Istanbul University

Last updated

Istanbul University
İstanbul Üniversitesi
Istanbul University logo.svg
Latin: Universitas Constantinopolis
Motto"Leadership in Higher Education for Centuries"
Type Public University
Established1453/1846/1933
Rector Prof. Dr. Mahmut Ak
Administrative staff
6,000
Undergraduates 86,092
Postgraduates 12,000
Location,
41°00′46.93″N28°57′49.95″E / 41.0130361°N 28.9638750°E / 41.0130361; 28.9638750 Coordinates: 41°00′46.93″N28°57′49.95″E / 41.0130361°N 28.9638750°E / 41.0130361; 28.9638750
CampusBeyazıt Campus
Vezneciler Campus
Avcılar Campus
Bahçeköy Campus
Çapa Campus
Cerrahpaşa Campus
Kadıköy Campus
Founder Mehmed II (1453)
Abdülmecid I (1846)
Abdülaziz I (1870)
Abdülhamid II (1900)
Mehmed V (1912)
M. K. Atatürk (1933)
Colors      Green      Yellow
Affiliations Coimbra Group
EUA
UNIMED
Website www.istanbul.edu.tr

Istanbul University (Turkish : İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Istanbul Metropolitan municipality in Marmara, Turkey

Istanbul, formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is a bridge between the East and West.

Contents

The main campus is adjacent to Beyazıt Square in Fatih, the capital district of the province, on the European side of the city.

Beyazıt Square

Beyazıt Square is a square in the district of Fatih, situated in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey. It is officially named Freedom Square, but is known as Beyazıt Square after the Bayezid II Mosque on one side of it. The Square is the former site of the Forum of Theodosius built by Constantine the Great. On one side of the square is the main entrance of Istanbul University; the Beyazıt Tower is on the university's campus and can be seen from the square. The current form of the square was designed by Turgut Cansever.

Fatih Place in İstanbul, Turkey

Fatih, historically Constantinople, is the capital district and a municipality (belediye) in Istanbul, Turkey, which hosts all the provincial authorities, including the governor's office, police headquarters, metropolitan municipality and tax office while encompassing the peninsula coinciding with old Constantinople. In 2009, the district of Eminönü, which had been a separate municipality located at the tip of the peninsula, was once again remerged into Fatih because of the small population of Eminönü. Fatih is bordered by the Golden Horn to the north and the Sea of Marmara to the south, while the Western border is demarked by the Theodosian wall and the east by the Bosphorus Strait.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Some pre-1923/1930 western sources refer to it as the University of Constantinople , after the previous name of the city. [1]

Constantinople capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire

Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Byzantine Empire, of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261) and of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923). In 1923 the capital of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, was moved to Ankara and the name Constantinople was officially changed to Istanbul. The city was located in what is now the European side and the core of modern Istanbul.

History

It was founded as an institution of higher education named the Darülfünûn  [ tr ] (دار الفنون) (House of Multiple Sciences) on 23 July 1846; but the Medrese (Islamic theological school) which was founded immediately after Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 is regarded as the precursor to the Darülfünûn which evolved into Istanbul University in 1933. [2] Education in a number of sciences and fields (such as medicine, mathematics, astronomy, cartography, geography, history, philosophy, religion, literature, philology, law, etc.) became available, and, until the 19th century, they were instrumental in educating the ruling cadres of the Ottoman society. However, when the medreses were no longer able to meet the needs of the modern world, a restructuring process began, and as a result, the institutions of higher education called Darülfünûn, the core of Istanbul University, was established.

Madrasa school or college, often providing an Islamic education

Madrasa is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious, whether for elementary instruction or higher learning. The word is variously transliterated madrasah, medresa, madrassa, madraza, medrese, etc. In the West, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, though this may not be the only subject studied.

Mehmed the Conqueror Ottoman sultan

Mehmed II, commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror, was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled from August 1444 to September 1446, and then later from February 1451 to May 1481. In Mehmed II's first reign, he defeated the crusade led by John Hunyadi after the Hungarian incursions into his country broke the conditions of the truce Peace of Szeged. When Mehmed II ascended the throne again in 1451 he strengthened the Ottoman navy and made preparations to attack Constantinople.

Fall of Constantinople 1453 capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire

The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on the Sunday of Pentecost, 29 May 1453. The attackers were commanded by the 21-year-old Sultan Mehmed II, who defeated an army commanded by Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos and took control of the imperial capital, ending a 53-day siege that had begun on 6 April 1453. After conquering the city, Sultan Mehmed transferred the capital of the Ottoman State from Edirne to Constantinople and established his court there.

An institution of higher education named the Darülfünûn-u Osmanî (دار الفنون عثماني) (Ottoman House of Sciences) was created in 1863, but suppressed in 1871. [2] Its first rector was Hasan Tahsini, regarded as one of the most important Ottoman scholars of the 19th century. In 1874 the Imperial University (Darülfünûn-u Sultanî) (دار الفنون سلطاني) started classes in law in French, but was closed in 1881. [2]

Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. It represents levels 6, 7 and 8 of the 2011 version of the International Standard Classification of Education structure. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education.

Hasan Tahsini Albanian activist

Hasan Tahsini also known as Hoxha Tahsin was an Albanian astronomer, mathematician and philosopher. He was the first rector of Istanbul University and one of the founders of the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights. Tahsini is regarded as one of the most prominent scholars of the Ottoman Empire of the 19th century.

Law System of rules and guidelines, generally backed by governmental authority

Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.

The Imperial University, now known as Darülfünûn-u Şahâne (دار الفنون شهانه) was refounded in 1900, with the departments of theology, arts, mathematics, science and philology. [2] In 1924, the faculties of law, medicine, arts and sciences were established in Istanbul University (İstanbul Darülfünûnu), as the university was now called. [2] Islamic theology was added in 1925, but in 1933 the university was reorganized without the latter. [2]

Main entrance gate of Istanbul University on Beyazit Square, which was known as Forum Tauri (later Forum of Theodosius) in the late Roman period. Beyazit Tower, located within the campus, is seen in the background, to the right of the flagpole. Main entrance gate of Istanbul University.jpg
Main entrance gate of Istanbul University on Beyazıt Square, which was known as Forum Tauri (later Forum of Theodosius) in the late Roman period. Beyazıt Tower, located within the campus, is seen in the background, to the right of the flagpole.

The first modern Applied Physics courses were given at the Darülfünûn on 31 December 1863, which marked the beginning of a new period, and on 20 February 1870, the school was renamed as the Darülfünûn-u Osmanî (Ottoman House of Multiple Sciences) and reorganized to meet the needs of modern sciences and technologies. Starting from 1874, some classes of Literature, Law and Applied Sciences were given at the building of Galatasaray High School, which continued regularly until 1881. On 1 September 1900, the school was renamed and reorganized as the Darülfünûn-u Şahâne (Imperial House of Multiple Sciences) with courses on Mathematics, Literature and Theology. On 20 April 1912, the school was renamed as the İstanbul Darülfünûnu (Istanbul House of Multiple Sciences) while the number of courses were increased and the curricula were modernized with the establishment of the Schools of Medicine, Law, Applied Sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics), Literature and Theology.

On 21 April 1924, the Republic of Turkey recognized the İstanbul Darülfünûnu as a state school, and on 7 October 1925, the administrative autonomy of İstanbul Darülfünûnu was recognized while the Schools (within the old Medrese system) became modern Faculties.

On 1 August 1933, İstanbul Darülfünûnu was reorganized as İstanbul Üniversitesi (Istanbul University) following the educational reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Classes officially began on 1 November 1933.

Campus

The arched monumental gate of Istanbul University on the reverse of the 500 lira banknote (1971-1984) 500 Old TL reverse.jpg
The arched monumental gate of Istanbul University on the reverse of the 500 lira banknote (1971–1984)
Late Roman and early Byzantine remains at the Istanbul University campus next to Beyazit Tower. Istanbul University campus ruins March 2008d.JPG
Late Roman and early Byzantine remains at the Istanbul University campus next to Beyazıt Tower.
Interior of the main building University Istanbul main building interior March 2008pano.jpg
Interior of the main building

The university has seventeen faculties on five campuses; the main campus being on Beyazıt Square, which was originally built by Constantine the Great as the Forum Tauri and was later enlarged by Theodosius the Great as the Forum of Theodosius during the Roman period.

The main campus building with its landmark gate was previously used as the headquarters of the Harbiye Nezareti (Ministry of War) by the Ottoman government. Located on the grounds is the Beyazıt Tower, an 85 m (279 ft) tall fire-watch tower. The grounds were previously the location of the Ottoman era Eski Saray (Old Palace). Some Roman and Byzantine ruins are still visible on the grounds.

The university has a teaching staff of 2,000 professors and associates and 4,000 assistants and younger staff. More than 60,000 undergraduate and 8,000 postgraduate students follow the courses offered by Istanbul University every year.

The main gate was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 500 lira banknotes of 1971–1984. [3]


International rankings

University rankings
Global
ARWU World [4] 401-500
Leiden World [5] 334
RUR World [6] 529
THE World [7] 801-1000
USNWR World [8] 663
QS World [9] 801-1000

Notable alumni

Turkish Presidents
Foreign Presidents
Speakers of the Turkish parliament
Turkish Prime Ministers
Foreign Prime Ministers
Turkish Ministers
Journalists 
Scientists
Writers
Poets
Musicians
Medicine
Other


See also

Related Research Articles

Mehmet Fuat Köprülü Turkish politician and historian

Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, also known as Köprülüzade Mehmed Fuad, was a highly influential Turkish sociologist, turkologist, scholar, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey. A descendant of the illustrious noble Albanian Köprülü family, whose influence in shaping Ottoman history between 1656 and 1711 surpassed even that of the House of Osman, Fuat Köprülü was a key figure in the intersection of scholarship and politics in early 20th century Turkey.

Boğaziçi University university

Boğaziçi University is a major research university located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey. It has four faculties and two schools offering undergraduate degrees, and six institutes offering graduate degrees. The language of instruction is English.

Istanbul Technical University university in Turkey

Istanbul Technical University is an international technical university located in Istanbul, Turkey. It is the world's third-oldest technical university dedicated to engineering sciences as well as social sciences recently, and is one of the most prominent educational institutions in Turkey. ITU is ranked 173rd worldwide in the field of Engineering & Technology and 307th worldwide in the field of Natural Sciences by the QS World University Rankings in 2016. Graduates of Istanbul Technical University have received many TUBITAK science and TUBA awards. Numerous graduates have also become members of the academy of sciences in the U.S.A, Britain and Russia. The university's basketball team, ITUSpor, is in the Turkish Basketball Second League. The university has 39 undergraduate, 144 graduate programs, 13 colleges, 346 labs and 12 research centers. Its student-to-faculty ratio is 12:1.

Galatasaray High School high school

Galatasaray High School is a high school in Turkey. Established in 1481, it is the oldest high school in Turkey and the second-oldest Turkish educational institution after Istanbul University, which was established in 1453. Being an Anatolian High School, access to the school is open to students with a high Nationwide High School Entrance score. Education consists of a blend of Turkish and French curricula and is provided in both languages.

Hacettepe University Major state university in Ankara, Turkey

Hacettepe University is a major state university in Ankara, Turkey. Based on academic performance, it ranks 1st among Turkish universities.

Ankara University Public university in Ankara, Turkey

Ankara University is a public university in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. It was the first higher education institution founded in Turkey after the formation of the republic.

Munir Ertegun Turkish diplomat

Mehmet Munir Ertegun was a Turkish legal counsel in international law to the "Sublime Porte" of the late Ottoman Empire and a diplomat of the Republic of Turkey during its early years. Ertegun married Emine Hayrünnisa Rüstem in 1917 and the couple had three children, two of whom were Nesuhi and Ahmet Ertegun, the brothers who founded Atlantic Records and became iconic figures in the American music industry.

Gazi University university in Turkey

Gazi University is a public university primarily located in Ankara, Turkey. It was established in 1926 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as Gazi Teacher Training Institute. In 1982, it was reorganized by merging with the Bolu Academy of Engineering and Architecture, Ankara Academy of Economics and Commercial Sciences, the Ankara College of Technical Careers, the Ankara Girls' College of Technical Careers, and the Ankara State Academy of Engineering and Architecture to become a large metropolitan university as part of the act which created the Board of Higher Education. Prior to 1982 when the Board of Higher Education Law came into effect, institutes of higher education in Turkey were organized under different structures as universities, academies, institutes, and schools. In 1992 faculties and vocational schools in Bolu became Abant Izzet Baysal University.

Istanbul Bilgi University is a university in Istanbul, Turkey, privately owned by US-based Laureate Education, which is a for-profit college corporation. In Turkish, bilgi means "knowledge" or "information".

The Faculty of Political Science of the University of Ankara is the oldest faculty of social science in Turkey, being the successor of the "Mekteb-i Mülkiye" which was established in Istanbul on February 12, 1859, under the reign of Sultan Abdulaziz, then moved to Ankara in 1936 under a new name, and was incorporated to Ankara University on April 3, 1950, under its current name. The Faculty of Political Science provides higher education in the fields of Social Science, Public Finance, Economics, Public Administration, Labor Economics, Business Administration and International Relations. It is considered to be one of the most influential institutes in the political life of Turkey.

Naval Academy (Turkey)

The Turkish Naval Academy is a four-year co-educational military academy located in the district of Tuzla in Istanbul. Its mission is to develop cadets mentally and physically for service as commissioned officers in the Turkish Navy. It must not be confused with Naval War College

Diran Kelekian Armenian journalist

Diran Kelekian was an Ottoman Armenian journalist and professor at the Darülfünûn-u Şahâne. He was editor of two newspapers, Cihan and Sabah. He was murdered in the Armenian Genocide.

Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Turkish philosopher and politician

Muhammed Hamdi Yazır also known as Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır and Elmalılı was a Turkish theologian, logician, Qur'an translator, Qur'anic exegesis scholar, Islamic legal academic, philosopher and encyclopedist.

Istanbul Şehir University

Istanbul Şehir University is a private, non-profit university located in Istanbul, Turkey. It was established in 2008 by the Bilim ve Sanat Vakfı. The university started its education in the academic year of 2010-11 at its campus in Altunizade, Üsküdar, following a ceremony held on October 5, 2010 that was attended by then State President Abdullah Gül, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Minister of Foreign Affairs Ahmet Davutoğlu.

Sahn-ı Seman Medrese or Semâniyye is a 15th-century Ottoman Medrese complex in Istanbul, Turkey, which was part of the Fatih Mosque. It was one of the highest educational facilities of various sciences such as theology, law, medicine, astronomy, physics and mathematics, and was founded by the Turk astronomer Ali Qushji who was invited by the Ottoman sultan Fatih Sultan Mehmed to his court in Istanbul.

Events in the year 1933 in Turkey.

Sıddık Sami Onar was a Turkish academic specialized in administrative law

Bezmialem Foundation University

Bezmialem Foundation University is a private educational and health care organization located in Istanbul, Turkey founded in 2010. It is named after Valide sultan Bezmiâlem Sultan (1807–1853).

In the Ottoman Empire each millet established a schooling system serving its members. Education, therefore, was largely divided on ethnic and religious lines: few non-Muslims attended schools for Muslim students and vice versa. Most institutions that did serve all ethnic and religious groups taught in French or in other languages.

References

  1. Journal of the American Medical Association , Volume 79. American Medical Association, 1922. p. 646
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rüegg, Walter: "European Universities and Similar Institutions in Existence between 1812 and the End of 1944: A Chronological List", in: Rüegg, Walter (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 3: Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945) , Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN   978-0-521-36107-1, p. 687
  3. Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). Banknote Museum: 6. Emission Group – Five Hundred Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine & II. Series Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine . – Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  4. Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018
  5. U.S. News Education: Best Global Universities 2018
  6. QS World University Rankings 2019
  7. "Turkish journalist İlhan Selçuk died". National Turk. 23 June 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
  8. İpek, Bülent (1 January 2011). "O Artık Bir Magazin Figürü". HaberTürk . Istanbul. Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2016.