|Islamic Republic of Iran Navy|
The seal of the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy
|Founded||500 BC (original)|
1923 (imperial navy)
1979 (current form)
|Size||65,000 (2019 estimate)|
|Part of||Army (Artesh)|
|Nickname(s)|| Persian: دریادلان, Daryādelān|
|Motto(s)|| Persian: راه ما، راه حسین است, Rāh-e ma, rāh-e hoseyn ast|
"Our Path, Is Hussain's Path"
|Anniversaries||28 November (Navy Day)|
|Commander of the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy||Rear Admiral Hossein Khanzadi|
The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy (Persian : نیروی دریایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed NEDAJA (Persian : نداجا), is the naval warfare service branch of Iran's regular military, the Islamic Republic of Iran Army (Artesh).
It is charged with the responsibility of forming Iran's first line of defense in the Gulf of Oman and beyond with the mission of acting as an effective blue-water navy.However, it is generally considered as a conventional green-water navy as it mostly operates at a regional level, in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman but also as far afield as the Red Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and northwest quarter of the Indian Ocean. In July 2016, the Navy said that it would establish a presence in the Atlantic Ocean.
One of Iran's two maritime military branches alongside the IRGC Navy, it overlaps functions and areas of responsibility with the other navy, but they are distinct in terms of military strategy and equipment. In contrast to the IRGC Navy, which is equipped with small fast-attack crafts, the backbone of the Artesh navy's inventory consists of larger surface ships, including frigates and corvettes, and submarines.
In December 2019, the Iranian Navy's head Rear Admiral Hossein Khanzadi stated that the Iranian Navy will engage in annual joint exercises with Russia and China.
An Iranian navy in one form or another has existed since Achaemenid times and the First Persian Empire around 500 BC. The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy came into being when the former Imperial Iranian Navy (IIN) of the Pahlavi Era was renamed following the Iranian Revolution in 1979.
The Iranian navy was rebuilt after being almost completely destroyed during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in World War II. Following World War II, the fleet began replacing destroyed warships with destroyers, frigates and many smaller vessels, including powerboats and hovercraft, many of which originated from the US and UK, which had played a part in destroying much of the original equipment in World War II. In the 1970s, Iran planned to extend its naval reach into the Indian Ocean;[ citation needed ] but this goal was curtailed by the Islamic Revolution (1979), and the ensuing western-backed, first Persian Gulf War (Iran–Iraq War) (1980–1988) which left it hampered in the face of the invasion.
Mohammed-Reza, the last Shah of Iran, ordered four modern general purpose destroyers from the United States and eight modified Kortenaer-class frigates from Royal Schelde, but both contracts were canceled after the 1979 Iranian revolution. The destroyers were instead commissioned in the U.S. Navy as the Kiddclass, while construction of the frigates had not yet started.
Following this was the US-led arms embargo on Iran and the Iran–Iraq War, in which the IRIN played a role. The arms embargo restricted Iran's ability to maintain and equip its navy. It had to find new sources of armaments. Equipment and weaponry were imported from the Soviet Union, China, North Korea and later, Russia. Iran also established its own domestic armaments industry. This industry has also supported the navy by providing weaponry, equipment and spare parts.
In terms of major surface ships, Iran relies on its Alvand-class frigates as well as the new Moudge-class frigates which were indigenously developed in Iran and are reverse engineered Alvand class with modern electronics, radar and armament. Iran's three destroyers are over 50 years old and are kept in material reserve at Bushehr.[ citation needed ] The navy does not include capital ships; its largest ships are four frigates and three corvettes, all of which are armed with modern anti-ship missiles.[ citation needed ] The main focus of the IRI Navy seems to be on developing new frigates, corvettes and medium to large fast boats capable of carrying modern, precision anti-ship missiles.[ citation needed ] Three of four frigates (Vosper Mark 5), however, were commissioned over 25 years ago and these ships have been updated with Chinese C-802 missiles.[ citation needed ] Iran's three corvettes were commissioned over 30 years ago; one (Hamzeh) was originally a government yacht but has now been armed with C-802 missiles as well, but it is deployed at Anzali on the Caspian Sea.[ citation needed ] These eight ships are supported by three Russian built, SSK Kilo-class attack submarines and Ghadir and Nahang-class mini submarines.
In July 2016, the Navy said that it would establish a presence in the Atlantic Ocean, of unspecified duration.
In December 2019, the Iranian Navy's head Rear Admiral Hossein Khanzadi acknowledged in a televised interview that the Navy was now dependent on annual joint exercises with Russia and China and efforts to form alliances with other countries were "pointless."
Suffering from decaying Western-supplied weapons purchased by the Shah, Tehran has been acquiring new weapons from Russia, China and North Korea. Iran has expanded the capabilities of the naval branch of the IRGC, acquired additional mine warfare capability, and upgraded some of its older surface ships. Iran's exercises have included a growing number of joint and combined arms exercises with the land forces and air force. Iran has also improved its ports and strengthened its air defences, while obtaining some logistic and technical support from states like India and Pakistan.
As far as major new equipment is concerned, Iran has been building up its naval strength by acquiring three Kilo-class submarines from Russia, as well as other equipment, including 10 Houdong fast attack craft from China. Russia and India were reported to be assisting Iran with training and operating its Kilo-class submarines. As regards other requirements, in December 1997, Rear Admiral Mohammad Karim Tavakoli, commander of the First Naval Zone, with HQ at the Persian Gulf port of Bandar Abbas, claimed that the Iranian Navy had completed design work on three multirole corvettes and a small submarine, to be built in Iran.
In August 2000, Iran announced that it had launched its first domestically produced light submarine or swimmer delivery vehicle, named the Al-Sabiha 15 because of its 15 meters length, in an official ceremony at the Bandar Abbas naval base. In May 2005, Iran navy announced that it had launched its first Ghadir-class midget submarine and on 8 March 2006 announced that it had launched another submarine named Nahang (Persian: whale).
During 2000, the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy Aviation significantly improved its capability by taking delivery, from Russia, of a number of Mi-8 AMT (Mi-171) transport/attack helicopters. Under a contract signed in 1999, Russia agreed to supply 21 Mi-171s to Iran. Delivery was completed in 2001; although the exact number destined for the navy was unknown. In summer 2001, there were indications that Iran would order a further 20 Mi-171s, although as of mid-2004, it was not known if this had occurred.
In November 2002 sources at both Iran's Aerospace Industries Organisation (AIO) and the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (COSIC) confirmed that the two groups were working on common anti-ship missile production and development. The effort, which Iranian sources call Project Noor, covers the short-range C-701 and the long-range C-802 weapons developed by COSIC's China National Precision Machinery Import and Export Co subsidiary. The possibility that a formal collaborative project was under way was first raised in 1998, when Iran displayed an Anti-Ship missile design similar to the 15-kilometre (9.3 mi) range C-701 shortly after the Chinese system was unveiled.
An AIO spokesperson confirmed that Project Noor involves the C-701. However, officials in the same company describe the weapon as "a long-range, turbojet-powered, sea-skimming Anti-Ship missile," which better fits the 120 km (75 mi) range C-802, and suggests that the co-operation agreement may cover both weapon systems. In early 2004, Iran announced the release of a new cruise missile program named Raad (Thunder). The Raad appears to be a modification of the Chinese HY-2 (CSSC-3) anti-ship missile, one of a series of missiles China developed from the original Soviet-era P21 (SS-N-2C) design.
On 29 September 2003, Iran's domestically produced Sina-class (reverse engineered from the Kaman class) missile boat Paykan, equipped with modern anti-ship missiles and modern electronics entered service in the Islamic Republic of Iran Navy. The ship was launched in the Caspian Sea to protect Iran's interests there and was mentioned among the achievements of the Iranian Navy by Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari.
On 22 September 2006, Iran announced to have commissioned their second self-made Kaman-class missile boat, Joshan. Built in memory of the original Joshan, lost in the Persian Gulf during Operation Praying Mantis on 18 April 1988. According to Iran's Navy commander Admiral Kouchaki, Joshan has a claimed speed of over 45- knot (83 km/h; 52 mph) and "enjoys the world's latest technology, specially with regard to its military, electrical and electronic systems, frame and chassis, and it has the capabilities required for launching powerful missiles."
In 2002, Iran announced it would start the production of its first domestically produced destroyer. By most international standards the ship, the first of the Moudge class, would be considered a light frigate or a corvette.On 24 November 2007 Iran's rear admiral Habibollah Sayyari announced that Iran would launch its first domestically produced destroyer, Jamaran, though internationally rated as a frigate, and an Iranian Ghadir-class submarine. It is said to be a sonar evading stealth submarine. Initially known as Moje, then Moje I, finally Jamaran, appears to be a development of the Alvand class. The Moudge or Moje-class guided missile frigate entered service in 2010. Another frigate in the same class, named Damavand, has been commissioned in the port of Bandar Anzali in the Caspian Sea in 2013. This ship just like the Jamaran has the capability to: carry helicopters, anti-ship missiles, surface-to-air missiles, torpedoes, modern guns and air defence guns. The ship is also equipped with electronic warfare devices. The two mentioned frigates have brought Iran's frigate arsenal from 3 to 5, while two others are being built, to be added to Iran's fleet of warships in the Persian Gulf.
In March 2006, the navy deployed a submarine named Nahang (Whale), with pictures broadcast by state media at the time showing s a minisub.
On 22 February 2008, the Iranian Defense Ministry announced that 74 domestically produced "gunboats" (small missile boats) had entered service with the Iranian Navy.The Navy has had reported to have the Hoot supercavitating torpedo and the Thaqeb (missile) in trials or service, though reliable information is scarce.
Iran's Deputy Navy Commander Captain Mansour Maqsoudlou announced in February 2010 that Iran has begun planning to design, and manufacture domestically built aircraft carriers. The initial designs for building the carriers has been approved as of 2010 and the process of research and the design for the aircraft carrier is currently being looked into by the Iranian government. However, as of August 2013, the Iranian Navy was still in the research and design stages due to lack of government support and funding.
In 2012, Iran overhauled one of the Kilo-class submarines in its possession, IRS Younis. Iran was able to complete this re-haul at Bandar Abbas naval base. In addition the Iranian Navy has modernized and re-commissioned the 1,135-ton Bayandor-class corvettes; equipped with Noor anti-ship cruise missiles and torpedo launchers. Another modern frigate named Sahand, with 2,000 tons displacement was being fitted up with weapons and equipment in Bandar Abbas naval base; and was planned for launch in 2013.
In July 2012, foreign analysts reported that Iran was gaining new deployment capabilities, allegedly to strike at US warships in the Persian Gulf in the case of an armed conflict, amassing an arsenal of anti-ship missiles while expanding its fleet of fast-attack crafts and submarines. Many of the systems were developed with foreign assistance, such as the anti-ship missiles Silkworm, which is Chinese-made, and high-speed torpedoes based on Russian designs. In weeks prior, Iranian leadership had been threatening to shut down shipping in the gulf region as retaliation for any attacks by the United States on its nuclear facilities.
In December 2014, Iran conducted joint wargames involving the Iranian Army, Air Force and Navy. Naval phase took part on a wide area, ranging from Persian Gulf to northern Indian Ocean and to Gulf of Aden. New systems were tested, including new anti-ship cruise missiles, electro-magnetic and acoustic naval mine-sweeping system and Fateh submarine.
On February 17, 2019, news papers reported that Iran has unveiled domestically produced submarine capable of firing cruise missiles.On November 30, 2019, Iran's navy announced the mass production of the Jask cruise missile, which is launched from Iranian submarines. It also unveiled a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) naval drone named Pelican-2, which had already been deployed on "naval fleets in international waters."
Iran's navy deployed two warships to the Gulf of Aden in August 2019 to protect commercial shipping, including the destroyer Sahand and the supply ship/replenishment oiler Kharg.In September 2019, the head of the Iran navy said it was ready to defend its marine borders, and denied US and Saudi claims that Iran had orchestrated recent attacks on Saudi oil sites. On November 20, 2019, Islamic Republic News Agency reported that Iran's navy had sent a fleet of 64 ships to the Gulf of Aden to "safeguard Iran's interests" in an "insecure seafaring region." The month prior, a maritime coalition led by the United States had formally launched operations in the Gulf. The Iran and US navies subsequently encountered each other in the Strait of Hormuz on November 23, 2019, with no conflict.
On December 4, 2019, Khanzadi stated that exercises, called Marine Security Belt, with China and Russia would begin on December 27 in the northern Indian Ocean.On December 30, 2019, Rear Admiral Hossein Khanzadi acknowledged during a televised interview with the semi-official Mehr News Agency that the Iranian Navy conducted joint exercises with Russia and China and will continue to do so on an annual basis. However, Khanzadi also stated that the drills were now needed due to a lack of coordination. He also stated that invitations which invited other countries to participate in the drills were unsuccessful. All participants described the exercise as defensive in nature, with Khanzadi also stating that it was a "highly significant message" to the United States and allies.
In 1977, the bulk of the fleet was shifted from Khorramshahr to the new headquarters at Bandar-e Abbas. Bushehr was the other main base; smaller facilities were located at Khorramshahr, Khark Island, and Bandar-e Imam Khomeini (formerly known as Bandar-e Shahpur). Bandar-e Anzali (formerly known as Bandar-e Pahlavi) was the major training base and home of the small Caspian Sea fleet, which consisted of a few patrol boats and a minesweeper. The naval base at Bandar Beheshti (formerly known as Chah Bahar) on the Gulf of Oman had been under construction since the late 1970s and in late 1987 still was not completed. Smaller facilities were located near the Strait of Hormuz.Iran also announced that new base is established in the Oman Sea.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against powerful short range attackers. They were originally developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.
A frigate is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over time.
An Anti-ship missile (AShM) is a guided missiles that is designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea skimming variety, and many use a combination of inertial guidance and active radar homing. A good number of other anti-ship missiles use infrared homing to follow the heat that is emitted by a ship; it is also possible for anti-ship missiles to be guided by radio command all the way.
A corvette is a small warship. It is traditionally the smallest class of vessel considered to be a proper warship. The warship class above the corvette is that of the frigate, while the class below was historically that of the sloop-of-war. The modern types of ship below a corvette are coastal patrol craft, missile boat and fast attack craft. In modern terms, a corvette is typically between 500 tons and 2,000 tons, although recent designs may approach 3,000 tons, which might instead be considered a small frigate.
A ship class is a group of ships of a similar design. This is distinct from a ship type, which might reflect a similarity of tonnage or intended use. For example, USS Carl Vinson is a nuclear aircraft carrier of the Nimitz class.
The Russian Navy is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces. It has existed in various forms since 1696, the present iteration of which was formed in January 1992 when it succeeded the Navy of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The Soviet Navy was the naval warfare uniform service branch of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy was a large part of the Soviet Union's strategic planning in the event of a conflict with the opposing superpower, the United States, during the cold war period between the two countries. The influence of the Soviet Navy played a large role in the events involving the Cold War (1945-1991), as the majority of conflicts centered with the American-led alliance in the Western Europe or power projection to maintain its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.
The Kidd-class destroyers were a series of four guided missile destroyers (DDGs) based on the Spruance class. In contrast to their predecessor's focus on anti-submarine warfare, the Kidds were designed as more advanced multipurpose ships with the addition of considerably enhanced anti-aircraft capabilities. Originally ordered for the former Imperial Iranian Navy, the contracts were canceled when the 1979 Iranian Revolution began, and the ships were completed for the United States Navy. They were decommissioned in 1999 and sold to the Republic of China Navy as the Kee Lung class.
The Baltic Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.
The Republic of China Navy, also known as the Taiwan Navy is the maritime branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces. The ROC Navy's primary mission is to defend ROC territories and the sea lanes that surround Taiwan against a blockade, attack, or possible invasion by the People's Liberation Army Navy of the People's Republic of China. Operations include maritime patrols in the Taiwan Strait and surrounding waters, as well as counter-strike and counter-invasion operations during wartime. The Republic of China Marine Corps functions as a branch of the Navy.
The Caspian Flotilla is the flotilla of the Russian Navy in the Caspian Sea.
The Saudi Arabian Navy or Royal Saudi Naval Forces, is the maritime arm of the Saudi Arabian Armed Forces and one of the five service branches of the MoD of Saudi Arabia. Its primary role of monitoring and defending the kingdom's territorial waters against all foreign military or economic intrusion, both in war and peace and participating in international naval alliances.
The Iranian Navy traditionally located in the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf, has always been the smallest of the country's military forces. An Iranian navy in one form or another has existed since Achaemenid times in 500 BC. The Phoenician navy played an important role in the military efforts of the Persians in late antiquity in protecting and expanding trade routes along the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. With the Pahlavi dynasty in the 20th century that Iran began to consider building a strong navy to project its strength into the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. In more recent years, the country has engaged in domestic ship building industries in response to the western-backed Iraqi invasion of Iran, which left it without suppliers during an invasion.
The 3M-54 Kalibr,, also referred to it as 3M54-1 Kalibr, 3M14 Biryuza, , 91R1, 91RT2 is a group of Russian surface ship-, submarine-launched and airborne anti-ship and coastal anti ship (AShM), land attack cruise missiles (LACM) and anti-submarine missiles developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). Derived export versions are the 3M54E, 3M54E1, 3M14E, 91RE1, 91RTE2. The 3M54T, 3M54K, 3M54A, 3M54E (3M54TE), 3M54KE and 3M54AE have a second stage that performs a supersonic sprint in the terminal approach to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react. The 3M54T1, 3M54K1, 3M54A1, 3M54E1 (3M54T/K/AE1) only travel at subsonic speeds, although their range is accordingly greater than those of the supersonic versions.
The Modge-class frigate also spelled Moje class, is a class of domestically produced Iranian light frigates. It appears to be a development of the Alvand-class design. They are described as destroyers by the Iranian state media but the size and weight of the ships; 1,500 ton displacement, are more in keeping with that of modern corvettes. The ships are also referred to as destroyer escorts.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, the Russian Navy struggled to adjust Cold War force structures while suffering severely with insufficient maintenance and a lack of funding. However, improvements in the Russian economy over the last decade have seen a significant rise in defence expenditure and an increase in the numbers of ships under construction with a focus on blue-water vessels.
Jamaran is the lead ship of the Iranian Moudge-class frigate launched in early 2010 in Bandar-e-Abbas, Iran. Iran has stated that the design and building of Jamaran was among the greatest achievements of the Iranian Navy and the ship's launch marks a major technological leap for Iran's naval industries. More ships in its class are under construction to be added to the Iranian fleets in the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. The ship is designed for a crew of 140. Jamaran combines anti-submarine assets with other systems of weapons capable of dealing with surface and air threats as well.
Damavand, also known as Jamaran-2 and Velayat (ولایت), was the second ship of the Iranian Moudge class of frigates. The class appeared to be a development of the Alvand class. It was named Damavand after inauguration in the Caspian Sea. She sank on 28 January 2018, after hitting the breakwater at Bandar-e Anzali on 10 January.
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