Islamic Republican Party

Last updated
Islamic Republican Party
Historical leader Ruhollah Khomeini
Founders
Founded17 February 1979 (1979-02-17) [1]
Dissolved1 June 1987 (1987-06-01) [1]
Headquarters Tehran, Iran
Newspaper Islamic Republican [2]
Paramilitary wing Revolutionary Guards [3]
Worker wing Workers' House
Membership (1979)2,500,000 claimed [4]
Ideology Islamism [5]
Khomeinism [6]
Theocracy [2]
Populism [2]
Clericalism [2]
Anti-imperialism [2]
Anti-communism [2]
Internal factions:
Planned economy [7]
Free market [7]
Radicalism [1]
Pragmatism [1]
Political position Right-wing to left-wing [7]
Religion Shia Islam
National affiliation Grand Coalition [8]
SloganOne nation, one religion, one order, one leader [2]

The Islamic Republican Party (IRP; Persian : حزب جمهوری اسلامی, romanized: Ḥezb-e Jomhūrī-e Eslāmī, also translated Islamic Republic Party) formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran. It was disbanded in May 1987 due to internal conflicts.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.

Iranian Revolution Revolution in Iran to overthrow the Shah replace him with Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

Contents

Founders and characteristics

The party was formed just two weeks following the revolution upon the request of Ayatollah Khomeini. [9] Five cofounders of the party were Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Khamenei, and Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili. [9] [10] Early members of the central committee of the party, in addition to founding members, were Hassan Ayat, Asadollah Badamchiyan, Abdullah Jasbi, Mir Hossein Mousavi, Habibollah Askar Oladi, Sayyed Mahmoud Kashani, Mahdi Araghi and Ali Derakhshan. [10] The party had three general secretaries: Beheshti, Bahonar and Khamenei. [10]

Mohammad Beheshti Iranian cleric, one of the leading figures of Iranian Revolution

Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution. Dr. Beheshti is considered to have been the primary architect of Iran's post-revolution constitution, as well as the administrative structure of the Islamic Republic. Beheshti was assassinated along with more than 70 members of the Islamic Republic Party on 28 June 1981.

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Iranian politician, Shia cleric and Writer

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997. He was the head of the Assembly of Experts from 2007 until 2011, when he decided not to nominate himself for the post. He was also the chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council.

Ali Khamenei Iranian Shiite faqih, Marja and official independent islamic leader

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei is a marja and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989. He was previously President of Iran from 1981 to 1989. Khamenei is the second-longest serving head of state in the Middle East, as well as the second-longest serving Iranian leader of the last century, after Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.

The party has been said to be distinguished by "its strong clerical component, its loyalty to Khomeini, its strong animosity to the liberal political movements, and its tendency to support the revolutionary organizations," such as the komiteh. Policies it supported included the state takeover of large capital enterprises, the establishment of an Islamic cultural and university system, and programs to assist the poor. [11]

These revolutionary ayatollahs originally used the party to form a monopoly over the post-revolutionary theocratic Iranian state. In its struggle with civilian opponents the party made use of its ties to the Revolutionary Guards and Hezbollah.

Ayatollah high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics

Ayatollah or ayatullah is a high-ranking Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah cleric. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, Quran reading, and philosophy and usually teach in Islamic seminaries. The next lower clerical rank is Hujjat al-Islam.

Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Islamic defense branch of Irans military

The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces, founded after the Iranian Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini. Whereas the Islamic Republic of Iran Army defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements".

Secretaries-general

NameTenureRef
Mohammad Beheshti 1979–1981 [10]
Mohammad Javad Bahonar 1981 [10]
Ali Khamenei 1981–1987 [10]

Causes of its dissolution

Ali Khamenei at the party's office in Qom, 1983 President Ali Khamenei meet Non-Iranian Hawza students - Office of the Islamic Republican Party in Qom.jpg
Ali Khamenei at the party's office in Qom, 1983

In the late 1980s, factionalism in the IRP intensified, the major issues being the Iran-Iraq War, whether to open up to foreign countries or remain isolated, and economic policies. Because all rival parties had been banned, the party "did almost nothing and had little incentive to." [12]

According to Ahmad Mneisi,

"While unanimous on the idea of a theological state and united under the umbrella of one party, the Islamic Republican Party (IRP), [the religious right] differed on a number of issues, such as the extent to which religion is to take hold of political life (the Velayat-e Faqih debate). [13]

Daniel Brumberg argued that it was in response to the dispute between president Ali Khamenei and popular prime Minister Mir-Hossein Mousavi, that the IRP was dissolved - the Islamic Republican Party served "as a stronghold of radical activism," supporting Mousavi. [14] However, another report states that it was dissolved in May 1987 due to internal conflicts. [10] [15] And the party was disbanded upon joint proposal of Rafsanjani and then party leader Khameini on 2 May 1987 when their proposal was endorsed by Ayatollah Khomeini. [9]

1983 congress

The party held its first congress in May 1983 and the members elected the 30-members central council as follows: [16]

Allied organizations

The following organizations formed an alliance with the party: [17]

Related Research Articles

Iranian Reformists political movement in Iran to change the system to include more freedom and democracy

The Iranian reformists are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy. Iran's "reform era" is sometimes said to have lasted from 1997 to 2005—the length of Khatami's two terms in office. The Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front is the main umbrella organization and coalition within the movement; however, there are reformist groups not aligned with the council, such as the Reformists Front.

Mir-Hossein Mousavi Iranian politician and architect

Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989. He was a reformist candidate for the 2009 presidential election and eventually the leader of the opposition in the post-election unrest. Mousavi served as the president of the Iranian Academy of Arts until 2009, when Conservative authorities removed him.

Combatant Clergy Association

The Combatant Clergy Association is a politically active group in Iran, but not a political party in the traditional sense.

Abbas Vaez-Tabasi Iranian ayatollah

Abbas Vaez Tabasi was an influential Iranian cleric who held memberships at different institutions. He was Grand Imam and Chairman of the Astan Quds Razavi board from 1979 until his death in 2016.

The Council of the Islamic Revolution was a group formed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to manage the Iranian Revolution on 10 January 1979, shortly before he returned to Iran. "Over the next few months there issued from the council hundreds of rulings and laws, dealing with everything from bank nationalization to nurses' salaries." Its existence was kept a secret during the early, less secure time of the revolution, and its members and the exact nature of what the council did remained undisclosed to the public until early 1980. Some of the council's members like Motahhari, Taleqani, Bahonar, Beheshti, Qarani died during Iran–Iraq War or were assassinated by the MKO during the consolidation of the Iranian Revolution. Most of those who remained were put aside by the regime.

Organizations of the Iranian Revolution

Many organizations, parties and guerrilla groups were involved in the Iranian Revolution. Some were part of Ayatollah Khomeini's network and supported the theocratic Islamic Republic movement, while others did not and were suppressed. Some groups were created after the fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty and still survive; others helped overthrow the Shah but no longer exist.

Abdollah Jassbi Iranian academic

Abdollah Jafarali Jassbi is an Iranian academic and politician who was president of Azad University from the establishment of the university in 1982 until his resignation in 2012. He was also a presidential candidate in 1993 and 2001.

The Muslim People's Republic Party (MPRP) or Islamic People's Republican Party was a short-lived party associated with Shia Islamic cleric Shariatmadari. It was founded in 1979 during the Iranian Revolution as a "moderate, more liberal counterweight" to the theocratic, Islamist Islamic Republican Party (IRP) of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, and disbanded in 1980.

Grand Ayatollah Ahmad Azari-Qomi-Bigdeli (1925–1999) was an Iranian cleric.

Prime ministership of Mir-Hossein Mousavi were the third and fourth government of Iran after the Iranian Revolution. At that time, Ali Khamenei was the president.

Government of Mir-Hossein Mousavi (1985–89)

In August 1981, President Mohammad-Ali Rajai and Prime Minister Mohammad-Javad Bahonar were assassinated in an explosion. Ali Khamenei was then elected as the third president of Iran in the Iranian presidential election, October 1981. He put forward Ali Akbar Velayati as his prime minister, but the Iranian parliament did not give him the vote of confidence, and he was defeated with a vote of 80 to 74. Subsequently, Ali Khamenei, though he had strong disagreements with Mousavi, as a compromise with the left-leaning parliament, agreed to offer him, Mousavi, for the post of premier. On 28 October, the parliament approved Mousavi with a vote of 115 to 39. Mousavi became the 79th Prime Minister of Iran on 31 October 1981, and remained the prime minister of Iran until 3 August 1989, for eight years.

Ahmad Alamolhoda cleric

Sayyid Ahmad Alamolhoda is an Iranian Shia Islamic cleric who has been described as "senior" and "conservative" and "hardline." His rank has been given both as Hojjatoleslam and Ayatollah. He is the Friday Prayer leader in Mashhad, Iran and is also that city's representative in the Iranian Assembly of Experts. Alamolhoda is a member of Combatant Clergy Association.

Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization organization

Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization was an umbrella political organization in Iran, founded in 1979 by unification of seven underground Islamist revolutionary paramilitary and civil organizations which previously fought against the Pahlavi monarchy.

Abdulali Ali-Asgari

Abdulali Ali-Asgari is an Iranian media executive who is the current director-general of IRIB.

Office for the Cooperation of the People with the President was a political entity in Iran close to then-President Abolhassan Banisadr. It was an “office” "that was created out of necessity to fulfil some, if not all, of the functions of a political party".

Forqn Group was an Iranian opposition militant group with clandestine cell system adhering to a Shia anti-clerical Islamist ideology.

Saeed Amani was an Iranian bazaari merchant and conservative politician.

Mostafa Katiraei Iranian politician

Mostafa Katiraei was an Iranian engineer and politician who served in the interim government of Bazargan as the minister of housing. He was also a member in the Council of the Islamic Revolution.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 John H. Lorentz (2010). "Islamic Republican Party (IRP)". The A to Z of Iran. The A to Z Guide Series. 209. Scarecrow Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN   1461731917.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ervand Abrahamian (1989). Radical Islam: the Iranian Mojahedin. I.B.Tauris. pp. 42–45. ISBN   9781850430773.
  3. Said Amir Arjomand (1988). The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. Studies in Middle Eastern history. Oxford University Press. p. 136. ISBN   9780195042580.
  4. New Iran bursting with mass politics, Detroit Free Press, 20 June 1979, p. 28
  5. Ghorashi, Halleh (2002), Ways to survive, battles to win: Iranian women exiles in the Netherlands and United States, Nova Publishers, p. 63, ISBN   978-1-59033-552-9
  6. M Nasif Sharani (2013). Esposito, John L.; Shahin, Emad El-Din (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 196. ISBN   9780195395891.
  7. 1 2 3 Antoine, Olivier; Sfeir, Roy (2007), The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, Columbia University Press, p. 150
  8. Arshin Adib-Moghaddam (2014). A Critical Introduction to Khomeini. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN   978-1-107-72906-3.
  9. 1 2 3 Behrooz, Maziar (October 1994). "Factionalism in Iran under Khomeini". Middle Eastern Studies. 27 (4): 597–614. doi:10.1080/00263209108700879. JSTOR   4283464.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Asayesh, Hossein; Adlina Ab. Halim; Jayum A. Jawan; Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei (March 2011). "Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review". Journal of Politics and Law. 4 (1). Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  11. Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p. 67
  12. Keddie, Nikkie, Modern Iran, 2003, pp. 259-60
  13. Mneisi, Ahmad. 2004. The Power shift within Iran's right wing [ permanent dead link ]Ahram, 5 July 2004
  14. Brumberg, Daniel, Reinventing Khomeini : The Struggle for Reform in Iran, University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 134
  15. Nikou, Semira N. "Timeline of Iran's Political Events". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  16. Mohammadighalehtaki, Ariabarzan (2012). Organisational Change in Political Parties in Iran after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. With Special Reference to the Islamic Republic Party (IRP) and the Islamic Iran Participation Front Party (Mosharekat) (Ph.D. thesis). Durham University. p. 159–161.
  17. Mohammadighalehtaki, Ariabarzan (2012). Organisational Change in Political Parties in Iran after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. With Special Reference to the Islamic Republic Party (IRP) and the Islamic Iran Participation Front Party (Mosharekat) (Ph.D. thesis). Durham University. p. 165.
Ruling party of Iran
Vacant
Title last held by
Resurgence Party
Islamic Republican Party
1981–1987
Vacant