Elizabeth Isis Pogson
|Born||28 September 1852|
|Died||14 May 1945 92) (aged|
|Other names||Elizabeth Isis Kent|
Isis Pogson (born Elizabeth Isis Pogson; 28 September 1852 – 14 May 1945) was a British astronomer and meteorologist, who was one of the first women to be elected as a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics, physics, and chemistry in order to explain their origin and evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, nebulae, galaxies, and comets. Relevant phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, quasars, blazars, pulsars, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, astronomy studies everything that originates outside Earth's atmosphere. Cosmology is a branch of astronomy. It studies the Universe as a whole.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important domain of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects also include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water.
The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is a learned society and charity that encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science. Its headquarters are in Burlington House, on Piccadilly in London. The society has over 4,000 members ("Fellows"), most of them professional researchers or postgraduate students. Around a quarter of Fellows live outside the UK.
Pogson was born in Oxford, England, the eldestdaughter of Norman Pogson by his first marriage to Elizabeth Jane Ambrose (died 1869). She was likely named after the River Isis, the part of the River Thames that flows through Oxford.
Oxford is a university city in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 155,000. It is 56 miles (90 km) northwest of London, 64 miles (103 km) from Birmingham and 24 miles (39 km) from Reading by road.
"The Isis" is an alternative name for the River Thames, used from its source in the Cotswolds until it is joined by the Thame at Dorchester in Oxfordshire. It derives from the ancient name for the Thames, Tamesis, which in the Middle Ages was falsely assumed to be a combination of "Thame" and "Isis". Notably, the Isis flows through the city of Oxford.
The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England and the second-longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn.
Norman Pogson was an assistant at Radcliffe Observatory and then at Hartwell Observatory. He discovered the asteroid 42 Isis on 23 May 1856,for which he was awarded the Lalande Prize. The asteroid was named by Professor Manuel John Johnson, director of the Radcliffe Observatory, presumably in honour of Pogson's daughter Isis; it could also have been a reference to the River Isis.
Radcliffe Observatory was the astronomical observatory of the University of Oxford from 1773 until 1934, when the Radcliffe Trustees sold it and built a new observatory in Pretoria, South Africa. It is a Grade I listed building. Today, the observatory forms a part of Green Templeton College of the University of Oxford.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially of the inner Solar System. Larger asteroids have also been called planetoids. These terms have historically been applied to any astronomical object orbiting the Sun that did not resolve into a disc in a telescope and was not observed to have characteristics of an active comet such as a tail. As minor planets in the outer Solar System were discovered that were found to have volatile-rich surfaces similar to comets, these came to be distinguished from the objects found in the main asteroid belt. In this article, the term "asteroid" refers to the minor planets of the inner Solar System, including those co-orbital with Jupiter.
Isis is a large main-belt asteroid, measuring 100.2 km in diameter. It was discovered by N.R. Pogson on May 23, 1856, at Oxford. It was Pogson's first asteroid discovery.
When her father became director of the Madras Observatory in Madras, India, in October 1860, he travelled to his new post with his first wife and threeof his 11 children, including Isis. His wife died in 1869, and he relied upon Isis to look after his other children. She also worked in India as her father's assistant. She was given the post of computer at the observatory in 1873 with the salary of 150 rupees, equivalent to a "cook or coach-man", and worked there for 25 years until she retired with a pension of 250 rupees in 1898, when the observatory closed. She served as the meteorological superintendent and reporter for the Madras government from 1881.
The Madras Observatory was an astronomical observatory which had its origins in a private observatory set up by William Petrie in 1786 and later moved and managed by the British East India Company from 1792 in Madras. The main purpose for establishing it was to assist in navigation and mapping by recording the latitude and maintaining time standards. In later years the observatory also made observations on stars and geomagnetism. The observatory ran from around 1792 to 1931 and a major work was the production of a comprehensive catalogue of stars.
Chennai, also known as Madras, is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural, economic and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth-most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most-visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked the 43rd-most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. As such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution, as well as other logistical and socio-economic problems.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
Pogson was the first woman to attempt to be elected a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, being nominated (unsuccessfully) by her father in 1886.Although the society had elected a few women as honorary members, all the fellows had been male up to this time. Her nomination was withdrawn when two attorneys deemed female fellows illegal under the provisions of the society's royal charter dating from 1831, which referred to fellows only as he. She was successfully nominated in 1920 by Oxford professor H. H. Turner, five years after the Royal Astronomical Society first opened its doors to women.
Herbert Hall Turner FRS was a British astronomer and seismologist.
After retiring from astronomy, she married Herbert Clement Kent, a captain in the Merchant Navy,on 17 August 1902 in Red Hill, Queensland, Australia. The couple returned to England, living in Bournemouth and then London. Pogson died in Croydon.
Red Hill is an inner suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) north-west of the Brisbane CBD. The suburb is one of the oldest in Brisbane. Red Hill got its name as a description from the steep hills which had lots of red soil and rocks.
Bournemouth is a coastal resort town on the south coast of England, east of the 96-mile-long (155 km) Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site. At the 2011 census, the town had a population of 183,491, making it the largest in the administrative county of Dorset. It is in the historic county of Hampshire. With Poole to the west and Christchurch in the east, Bournemouth is part of the South East Dorset conurbation, which has a population of 465,000.
Croydon is a large town in south London, England, 9.4 miles (15.1 km) south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy.
Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer was an English scientist and astronomer. Along with the French scientist Pierre Janssen, he is credited with discovering the gas helium. Lockyer also is remembered for being the founder and first editor of the influential journal Nature.
William Lassell, was an English merchant and astronomer. He is remembered for his improvements to the reflecting telescope and his ensuing discoveries of four planetary satellites.
Andrew Claude de la Cherois Crommelin was an astronomer of French and Huguenot descent who was born in Cushendun, County Antrim, Ireland. He was educated in England at Marlborough College and Trinity College, Cambridge. He worked at the Royal Greenwich Observatory and went on several solar eclipse expeditions. He was president of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1929 to 1931.
John Louis Emil Dreyer was a Danish/British astronomer.
Carlyle Smith Beals, FRS was a Canadian astronomer.
James Whitbread Lee Glaisher FRS FRSE FRAS, son of James Glaisher the meteorologist and Cecilia Glaisher the photographer, was a prolific English mathematician and astronomer. His large collection of (mostly) English ceramics was mostly left to the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge.
Harry Edwin Wood was an English astronomer, director of the Union Observatory in Johannesburg, and discoverer of minor planets.
Agnes Mary Clerke was an Irish astronomer and writer, mainly in the field of astronomy. She was born in Skibbereen, County Cork, Ireland, and died in London.
John Evershed CIE FRS FRAS was an English astronomer. He was the first to observe radial motions in sunspots, a phenomenon known as the Evershed effect.
Annie Scott Dill Maunder was an Irish astronomer.
Harry Hemley Plaskett FRS was a Canadian astronomer who made significant contributions to the fields of solar physics, astronomical spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. From 1932 to 1960, he served as the Savilian Professor of Astronomy at the University of Oxford, and in 1963 was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Chinthamani Ragoonatha Chary was an Indian astronomer who worked at the Madras Observatory along with N.R. Pogson. He was the first Indian Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society and is known for his studies of variable stars and the discovery of R Reticuli in 1867.
Norman Robert Pogson, CIE was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory. He discovered several minor planets and made observations on comets. He introduced a mathematical scale of stellar magnitudes with the ratio of two successive magnitudes being the fifth root of one hundred (~2.512) and referred to as Pogson's ratio.
Anne Walker was a British astronomer and one of the first women employed in paid routine work in astronomy in her country. She was one of a number of women computers employed at Cambridge Observatory between 1876 and 1904. Unlike most of these women, Walker remained at the observatory for a significant period of time.
T Scorpii, or Nova Scorpii 1860, was a nova in the globular cluster Messier 80. It was discovered on 21 May 1860 by Arthur von Auwers at Koenigsberg Observatory and was independently discovered by Norman Pogson on May 28th at Hartwell observatory. It was at magnitude 7.5 at discovery, reaching a maximum of magnitude 6.8, outshining the whole cluster.
John Ellard Gore (1845–1910) was an Irish amateur astronomer and prolific author, and a founding member of the British Astronomical Association. He was mainly interested in variable stars of which he discovered several, most notably W Cygni in 1884, U Orionis in 1885, and independently discovered Nova Persei. In 2009, the IAU named a lunar impact crater after Gore.
Fiammetta Wilson was a British astronomer elected a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1916.
Mary Brück was an Irish astronomer, astrophysicist and historian of science, whose career was spent at Dunsink Observatory in Dublin and the Royal Observatory Edinburgh in Scotland.
Professor Charles Michie Smith CIE FRSE was a 19th century Scottish astronomer. He founded the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory in the mountains of south India and served as its first Director.