebourg was a 1242 battle between the Capetian troops of Louis IX and his brother Alphonse of Poitiers, against the rebel followers of Hugh X of Lusignan and king Henry III of England.

Joan of England, Queen of Scotland 13th-century English princess and Queen of Scotland

Joan of England, was Queen consort of Scotland from 1221 until her death. She was the third child of John, King of England and Isabella of Angoulême.

Hugh XI de Lusignan, Hugh VI of La Marche or Hugh II of Angoulême. He succeeded his mother Isabelle of Angoulême, former queen of England, as Count of Angoulême in 1246. He likewise succeeded his father Hugh X as Count of La Marche in 1249. Hugh XI de Lusignan was the half-brother of King Henry III of England.

Yolanda of Lusignan or Yolande I & I de Lusignan, Countess of La Marche was a French noblewoman and peeress. In 1308, she succeeded her brother Guy I as suo jure Dame of Lusignan, of Couhé and of Peyrat, and suo jure Countess of La Marche, but not as Countess of Angoulême since after her brother's death the county was sold by her sisters, Joan and Isabelle, to King Philip IV and annexed to the French Crown. Yolanda was also the heiress of Fougères, which she succeeded to upon her mother's death sometime after 1273.

Joan of Lusignan was a French noblewoman. She succeeded her uncle, Guy de la Marche, Knt., sometime in the period, 1310/13, as Lady of Couche and Peyrat, but not as Countess of La Marche since after her sister, Yolande's death, it was annexed by Philip IV of France and given as an appanage to Philip's son Charles the Fair. Previously, in 1308, following the death of her brother Guy, Jeanne and her sister Isabelle, as co-heiresses, had sold the county of Angoulême to the King.

Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Countess of March, Baroness Mortimer, also known as Jeanne de Joinville, was the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusignan. She inherited the estates of her grandparents, Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville. She was one of the wealthiest heiresses in the Welsh Marches and County Meath, Ireland. She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330. She succeeded as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville on 21 October 1314 upon the death of her grandfather, Geoffrey de Geneville.

Alice de Lusignan was the first wife of Marcher baron Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, and half-niece of King Henry III of England.

Alice de Lusignan, Countess of Surrey was a uterine half-sister of King Henry III of England and the wife of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey. Shortly after her arrival in England from France in 1247, her half-brother arranged her marriage to the Earl, which incurred some resentment from the English nobility.

Aymer was the last Count of Angoulême of the House of Taillefer. He was a middle child of Count William VI and Marguerite de Turenne. Two of his elder brothers, Wulgrin III and William VII, became Counts of Angoulême in succession after the death of their father in 1179.

Isabel de Clare, suo jure 4th Countess of Pembroke and Striguil (1172–1220), was a Cambro-Norman-Irish noblewoman and one of the wealthiest heiresses in Wales and Ireland. She was the wife of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who served four successive kings as Lord Marshal of England. Her marriage had been arranged by King Richard I.

Jeanne de Fougères, Countess of La Marche and of Angoulême French countess

Jeanne de Fougères, was ruling suo jure Lady of Fougères from 1256. She was the wife of Hugh XII of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême. Jeanne was responsible for the later additions and fortifications of the Chateau of Fougères which provided a greater stability for the town.

Mathilde of Angoulême (1181–1233) was the sole daughter of Wulgrin III, Count of Angoulême. After the death of her father, the title passed to her uncle, William VII of Angoulême. After her marriage to Hugh IX of Lusignan, she became his consort, and the centre of the dynastic struggle between the Kings of England and France, after the death of Aymer of Angoulême. The defeat of John of England, ensured that the title passed to the House of Lusignan, eventually falling to the House of Valois and to the crown of France.

Yolande of Brittany French noble

Yolande of Brittany was the ruler of the counties of Penthièvre and Porhoet in the Duchy of Brittany. Yolande had been betrothed to King Henry III of England in 1226 at the age of seven years. but married Hugh XI of Lusignan, the half-brother of Henry III. Through Hugh, she became Countess of La Marche and of Angoulême. She was the mother of seven children. From 1250 to 1256, she acted as Regent of La Marche and Angoulême for her son, Hugh XII of Lusignan.

Alice of Courtenay French noblewoman of the House of Courtenay

Alice of Courtenay, Countess of Angoulême was a French noblewoman of the House of Courtenay. Her father was Peter I of Courtenay and her brother was Peter II of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople. Alice married twice; by her second husband, Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulême, she was the mother of Isabella of Angoulême, who was Queen consort of England, as the wife of King John.

References

  1. Barrière 2006, p. 384.
  2. Evergates 2007, p. 226.
  3. Costain 1959, p. 144-145.
  4. Vincent 1999, p. 171.
  5. Church 2015, p. 69.
  6. Vincent 1999, p. 171, 177.
  7. Costain 1962, p. 251-252.
  8. Costain 1962, p. 306.
  9. Costain 1962, p. 253-254.
  10. Costain 1962, p. 246.
  11. Costain 1959, p. 11.
  12. Costain 1962, p. 341.
  13. 1 2 Costain 1959, p. 38–39.
  14. 1 2 Costain 1959, p. 149.
  15. Costain 1959, p. 144.
  16. Costain 1959, p. 145-146.
  17. Vincent 2004, p. online edition.
  18. Tout 2009, p. 395.
  19. Jobson 2012, p. xxv.
  20. Sussex 1969, p. 96.
  21. Dumont 2017, p. 212.
  22. Lopez 2013, p. ?.
Isabella of Angoulême
Born: c. 1188 Died: 4 June 1246
Royal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Berengaria of Navarre
Queen consort of England
24 August 1200 – 18 October 1216
Vacant
Title next held by
Eleanor of Provence
French nobility
Preceded by
Aymer
Countess of Angoulême
16 June 1202 – 4 June 1246
Succeeded by
Hugh I