Isaiah

Last updated
Isaiah
Jesaja (Michelangelo).jpg
Prophet
Born8th century BC
Died7th century BC
Venerated in Judaism
Christianity
Islam [1]
Feast May 9 [2]
Thursday after the Feast of the Transfiguration (Armenian Apostolic Church) [3]
Major works Book of Isaiah

Isaiah ( UK: /ˈz.ə/ or US: /ˈz.ə/ ; [4] [5] Hebrew : יְשַׁעְיָהוּ, Yəšaʿyāhū, "Yahweh is salvation"; [6] also known as Isaias [7] or Esaias [8] from Greek : Ἠσαΐας) was the 8th-century BC Israelite prophet after whom the Book of Isaiah is named. [9] [10]

Contents

The text of the Book of Isaiah refers to Isaiah as "the prophet", [11] but the exact relationship between the Book of Isaiah and the actual prophet Isaiah is complicated. The traditional view is that all 66 chapters of the book of Isaiah were written by one man, Isaiah, possibly in two periods between 740 BC and c. 686 BC, separated by approximately 15 years.

Another widely held view suggests that parts of the first half of the book (chapters 1–39) originated with the historical prophet, interspersed with prose commentaries written in the time of King Josiah 100 years later, and that the remainder of the book dates from immediately before and immediately after the end of the 6th-century BC exile in Babylon (almost two centuries after the time of the historical prophet), and that perhaps these later chapters represent the work of an ongoing school of prophets who prophesied in accordance with his prophecies. [lower-alpha 1]

Biography

Russian icon of the Prophet Isaiah, 18th century (iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia) Isaiah.jpg
Russian icon of the Prophet Isaiah, 18th century (iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia)

The first verse of the Book of Isaiah states that Isaiah prophesied during the reigns of Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, the kings of Judah. [12] Uzziah's reign was 52 years in the middle of the 8th century BC, and Isaiah must have begun his ministry a few years before Uzziah's death, probably in the 740s BC. He may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus, Isaiah may have prophesied for as long as 64 years. [13]

According to some modern interpretations, Isaiah's wife was called "the prophetess", [14] either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah [15] and Huldah, [16] or simply because she was the "wife of the prophet". [13] [17] They had two sons, naming the elder Shear-Jashub, meaning "A remnant shall return", [18] and the younger Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz, meaning, "Quickly to spoils, plunder speedily." [19]

Isaiah receives his vision of the LORD's house. A stained glass window at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina. Isaiahwindow.jpg
Isaiah receives his vision of the LORD's house. A stained glass window at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina.

Soon after this, Shalmaneser V determined to subdue the northern Kingdom of Israel, taking over and destroying Samaria and beginning the Assyrian captivity. So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was untouched by the Assyrian power. But when Hezekiah gained the throne, he was encouraged to rebel "against the king of Assyria", [20] and entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt. [21] The king of Assyria threatened the king of Judah, and at length invaded the land. Sennacherib's campaign in the Levant brought his powerful army into Judah. Hezekiah was reduced to despair, and submitted to the Assyrians. [22] But after a brief interval, war broke out again. Again Sennacherib led an army into Judah, one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem. [23] Isaiah on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians, [24] whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he "spread before the LORD". [25] [13]

Then Isaiah son of Amoz sent this message to Hezekiah: "Thus said GOD, the God of Israel, to whom you have prayed, concerning King Sennacherib of Assyria—

this is the word that GOD has spoken concerning him: Fair Maiden Zion despises you, She mocks at you; Fair Jerusalem shakes Her head at you. Whom have you blasphemed and reviled? Against whom made loud your voice And haughtily raised your eyes?

Against the Holy One of Israel! [26]

According to the account in 2 Kings 19 (and its derivative account in 2 Chronicles 32) an angel of God fell on the Assyrian army and 185,000 of its men were killed in one night. "Like Xerxes in Greece, Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster in Judah. He made no more expeditions against either Southern Palestine or Egypt." [13] [27]

The remaining years of Hezekiah's reign were peaceful. Isaiah probably lived to its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh. The time and manner of his death are not specified in either the Bible or other primary sources. [13] The Talmud says that he suffered martyrdom by being sawn in two under the orders of Manasseh. [28]

The book of Isaiah, along with the book of Jeremiah, is distinctive in the Hebrew bible for its direct portrayal of the "wrath of the LORD" as presented, for example, in Isaiah 9:19 stating "Through the wrath of the LORD of hosts is the land darkened, and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire." [29]

In Christianity

Representation of the Prophet Isaiah illustrating a 14th-century prose translation of the Gospels E-codices sbs-0008 012r Jesaia.TIF
Representation of the Prophet Isaiah illustrating a 14th-century prose translation of the Gospels

The Ascension of Isaiah, a pseudepigraphical Christian text dated to sometime between the end of the 1st century and the beginning of the 3rd, gives a detailed story of Isaiah confronting an evil false prophet and ending with Isaiah being martyred – none of which is attested in the original Biblical account.

Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335–395) believed that the Prophet Isaiah "knew more perfectly than all others the mystery of the religion of the Gospel". Jerome (c. 342–420) also lauds the Prophet Isaiah, saying "He was more of an Evangelist than a Prophet, because he described all of the Mysteries of the Church of Christ so vividly that you would assume he was not prophesying about the future, but rather was composing a history of past events." [30] Of specific note are the songs of the Suffering Servant, which Christians say are a direct prophetic revelation of the nature, purpose, and detail of the death of Jesus Christ.

The Book of Isaiah is quoted many times by New Testament writers. [31] The Gospel of John says that Isaiah "saw Jesus' glory and spoke about him." [32]

The Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates Saint Isaiah the Prophet with Saint Christopher on May 9. [33] Isaiah is also listed on the page of saints for May 9 in the Roman martyrology of the Roman Catholic Church. [34]

The Book of Mormon quotes Jesus Christ as stating that "great are the words of Isaiah", and that all things prophesied by Isaiah have been and will be fulfilled. [35] The Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants also quote Isaiah more than any other prophet from the Old Testament. [36] Additionally, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints consider the founding of the church by Joseph Smith in the 19th century to be a fulfillment of Isaiah 11, the translation of the Book of Mormon to be a fulfillment of Isaiah 29, [37] and the building of Latter-day Saint temples as a fulfillment of Isaiah 2:2. [38]

In Islam

Isaiah (Arabic : إِشَعْيَاء, romanized: Ishaʿyāʾ) is not mentioned by name in the Quran or the Hadith, but appears frequently as a prophet in Muslim sources such as the qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ and various tafsirs. [39] Al-Tabari (310/923) provides the typical accounts for Islamic traditions regarding Isaiah. [40] He is listed among the prophets in the book of salawat Dalail al-Khayrat. He is further mentioned and accepted as a prophet by other Islamic scholars such as ibn Kathir, Abu Ishaq al-Tha'labi and al-Kisa'i and also modern scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Abdullah Yusuf Ali. [41]

According to Muslim scholars, Isaiah prophesied the coming of Jesus and Muhammad, although the reference to Muhammad is disputed by other religious scholars. [42] Isaiah's narrative in Islamic literature can be divided into three sections. The first establishes Isaiah as a prophet of Judea during the reign of Hezekiah; the second relates Isaiah's actions during the siege of Jerusalem in 597 BC by Sennacherib; and the third warns the nation of coming doom. [43] [40] Paralleling the Hebrew Bible, [44] Islamic tradition states that Hezekiah was king in Jerusalem during Isaiah's time. Hezekiah heard and obeyed Isaiah's advice, but could not quell the turbulence in Israel. [45] This tradition maintains that Hezekiah was a righteous man and that the turbulence worsened after him. After the death of the king, Isaiah told the people not to forsake God, and warned Israel to cease from its persistent sin and disobedience. Muslim tradition maintains that the unrighteous of Judea in their anger sought to kill Isaiah. [45]

In a death that resembles that attributed to Isaiah in Lives of the Prophets , Muslim exegesis recounts that Isaiah was martyred by Israelites by being sawn in two. [45]

In the courts of al-Ma'mun, the seventh Abbasid caliph, Ali al-Ridha, the great-grandson of Muhammad and prominent scholar of his era, was questioned by the Exilarch to prove through the Torah that both Jesus and Muhammad were prophets. Among his several proofs, al-Ridha references the Book of Isaiah, stating "Sha'ya (Isaiah), the Prophet, said in the Torah concerning what you and your companions say 'I have seen two riders to whom (He) illuminated earth. One of them was on a donkey and the other was on a camel. Who is the rider of the donkey, and who is the rider of the camel?'" The Exilarch was unable to answer with certainty. Al-Ridha goes on to state that "As for the rider of the donkey, he is 'Isa (Jesus); and as for the rider of the camel, he is Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family. Do you deny that this (statement) is in the Torah?" The Rabbi responds "No, I do not deny it." [46]

In rabbinic literature

Painting of Isaiah by Antonio Balestra Antonio Balestra - Prophet Isaiah.jpg
Painting of Isaiah by Antonio Balestra

Allusions in Jewish rabbinic literature to Isaiah contain various expansions, elaborations and inferences that go beyond what is presented in the text of the Bible.

Origin and calling

According to the ancient rabbis, Isaiah was a descendant of Judah and Tamar, [47] and his father Amoz was the brother of King Amaziah. [48]

While Isaiah, says the Midrash, was walking up and down in his study he heard God saying "Whom shall I send?" Then Isaiah said "Here am I; send me!" Thereupon God said to him," My children are troublesome and sensitive; if you are ready to be insulted and even beaten by them, you may accept My message; if not, you would better renounce it". [49] Isaiah accepted the mission, and was the most forbearing, as well as the most patriotic, among the prophets, always defending Israel and imploring forgiveness for its sins. When Isaiah said "I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips", [50] he was rebuked by God for speaking in such terms of His people. [51]

Further accounts state that Isaiah was actually the maternal grandfather of King Manasseh, [52] which would make Queen Consort Hephzibah from 2 Kings 21:1 his daughter and King Hezekiah his son-in-law. Hephzibah's name was used as a symbolic name for Zion following its restoration to the favor of Yahweh in Isaiah 62. [53]

His death

It is related in the Talmud that Rabbi Simeon ben Azzai found in Jerusalem an account wherein it was written that King Manasseh killed Isaiah. King Manasseh said to Isaiah "Moses, your master, said 'No man may see God and live'; [54] but you have said 'I saw the Lord seated upon his throne'"; [55] and went on to point out other contradictions—as between Deuteronomy [56] and Isaiah 40; [57] between Exodus 33 [58] and 2 Kings [59] Isaiah thought: "I know that he will not accept my explanations; why should I increase his guilt?" He then uttered the tetragrammaton, a cedar-tree opened, and Isaiah disappeared within it. King Manasseh ordered the cedar to be sawn asunder, and when the saw reached his mouth Isaiah died; thus was he punished for having said "I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips". [60]

A somewhat different version of this legend is given in the Jerusalem Talmud. [61] According to that version Isaiah, fearing King Manasseh, hid himself in a cedar-tree, but his presence was betrayed by the fringes of his garment, and King Manasseh caused the tree to be sawn in half. A passage of the Targum to Isaiah quoted by Jolowicz [62] states that when Isaiah fled from his pursuers and took refuge in the tree, and the tree was sawn in half, the prophet's blood spurted forth. The legend of Isaiah's martyrdom spread to the Arabs [63] and to the Christians as, for example, Athanasius the bishop of Alexandria (c. 318) wrote, "Isaiah was sawn asunder". [64]

Archaeology

In February 2018, archaeologist Eilat Mazar announced that she and her team had discovered a small seal impression which reads "[belonging] to Isaiah nvy" (could be reconstructed and read as "[belonging] to Isaiah the prophet") during the Ophel excavations, just south of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. [65] The tiny bulla was found "only 10 feet away" from where an intact bulla bearing the inscription "[belonging] to King Hezekiah of Judah" was discovered in 2015 by the same team. [66] Although the name "Isaiah" in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is unmistakable, the damage on the bottom left part of the seal causes difficulties in confirming the word "prophet" or a name "Navi", casting some doubts whether this seal really belongs to the prophet Isaiah. [67]

Notes

  1. See the article "Book of Isaiah" for an extended overview of theories of its composition.

Related Research Articles

The Book of Isaiah is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. It is identified by a superscription as the words of the 8th-century BCE prophet Isaiah ben Amoz, but there is evidence that much of it was composed during the Babylonian captivity and later. Johann Christoph Döderlein suggested in 1775 that the book contained the works of two prophets separated by more than a century, and Bernhard Duhm originated the view, held as a consensus through most of the 20th century, that the book comprises three separate collections of oracles: Proto-Isaiah, containing the words of the 8th-century BCE prophet Isaiah; Deutero-Isaiah, or "the Book of Consolation",, the work of an anonymous 6th-century BCE author writing during the Exile; and Trito-Isaiah, composed after the return from Exile. Isaiah 1–33 promises judgment and restoration for Judah, Jerusalem and the nations, and chapters 34–66 presume that judgment has been pronounced and restoration follows soon. While few scholars today attribute the entire book, or even most of it, to one person, the book's essential unity has become a focus in more recent research.

The Book of Kings is a book in the Hebrew Bible, found as two books in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It concludes the Deuteronomistic history, a history of ancient Israel also including the books of Joshua, Judges, and Samuel.

The Book of Micah is the sixth of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible. Ostensibly, it records the sayings of Micah, whose name is Mikayahu, meaning "Who is like Yahweh?", an 8th-century BCE prophet from the village of Moresheth in Judah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hezekiah</span> King of Judah

Hezekiah, or Ezekias, was the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah according to the Hebrew Bible.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zephaniah</span> Biblical figure

Zephaniah is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible; the most prominent being the prophet who prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah and is attributed a book bearing his name among the Twelve Minor Prophets. His name is commonly transliterated Sophonias in Bibles translated from the Vulgate or Septuagint. The name might mean "Yah has concealed", "[he whom] Yah has hidden", or "Yah lies in wait".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manasseh of Judah</span> Fourteenth king of the Kingdom of Judah

Manasseh was the fourteenth king of the Kingdom of Judah. He was the oldest of the sons of Hezekiah and his mother Hephzibah. He became king at the age of 12 and reigned for 55 years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Assyrian siege of Jerusalem</span> Conflict between the Neo-Assyrian Empire and the Kingdom of Judah, c. 701 BC

The Assyriansiege of Jerusalem was an aborted siege of Jerusalem, then capital of the Kingdom of Judah, carried out by Sennacherib, king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The siege concluded Sennacharib's campaign in the Levant, in which he attacked the fortified cities and devastated the countryside of Judah in a campaign of subjugation. Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem, but did not capture it.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Matthew 1:10</span> Tenth verse of the first chapter in the Gospel of Matthew

Matthew 1:10 is the tenth verse of the first chapter in the Gospel of Matthew in the Bible. The verse is part of the section where the genealogy of Joseph, the father of Jesus, is listed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Matthew 1:9</span>

Matthew 1:9 is the ninth verse of the first chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the Bible. The verse is part of the non-synoptic section where the genealogy of Joseph, the legal father of Jesus, is listed, or on non-Pauline interpretations the genealogy of Jesus. The purpose of the genealogy is to show descent from the line of kings, in particular David, as the Messiah was predicted to be the son of David, and descendant of Abraham.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Micah (prophet)</span> Prophet in Judaism

According to the Hebrew Bible, Micah, also known as Micheas, was a prophet in Judaism and is the author of the Book of Micah. He is considered one of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Hebrew Bible and was a contemporary of the prophets Isaiah, Amos and Hosea. Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah.

Isaiah 7 is the seventh chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah and is one of the Books of the Prophets.

Isaiah 30 is the thirtieth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible groups chapters 28-35 together as a collection of "poems on Israel and Judah". The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges describes this chapter as "a series of Oracles dealing with the Egyptian Alliance and its consequences; the present state and future prospects of Israel, and the destruction of the Assyrians".

Isaiah 36 is the thirty-sixth chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. The text, describing the invasion of the Assyrian king Sennacherib to the Kingdom of Judah under Hezekiah.

Isaiah 37 is the thirty-seventh chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2 Kings 18</span> 2 Kings, chapter 18

2 Kings 18 is the eighteenth chapter of the second part of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter records the events during the reign of Hezekiah, the king of Judah, a part of the section comprising 2 Kings 18:1 to 20:21, with a parallel version in Isaiah 36–39.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2 Kings 19</span> 2 Kings, chapter 19

2 Kings 19 is the nineteenth chapter of the second part of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BC, with a supplement added in the sixth century BC. This chapter records the invasion of Assyrian to Judah during the reign of Hezekiah, the king of Judah, a part of the section comprising 2 Kings 18:1 to 20:21, with a parallel version in Isaiah 36–39.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2 Kings 20</span> 2 Kings, chapter 20

2 Kings 20 is the twentieth chapter of the second part of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter records the events during the reign of Hezekiah and Manasseh, the kings of Judah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2 Chronicles 32</span> Second Book of Chronicles, chapter 32

2 Chronicles 32 is the thirty-second chapter of the Second Book of Chronicles the Old Testament in the Christian Bible or of the second part of the Books of Chronicles in the Hebrew Bible. The book is compiled from older sources by an unknown person or group, designated by modern scholars as "the Chronicler", and had the final shape established in late fifth or fourth century BCE. This chapter belongs to the section focusing on the kingdom of Judah until its destruction by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II and the beginning of restoration under Cyrus the Great of Persia. The focus of this chapter is the reign of Hezekiah, king of Judah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2 Kings 21</span> 2 Kings, chapter 21

2 Kings 21 is the twenty-first chapter of the second part of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter records the events during the reign of Manasseh and Amon, the kings of Judah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2 Chronicles 33</span> Second Book of Chronicles, chapter 33

2 Chronicles 33 is the thirty-third chapter of the Second Book of Chronicles the Old Testament of the Christian Bible or of the second part of the Books of Chronicles in the Hebrew Bible. The book is compiled from older sources by an unknown person or group, designated by modern scholars as "the Chronicler", and had the final shape established in late fifth or fourth century BCE. This chapter belongs to the section focusing on the kingdom of Judah until its destruction by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar and the beginning of restoration under Cyrus the Great of Persia. It contains the regnal accounts of Manasseh and Amon, the kings of Judah.

References

  1. Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Appendix II
  2. St. John the Baptist Byzantine Catholic Cathedral, Holy Prophet Isaiah Archived 2017-06-27 at the Wayback Machine
  3. "Holidays | Qahana.am". Archived from the original on 2022-02-01. Retrieved 2021-07-14.
  4. Wells, John C. (1990). "Isaiah". Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 378. ISBN   978-0-582-05383-0.
  5. Rippin, A., "S̲h̲aʿyā", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs.
  6. New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Tyndale Press, Wheaton, IL, 1987.
  7. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Isaias". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2022-12-27.
  8. "Bible Gateway passage: Luke 4:17-21 - King James Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2023-04-29.
  9. The Scofield Study Bible III, NKJV, Oxford University Press
  10. De Jong, Matthijs J., Isaiah Among The Ancient Near Eastern Prophets: A Comparative Study of the Earliest Stages of the Isaiah Tradition and the Neo-Assyrian Prophecies, BRILL, 2007, pp. 13–17
  11. Hebrew-English Bible, Isaiah 38:1
  12. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 1:1
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 PD-icon.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Isaiah". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.
  14. Hebrew-English Bible, Isaiah 8:3
  15. Hebrew-English Bible Judges 4:4
  16. Hebrew-English Bible 2 Kings 22:14–20
  17. Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament, Oxford University Press, 2009, p.273.
  18. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 7:3
  19. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 8:3
  20. Hebrew-English Bible 2 Kings 18:7
  21. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 30:2–4
  22. Hebrew-English Bible 2 Kings 18:14–16
  23. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 36:2–22; 37:8
  24. Hebrew-English Bible 37:1–7
  25. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 37:14
  26. "Isaiah 37:21-23". www.sefaria.org.
  27. Sayce, Archibald Henry, The Ancient Empires of the East. Macmillan, 1884, p. 134.
  28. "Yevamot 49b:8". www.sefaria.org. Isaiah said to himself: I know him, i.e., Manasseh, that he will not accept whatever explanation that I will say to him to resolve my prophecies with the words of the Torah. And even if I say it to him, I will make him into an intentional transgressor since he will kill me anyway. Therefore, in order to escape, he uttered a divine name and was swallowed within a cedar tree. Manasseh's servants brought the cedar tree and sawed through it in order to kill him. When the saw reached to where his mouth was, Isaiah died. He died specifically at this point due to that which he said: "In the midst of a people of unclean lips, I dwell" (Isaiah 6:5). He was punished for referring to the Jewish people in a derogatory manner.
  29. Isaiah 9:19.
  30. The Lives of the Holy Prophets, Holy Apostles Convent, ISBN   0-944359-12-4, page 101.
  31. Graham, Ron. "Isaiah in the New Testament - Quotations Chart - In Isaiah Order".
  32. Bible, John 12:41
  33. "Prophet Isaiah in the Eastern Orthodox Church". Orthodox Church of America. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018.
  34. "St. Isaiah the Prophet, Pray for Us".
  35. "3 Nephi 23:1-3".
  36. "churchofjesuschrist.org - Isaiah".
  37. "Encyclopedia of Mormonism, "Isaiah"". Archived from the original on 2022-02-21. Retrieved 2017-11-29.
  38. "churchofjesuschrist.org - Temples".
  39. Encyclopedia of Islam
  40. 1 2 Jane Dammen McAuliffe Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Volume 2 Georgetown University, Washington DC p. 562-563
  41. The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary , Note. 2173 to 17:4: "The Book is the revelation given to the Children of Israel. Here it seems to refer to the burning words of Prophets like Isaiah. For example, see Isaiah, chap, 24. or Isaiah 5:20–30, or Isaiah 3:16–26."
  42. Encyclopedia of Islam, Shaya, Online Web.
  43. Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings, i, 638–45
  44. Isaiah 38.
  45. 1 2 3 Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Isaiah bin Amoz
  46. al-Qurashi, Baqir Shareef (2001). The life of Imam 'Ali Bin Musa al-Ridha. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 121. ISBN   978-9644383298.
  47. Sotah 10b
  48. Talmud tractate Megillah 15a
  49. Leviticus Rabbah 10
  50. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 6:5
  51. Shir haShirim Rabbah 1:6
  52. ""Hezekiah". Jewish Encyclopedia". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. 1906.
  53. BibleGateway.com, All the Women of the Bible, Hephzibah. Accessed 2014-04-01.
  54. Hebrew-English Bible Exodus 33:20
  55. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 6:1
  56. Hebrew-English Bible Deuteronomy 4:7
  57. Hebrew-English Bible Isaiah 40:6
  58. Hebrew-English Bible Exodus 33:23
  59. Hebrew-English Bible 2 Kings 20:6
  60. Yevamot 49b
  61. Yerushalmi, Sanhedrin 10
  62. "Die Himmelfahrt und Vision des Prophets Jesajas," p. 8
  63. "Ta'rikh," ed. De Goeje, i. 644
  64. Athanasius (2018). On the Incarnation. GLH Publishing. p. 59. ISBN   978-1-948648-24-0.
  65. Mazar, Eilat. Is This the "Prophet Isaiah’s Signature?" Biblical Archaeology Review 44:2, March/April May/June 2018.
  66. In find of biblical proportions, seal of Prophet Isaiah said found in Jerusalem. By Amanda Borschel-Dan. The Times of Israel. 22 February 2018. Quote: "Chanced upon near a seal identified with King Hezekiah, a tiny clay piece may be the first-ever proof of the prophet, though a missing letter leaves room for doubt."
  67. "Isaiah’s Signature Uncovered in Jerusalem: Evidence of the prophet Isaiah?" By Megan Sauter. Bible History Daily. Biblical Archeology Society. 22 Feb 2018. Quote by Mazar: "Because the bulla has been slightly damaged at end of the word nvy, it is not known if it originally ended with the Hebrew letter aleph, which would have resulted in the Hebrew word for "prophet" and would have definitively identified the seal as the signature of the prophet Isaiah. The absence of this final letter, however, requires that we leave open the possibility that it could just be the name Navi. The name of Isaiah, however, is clear."

Further reading