Israeli new shekel

Last updated

New Israeli shekel
hSHtrvt hKHdSHym SHl ySHrAl.jpg
New shekel banknotes (Current Series C)
ISO 4217
CodeILS (numeric:376)
Subunit 0.01
  • shekels
  • sheqalim
1100 agora
  • agoras
  • agorot
Banknotes ₪20, ₪50, ₪100, ₪200
Coins10 agorot, ₪12, ₪1, ₪2, ₪5, ₪10
Replaced Old Israeli shekel
User(s)Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestinian Authority [1]
Central bank Bank of Israel
Printer Orell Füssli [2]
Mint KOMSCO [3]
Inflation Decrease Positive.svg-0.59% (2020)
Increase Negative.svg0.35% (2021 est.)
Source Bank of Israel, Statista, April 2021

The new Israeli shekel (Hebrew : שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ Loudspeaker.svg sheqel ẖadash ; Arabic : شيكل جديدšēkal jadīd; sign: ; ISO code: ILS; abbreviation: NIS), also known as simply the Israeli shekel (Hebrew : שקל ישראלי, Arabic : شيكل إسرائيلي), is the currency of Israel and is also used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The new shekel is divided into 100 agorot. The new shekel has been in use since 1 January 1986, when it replaced the hyperinflated old shekel at a ratio of 1000:1.


The currency sign for the new shekel is a combination of the first Hebrew letters of the words shekel ( ש ) and ẖadash ( ח ) (new). When the shekel sign is unavailable the abbreviation NIS (ש״ח and ش.ج) is used.


The origin of the name "shekel" (שֶׁקֶל) is from the ancient Biblical currency by the same name. An early Biblical reference is Abraham being reported to pay "four hundred shekels of silver" to Ephron the Hittite for the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron. [4] Shekel is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency in ancient Israel, from the Hebrew root ש-ק-ל (š-q-l) meaning 'weigh' (שָׁקַל šaqal 'to weigh', שֶׁקֶל šeqel 'a standard weight'), common with other Semitic languages like Akkadian (resp. šaqālu and šiqlu) [5] and Aramaic (resp. תְּקַל teqal and תִּקְלָא tiqla). [6] Initially, it may have referred to a weight of barley. In ancient Israel [ disambiguation needed ], the shekel was known to be about 180  grains (11  grams or 0.35  troy ounces).

There is evidence that the word entered the Germanic languages as shilling through Phoenician 𐤔𐤒𐤋 shekel , Punic sql (sə'kel) meaning 'weigh' and 'coin'. The two meanings given in the literature in both Germanic and Semitic word are the same for both a fixed weight and a certain coin. The term would come from the Germanic understanding of shekel as shkel with the common Germanic suffix -ling. [7] [8] [9]

From the formation of the modern State of Israel on 14 May 1948 through 1952 banknotes continued to be issued by the Anglo-Palestine Bank as the Palestine pound which was pegged at £P1 = £1  sterling. [10] In 1952, the Anglo-Palestine Bank changed its name to Bank Leumi Le-Yisrael (National Bank of Israel) and the currency name became the Israeli pound. [11]

Israeli pound (1952–1980)

The Israeli pound (לירה ישראלית, "lira yisraelit") was the currency of the State of Israel from June 1952 until 23 February 1980, when it was replaced with the shekel on 24 February 1980. From 1955, after the Bank of Israel was established and took over the duty of issuing banknotes, only the Hebrew name was used, along with the symbol "IL". [12] The pegging to sterling was abandoned on 1 January 1954, and in 1960, the sub-division of the Israeli pound was changed from 1,000 prutot to 100 agorot.

Because lira (Hebrew : לִירָה) was a loanword from Latin, a debate emerged in the 1960s over the name of the Israeli currency due to its non-Hebrew origins. This resulted in a law ordering the Minister of Finance to change the name from lira to the Hebrew name shekel (Hebrew : שקל). The law allowed the minister to decide on the date for the change. The law came into effect in February 1980, when the Israeli government introduced the 'Israeli shekel' (now called old Israeli shekel), at a rate of IL10 = IS 1.

Shekel (1980–1985)

The original shekel, now known as the old shekel, was the currency of the State of Israel between 24 February 1980 and 31 December 1985. Both it and its predecessor, the Israeli pound, experienced frequent devaluations against foreign currencies during the 1960s and 1970s. This trend culminated in the old shekel experiencing hyperinflation in the early 1980s. After inflation was contained as a result of the 1985 Economic Stabilization Plan, the new shekel was introduced, replacing the old shekel on 1 January 1986 at a rate of IS 1,000 to ₪1.

New shekel (1985–present)

Israel 1000 Sheqalim 1983 Obverse & Reverse.jpg
Israel 5000 Sheqalim 1984 Obverse & Reverse.jpg
Israel 10000 NIS Bill 1984.jpg
Israel 1 Sheqel 1986 Obverse & Reverse.jpg
Israel 5 New Sheqalim 1987 Obverse & Reverse.jpg
Israel 10 New Sekel 1985 Obverse & Reverse.jpg
Removing three zeros: The smallest of the new banknotes (below) correspond to the biggest of the old (above).

Since the economic crisis of the 1980s and the subsequent introduction of the new shekel in 1985, the Bank of Israel and the government of Israel have maintained much more careful and conservative fiscal and monetary policies, and have gradually introduced various market-based economic reforms. In addition, the signing of free trade agreements helped the Israeli economy become more competitive, while heavy investment in its industrial and scientific base allowed the country to take advantage of opportunities associated with the rise of the global knowledge economy, thus greatly increasing exports and opening new markets for its products and services. As a result of these factors, inflation has been relatively low and the country now maintains a positive balance of payments, with a current account surplus equivalent to about 3% of its GDP in 2010. Consequently, its currency has strengthened though less so than an exceptional rise in the Euro and Swiss Franc, rising approximately 20% in value relative to the US dollar from 2001 to 2011, contrasting to weakening in prior decades.

Since 1 January 2003, the new shekel has been a freely convertible currency. Since 7 May 2006, new shekel derivative trading has also been available on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. [13] This makes the new shekel one of only twenty or so world currencies for which there are widely available currency futures contracts in the foreign exchange market. It is also a currency that can be exchanged by consumers in many parts of the world. [14] [15] On 26 May 2008, CLS Bank International announced that it would settle payment instructions in new shekels, making the currency fully convertible. [16]


In 1985, coins in denominations of 1 agora, 5 agorot, 10 agorot, ₪12, and ₪1 were introduced. [17] In 1990, ₪5 coins were introduced, [18] followed by ₪10 coins in 1995. [19] Production of 1 agora pieces ceased in 1990, and they were removed from circulation on 1 April 1991.[ citation needed ] A ₪2 coin was introduced on 9 December 2007. [20] The 5 agorot coin, last minted in 2007, was removed from circulation on 1 January 2008. [21]

In April 2011, it was reported that new coins would be minted that would use less metal and thus lower costs. Counterfeiting would also be harder. [22] The Bank of Israel is considering dropping the word "new" on the planned coins series. If approved, this would be the first replacement of all coins since the introduction of the new shekel coins in September 1985. [23] The coins are minted by the Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation (KOMSCO). [3]

New shekel coin series
ImageValueTechnical parametersDescriptionDate of
Israel 1 Agora 1985 Obverse & Reverse.jpg 1 agora17 mm1.2 mm2 g Aluminium bronze
92% copper
6% aluminium
2% nickel
PlainAncient galley, "Israel" in Hebrew, Arabic and English Value, date4 September 19851 April 1991
Israel 5 Agorot 1985 Edge, Obverse & Reverse.jpg 5 agorot19.5 mm1.3 mm3 gReplica of a coin from the fourth year of the war of the Jews against Rome depicting a lulav between two etrogim, "Israel" in Hebrew, Arabic and English 1 January 2008
Israel 10 Agorot 1985 Edge, Obverse & Reverse.jpg 10 agorot22 mm1.5 mm4 gReplica of a coin issued by Antigonus II Mattathias with the seven-branched candelabrum, the state emblem, "Israel" in Hebrew, Arabic and English Current
Israel Half New Sheqel 1985 Edge, Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪0.526 mm1.6 mm6.5 g Lyre Value, date, "Israel" in Hebrew, Arabic and English
Israel 1 New Sheqel 1985 Edge, Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪118 mm1.8 mm3.5 g Cupronickel
75% copper
25% nickel (1985–1993)
Nickel-plated steel (1994–present) [24]
Plain Lily, "Yehud" in ancient HebrewValue, date, "Israel" in Hebrew, Arabic and English 4 September 1985Current
Israel 2 New Sheqels 2010 Edge, Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪221.6 mm2.3 mm5.7 gNickel-plated steelSegmented (plain and reeded sections)Two cornucopia 9 December 2007
Israel 5 New Sheqels 2012 Edge, Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪524 mm2.4 mm8.2 g Cupronickel
75% copper
25% nickel
12 sidesCapital of column2 January 1990
Israel 10 New Sheqels 2011 Edge, Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪1023 mm
Core: 16 mm
2.2 mm7 gRing: nickel-bonded steel
Center: aureate-bonded bronze
ReededPalm tree with seven leaves and two baskets with dates, the words "for the redemption of Zion" in ancient and modern Hebrew alphabet 7 February 1995
For table standards, see the coin specification table.


Series A (1985–1999)

Beginning on 4 September 1985. banknotes are introduced in denominations of ₪5, ₪10, and ₪50. An ₪1 note followed on 8 May 1986 and the ₪100 note issued on 19 August 1986. On 2 April 1988, the ₪20 note issued and the ₪200 note issued on 16 February 1992 completing the family. [25] The ₪1, ₪5 and ₪10 notes used the same basic designs as the earlier IS 1000, 5000, and 10000 notes but with the denominations altered.

The ₪1, ₪5 and ₪10 notes were later replaced by coins. A number of these coins, in their first minting, had the images of the individuals on the notes engraved on them.

ImageValueDimensionsColourObverseReverseDate of issueDate of withdrawal
Israel 1 Sheqel 1986 Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪176x 138 mmgreen Maimonides Tiberias where Maimonides is buried; ancient stone lamp8 May 19861995
Israel 5 New Sheqalim 1987 Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪5blue Levi Eshkol Pipe carrying water, symbolizing the National Water Carrier, fields and barren land in background4 September 19851995
Israel 10 New Sekel 1985 Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪10orange Golda Meir Picture of Golda Meir in the crowd, in front of the Moscow Choral Synagogue, as she arrived in Moscow as Israel's ambassador in 19484 September 19851995
Israel 20 New Sheqalim 1993 Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪20 dark gray Moshe Sharett The original building of Herzliya Gymnasium, Little Tel Aviv in background2 April 19881 July 2000
Israel 50 New Sheqalim 1992 front & back.jpg ₪50 purple Shmuel Yosef Agnon Jerusalem skyline, Eastern European shtetl, the setting of many of Agnon's stories.4 September 19851 July 2000
Israel 100 New Sheqalim 1995 front & back.jpg ₪100 brown Yitzhak Ben-Zvi Peki'in Synagogue with carob tree and cave; ancient stone lamp19 August 19861 July 2000
Israel 200 New Sheqalim1994 Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪200 red Zalman Shazar A girl writing at a desk as a symbol of the Compulsory Education Law which was initiated by Shazar, and Hebrew block letters in background16 February 19921 July 2000
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Series B (1999–2017)

The Second series of bank notes was released in 1999, replacing the first series by 2005. A plan to issue a ₪500 banknote, carrying the portrait of Yitzhak Rabin, was announced shortly after Rabin's assassination in 1995. However, due to low inflation rates, there was no need for such a banknote and it was never issued. [26]

Second series of the new shekel
ImageValueDimensionsColourObverseReverseDate of issue
Israel-20-New-Sheqalim-1998-revers.jpg Israel-20-New-Sheqalim-1998-avers.jpg ₪20 71x 138 mmGreen Moshe Sharett Jewish volunteers in World War II; a watchtower, commemorating tower and stockade settlements3 January 1999
20 NIS Bill (polypropylene) Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪20 Green Moshe Sharett Jewish volunteers in World War II; a watchtower, commemorating tower and stockade settlements. The additional red text on the polypropylene note reads "60 Years of the State of Israel" in Hebrew in red ink. It was only featured in a 1.8 million limited run close to the noted anniversary and is not present on a majority of notes.
(Made of polypropylene, a polymer substrate, which is superior to the regular Series B paper note with a circulation life of a few months only. The polymer note is printed by Orell Füssli Security Printing of Zürich, Switzerland.)
13 April 2008
50 NIS Bill Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪50 Purple Shmuel Yosef Agnon Agnon's notebook, pen and glasses, Jerusalem and the Temple Mount 31 October 1999
100 NIS Bill Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪100 Brown Yitzhak Ben-Zvi Peki'in Synagogue 3 January 1999
200 NIS Bill Obverse & Reverse.jpg ₪200 Red Zalman Shazar A street in Safed and text from Shazar's essay about Safed31 October 1999
500 NIS Bill Obverse.png
₪500Blue Yitzhak Rabin Part of a speech given by the late Prime Minister shortly before his assassination [27] Never printed
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Series C (2014–present)

The committee proposed that the new series would bear the portraits of prominent Hebrew poets, among them Rachel Bluwstein, Shaul Tchernichovsky, Leah Goldberg and Nathan Alterman. In December 2010, it was announced that the series would feature portraits of Menachem Begin, Yitzhak Rabin, Rachel, and Shmuel Yosef Agnon. [28] When Begin's family opposed the decision, the committee's original proposal was readopted. [29]

On 14 November 2012, the Bank of Israel announced that the new series of banknotes is in the final stages of design. The first of the new banknotes to begin circulation was in the ₪50 denomination on 16 September 2014, [30] followed by the ₪200 note on 23 December 2015. [31] The final two denominations, ₪20 and ₪100, were issued on 23 November 2017, completing the "Series C" banknote series. [32] [33] [34]

With the issuing of the third series, the Bank of Israel has adopted the standard English spelling of shekel and plural shekels for its currency. [35] Previously, the Bank had formally used the Hebrew transcriptions of sheqel and sheqalim (from שְׁקָלִים). [36] The new notes also used the Arabic شيكل(šaykal) rather than شيقل(šayqal), which had been used on all banknotes previously.

The banknotes are printed by Orell Füssli Security Printing of Switzerland. [2]

Third Series of the New Shekel
ImageValueDimensionsColourDescriptionDate of issue
20 New Sheqalim2017 Obverse & Reverse.png ₪20 129 × 71 mmRed Rachel Bluwstein; the poem Kinneret in microprinting; palm tree branches in the backgroundVista of the Sea of Galilee shoreline; segment from the poem Perhaps it was nothing…23 November 2017
50 New Sheqalim2014 Obverse & Reverse.png ₪50 136 × 71 mmGreen Shaul Tchernichovsky; the poem Oh, My Land, My Homeland in microprinting; citrus tree and its fruits in the backgroundCapital of a Corinthian column; segment from the poem I Believe16 September 2014
100 New Sheqalim2017 Obverse & Reverse.png ₪100 143 × 71 mmOrange Leah Goldberg; the poem In the land of my love the almond tree blossoms in microprinting; almond tree blossoms in the backgroundA group of gazelles; segment from the poem White days23 November 2017
200 New Sheqalim2015 Obverse & Reverse.png ₪200 150 × 71 mmBlue Nathan Alterman; the poem Eternal Meeting in microprinting; fall leaves in the backgroundMoonlit flora; segment from the poem Morning Song23 December 2015
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Exchange rates

The cost of one euro in ILS (from 2011). Euro exchange rate to ILS.svg
The cost of one euro in ILS (from 2011).
ILS per currency, averaged over the year
Currency ISO 4217 Unit1986199119962001200620112016
United States dollar USD11.362.593.364.224.473.463.77
Soviet ruble SUR111.804.61
Russian ruble RUB10.620.
Yen JPY1000.811.873.163.424.004.273.44
Sterling (pound)GBP12.074.475.166.108.365.535.15
Deutsche Mark DEM210.611.502.221.862.892.512.17
French franc FRF310.190.440.650.550.860.750.65
Euro EUR13.635.654.914.25
Swiss franc CHF10.731.782.682.373.674.143.89
Jordanian dinar JOD14.253.344.505.896.444.815.32
Egyptian pound EGP12.120.720.941.070.770.570.42
Renminbi (yuan)CNY10.390.470.390.500.550.550.58
1 SUR ceased to exist after 1993, and was replaced by RUB.
2 DEM ceased to exist after 1999, and was replaced by EUR.
3 FRF ceased to exist after 1999, and was replaced by EUR.
Current ILS exchange rates

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thai baht</span> Official currency of Thailand

The baht is the official currency of Thailand. It is divided into 100 satang. The issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Bank of Thailand. SWIFT ranked the Thai baht as the 10th-most-frequently used world payment currency as of January 2019.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shekel</span> Ancient unit of currency

Shekel or sheqel is an ancient Mesopotamian coin, usually of silver. A shekel was first a unit of weight—very roughly 11 grams (0.39 oz)—and became currency in ancient Tyre and ancient Carthage and then in ancient Israel under the Maccabees.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jordanian dinar</span> Currency of Jordan

The Jordanian dinar has been the currency of Jordan since 1950. The dinar is divided into 10 dirhams, 100 qirsh or 1000 fulus. It is pegged to the US dollar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indian rupee</span> Official currency of India

The Indian rupee is the official currency in the Republic of India. The rupee is subdivided into 100 paise, though as of 2023, coins of denomination of 1 rupee are the lowest value in use whereas 2000 rupees is the highest. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Reserve Bank manages currency in India and derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Israeli pound</span> Currency of Israel between 1952 and 1980

The pound or lira was the currency of the State of Israel from 9 June 1952 until 23 February 1980. The Israeli pound replaced the Palestine pound and was initially pegged at par to £1 sterling. It was replaced by the shekel on 24 February 1980, at the rate of IS 1 = IL 10, which was in turn replaced by the new shekel in 1985.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Australian pound</span> Former currency of Australia

The pound was the currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966, when it was replaced by the Australian dollar. As with other £sd currencies, it was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Israeli agora</span>

The Agora is a denomination of the currency of Israel. The Israeli currency – the Israeli new shekel (ILS)– is divided into 100 agorot.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Faroese króna</span> Currency of the Faroe Islands

The króna is the currency of the Faroe Islands. It is issued by Danmarks Nationalbank, the central bank of Denmark. It is not a separate currency, but is rather a local issue of banknotes denominated in the Danish krone, although Danish-issued coins are still used. Consequently, it does not have an ISO 4217 currency code and instead shares that of the Danish krone, DKK. This means that in the Faroe Islands, credit cards are charged in Danish kroner. The króna is subdivided into 100 oyru(r).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barbadian dollar</span> Currency of Barbados

The dollar has been the currency of Barbados since 1935. Globally its currency has the ISO 4217 code BBD, however, unofficially in Barbados the International vehicle registration code BDS is also commonly used, a currency code that is otherwise reserved for Bangladesh outside Barbados. As such the present dollar has the ISO 4217 code BBD. The Barbadian dollar is divided into 100 cents.

The Solomon Islands dollar is the currency of Solomon Islands since 1977. Its symbol is $, with SI$ used to differentiate it from other currencies also using the dollar sign. It is subdivided into 100 cents.

The tālā is the currency of Samoa. It is divided into 100 sene. The terms tālā and sene are the equivalents or transliteration of the English words dollar and cent, in the Samoan language. Its symbol is $, or WS$ to distinguish it from other currencies named dollar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Old Israeli shekel</span> Currency of Israel between 1980 and 1985

The old Israeli shekel, then known as the shekel was the currency of the State of Israel between 24 February 1980 and 31 December 1985. It was replaced by the Israeli new shekel at a ratio of 1,000:1 on 1 January 1986. The old shekel was short-lived due to its hyperinflation. The old shekel was subdivided into 100 new agorot. The shekel sign was although it was more commonly denominated as S or IS.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">10 agorot controversy</span>

The 10 agorot controversy refers to a conspiracy theory promoted by Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat's appearance at a specially convened session of the UN Security Council in Geneva on 25 May 1990. At the session Arafat claimed that the obverse design of an Israeli ten agorot coin showed a map of "Greater Israel" that represented Zionist expansionist goals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Palestine pound</span> Currency of the British Mandate of Palestine from 1927 to 1948

The Palestine pound was the currency of the British Mandate of Palestine from 1 November 1927 to 14 May 1948, and of the State of Israel between 15 May 1948 and 23 June 1952, when it was replaced with the Israeli lira. The Palestine pound was also the currency of Transjordan until 1949 when it was replaced by the Jordanian dinar, and remained in usage in the West Bank of Jordan until 1950. In the Gaza Strip, the Palestine pound continued to circulate until April 1951, when it was replaced by the Egyptian pound.

The shekel sign () is a currency sign used for the Israeli new shekel, which is the currency of Israel.

Hebrew punctuation is similar to that of English and other Western languages, Modern Hebrew having imported additional punctuation marks from these languages in order to avoid the ambiguities sometimes occasioned by the relative paucity of such symbols in Biblical Hebrew.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prutah</span> Denomination of coin

Prutah is a Hebrew term, possibly derived from Aramaic. It refers to a small denomination coin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">First Jewish Revolt coinage</span>

First Jewish Revolt coinage was issued by the Jews after the Zealots captured Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple from the Romans in 66 CE at the beginning of the First Jewish Revolt. The Jewish leaders of the revolt minted their own coins to emphasize their newly obtained independence from Rome.

Israel Coins and Medals Corp. is the body permitted by the Government of Israel to issue the official State Medals of Israel and under an exclusive contract with the Bank of Israel, the corporation is the exclusive worldwide distributor of the commemorative coins and special banknote issues of the Bank of Israel. From its inception in 1958 until 2008, the corporation was fully owned by the Government. In 2008, it was privatized. The corporation has its own manufacturing plant, where commemorative coins for the Bank of Israel, Israel State medals and privately ordered medals are minted.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">20 new shekel banknote</span>

The twenty new shekel note (₪20) is the lowest value banknote of the Israeli new shekel, It was first issued in Series A 1988, with the Series B in 1999, and Series C in 2017.


  1. According to Article 4 of the 1994 Paris Protocol The Protocol allows the Palestinian Authority to adopt additional currencies. In the West Bank the Jordanian dinar is widely accepted and in the Gaza Strip the Egyptian pound is often used.
  2. 1 2, www 20minuten ch, 20 Minuten, 20 Min (27 April 2011). "Israel lässt in Zürich Geld drucken". 20 Minuten.
  3. 1 2 "S. Korea Makes Money by Making Money". Voice of America News. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  4. Genesis 23:25.
  5. "Search Entry".
  6. "Jastrow, תִּקְלָא".
  7. Vennemann Gen. Nierfeld, Theo (2012). "A note on the etymology of Germanic +skellingaz 'shilling'". Germania Semitica. De Gruyter. pp. 485–496. JSTOR   j.ctvbkk16h.29.
  8. The Carthaginian North: Semitic influence on early Germanic: A linguistic and cultural study. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 15 October 2019. ISBN   9789027262141.
  9. "Shillings, gods and runes: Clues in language suggest a Semitic superpower in ancient northern Europe".
  10. One Palestine Pound, IL: Bank of Israel, archived from the original on 27 April 2006
  11. One Israeli Pound, IL: Bank of Israel, archived from the original on 27 September 2007
  12. First Series of the Pound, IL: Bank Le-Israel, archived from the original on 27 September 2007
  13. "CME to Launch Foreign Exchange Contract on Israeli Shekel" (Press release). Chicago Mercantile Exchange. 6 April 2006.
  14. "Israelis can soon travel the world with shekels in their pockets". Haaretz . Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  15. "shekel begins trading on global markets". Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  16. CLS Press Release (26 May 2008). "CLS Bank live with Israeli shekel and Mexican Peso". Archived from the original on 30 May 2008.
  17. "About the Agora and New Shekel Series". Banknotes and Coins Catalog. Bank of Israel . Retrieved 26 December 2007.[ permanent dead link ]
  18. "5 NEW SHEQALIM". Banknotes and Coins Catalog. The Bank of Israel. Retrieved 26 December 2007.[ permanent dead link ]
  19. "10 NEW SHEQALIM". Banknotes and Coins Catalog. The Bank of Israel. Retrieved 26 December 2007.[ permanent dead link ]
  20. "The new NIS 2 coin" (Press release). The Bank of Israel. 8 July 2007. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  21. "Cancellation of the 5 agora coin" (in Hebrew). The Bank of Israel. 1 January 2008. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  22. Tomer Avital's report in Calcalist, 21 April 2011 (Hebrew)
  23. Gad Lior's report in Ynet, 21 April 2011
  24. Note that nickel-clad steel 1 new sheqalim coins were issued in 1994 and 1995
  25. Linzmayer, Owen (2012). "Israel". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA:
  26. "The 500 NIS banknote that was never released (Obverse)".
  27. שטר בסימן שאלה, Bulletin of the Numismatics Association in Israel, October 2005
  28. Press release, Bank of Israel Archived 29 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine , 19 December 2009
  29. Press release, Bank of Israel Archived 29 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine , 10 March 2011
  30. השטר החדש הושק: "יהי קשה לזייף שטרות" [The new banknote was launched: "It will be difficult to counterfeit banknotes"] (in Hebrew). ynet. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  31. "Israel's new NIS 200 note enters circulation today". Globes. 23 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  32. Press release, Bank of Israel: The next banknotes in the new series – the NIS 20 and NIS 100 banknotes – will be distributed to the public on from Thursday, November 23, 2017 – 5 Kislev 5778 Archived 17 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine Bank of Israel ( 16 November 2017
  33. Press release, Bank of Israel: Information on the new series of banknotes Archived 1 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine 14 November 2012
  34. Press release by the Bank of Israel: Images and descriptions on the new series of Israeli new shekel banknotes Archived 15 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine Bank of Israel ( 28 April 2013. Retrieved on 1 May 2013.
  35. "Third Series of the New Shekel", Currency, Bank of Israel, archived from the original on 25 March 2021, retrieved 9 February 2016
  36. "Second Series of the New Shekel", Currency, Bank of Israel, archived from the original on 25 March 2021, retrieved 9 February 2016.