Italian Somaliland

Last updated
Italian Somalia

Somalia Italiana
Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya
الصومال
1889–1947
Anthem:  Marcia Reale d'Ordinanza
"Royal March of Ordinance"
Marcia Reale
Italian Somaliland in its region.svg
Italian Somaliland
Status Italian colony
Capital Mogadishu
Common languages Italian (official)
Somali
Arabic
Religion
Catholicism
Islam
King  
 18891900
Umberto I
 19391946
Victor Emmanuel III
Governor  
 18891893 18961897
Vincenzo Filonardi
 19401941
Carlo De Simone
Historical era New Imperialism
 Established
1889
 Disestablished
1947
1936-47
Currency Italian Lira
(1889-1909)
Somali Rupia
(1909-1925)
Somali Lira
(1925-38)
ISO 3166 code SO
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Hobyo sultanate map.png Sultanate of Hobyo
Majeerteen sultanate map.png Majeerteen Sultanate
Blank.png Geledi sultanate
Italian East Africa Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg
Today part ofFlag of Somalia.svg  Somalia

Italian Somaliland (Italian : Somalia italiana, Arabic : الصومال الإيطاليAl-Sumal Al-Italiy, Somali : Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), sometimes also referred to as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo, the territory was later acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties. [1]

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

Somali language language of East Cushitic branch of Afro-Asiatic family

Somali is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch. It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater Somalia and the Somali diaspora. Somali is an official language of Somalia, a national language in Djibouti, and a working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. It is used as an adoptive language by a few neighboring ethnic minority groups and individuals. The Somali language is written officially with the Latin alphabet.

Somalia Federal republic in Africa

Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.

Contents

In 1936, the region was integrated into Italian East Africa as part of the Italian Empire. This would last until 1941, during World War II. Italian Somaliland then came under British military administration until 1949, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration. On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland united as scheduled with the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the Somali Republic. [2]

Italian East Africa Italian possession in East Africa between 1936 and 1941

Italian East Africa was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa. It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian Somaliland, Italian Eritrea, and the newly occupied Ethiopian Empire which became Italian Ethiopia.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Trust Territory of Somaliland

The Trust Territory of Somaliland, officially the "Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration" was a United Nations Trust Territory situated in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia. It had as capital Mogadishu and was administered by Italy from 1949 to 1960, following the dissolution of the former British Military Administration.

History

The late 19th century had a huge impact on developments occurring in the Horn of Africa. The European powers (Italy, Great Britain and France) first gained a foothold in Somalia through the signing of various pacts and agreements with the Somali Sultans that then controlled the region, such as Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Boqor Osman Mahamuud and Mohamoud Ali Shire. [1]

Horn of Africa peninsula in Northeast Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in Northeast Africa. It extends hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent. Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

Great Britain island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe

Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.

First settlement

At the end of the 19th century, a growing social-political movement developed within Italy to start expanding its influence, since many other European countries had already been doing so, which was effectively leaving Italy behind. Italy also had a huge shortage of capital and other serious economic problems. [3] It is also argued by some historians that Italy had a minor interest in the mutton and livestock that were then plentiful in Somalia, though whatever designs Italy may have had on the resource-challenged Somali landscape were undoubtedly subordinate to its interest in the region's ports and the waters and lands to which they provided access. [4]

Cesare Correnti organized an expedition under the Società Geografica Italiana in 1876. The next year, the travel journal "L’Esploratore" was established by Manfredo Camperio. The "Società di Esplorazioni Commerciali in Africa" was created in 1879, with the Italian Industrial Establishment involved as well. [5] The "Club Africano", which three years later became the "Società Africana D’Italia", was also established in Somalia in 1880. [6]

Cesare Correnti Italian politician

Cesare Correnti was an Italian revolutionary and politician.

Società Geografica Italiana

The Società Geografica Italiana formed as a geographic society in 1867 in Florence, Italy, and moved to Rome in 1872. As of 1924 it operated from headquarters in Villa Mattei in the Celio rione. The society began publishing a journal in 1868, and also sponsored scientific expeditions, such as one to Ethiopia in 1876, led by Orazio Antinori. In 1892 its members were among the first participants of the triennial Congresso geografico italiano.

Majeerteen-Italian treaties

Francesco Crispi promoted Italian colonialism in Africa in the late 1800s. Francesco Crispi.jpg
Francesco Crispi promoted Italian colonialism in Africa in the late 1800s.

In late 1888, Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italians, making his Sultanate of Hobyo an Italian protectorate. His rival Boqor Osman Mahamuud was to sign a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Majeerteen Sultanate (Majeerteenia) the following year. Both rulers had entered into the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist goals, with Sultan Kenadid looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Boqor Osman over the Majeerteen Sultanate, as well as in a separate conflict with the Hiraab Sultanate over an area to the north of Warsheikh. In signing the agreements, the rulers also hoped to exploit the rival objectives of the European imperial powers so as to more effectively assure the continued independence of their territories. [7] The Italians, for their part, were interested in the largely arid territory mainly because of its ports, the latter of which could grant them access to the strategically important Suez Canal and the Gulf of Aden. [8]

Yusuf Ali Kenadid was a Somali Sultan. He was the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo in the 1870s. Along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud of the Majeerteen Sultanate, Yusuf Ali was one of the three prominent rulers of present-day Somalia at the turn of the 20th century. He was succeeded atop the throne by his son Ali Yusuf Kenadid. The army of Yusuf Ali Kenadid conquered the local Hawiye clan and established Sultanate of Hobyo in 1870s.

Sultanate of Hobyo 19th-century Somali kingdom

The Sultanate of Hobyo, also known as the Sultanate of Obbia, was a 19th-century Somali kingdom in present-day northeastern and central Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. It was established in 1870s by Yusuf Ali Kenadid, cousin of the Majeerteen Sultanate ruler Boqor Osman Mahamuud, after overpowering the local Hawiye clans.

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of. However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a protected state and is different from protectorates.

The terms of each treaty specified that Italy was to steer clear of any interference in the Sultanates' respective administrations. [9] In return for Italian arms and an annual subsidy, the Sultans conceded to a minimum of oversight and economic concessions. [10] The Italians also agreed to dispatch a few ambassadors to promote both the Sultanates' and their own interests. [7] The new protectorates were thereafter managed by Vincenzo Filonardi through a chartered company. [10] An Anglo-Italian border protocol was later signed on 5 May 1894, followed by an agreement in 1906 between Cavalier Pestalozza and General Swaine acknowledging that Baran fell under the Majeerteen Sultanate's administration. [7]

The last piece of land acquired by Italy in Somalia in order to form Italian Somaliland was the Jubaland region. [8] Britain ceded the territory in 1925 as a reward for the Italians having joined the Allies in World War I. [11] The British retained control of the southern half of the partitioned Jubaland territory, which was later called the Northern Frontier District (NFD). [12]

Italo-Abyssinian campaign

In January 1887 Italian troops from Somalia fought a battle against Ras Alula Engida's militia in Dogali, Eritrea, where they lost 500 troops. The Prime Minister, Agostino Depretis, resigned because of this defeat in July 1887. Francesco Crispi replaced him as Prime Minister. On May 2, 1889, the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II and Italy signed a peace treaty.

Coastal settlement

Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, founder of Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi (Jowhar), the main agricultural colony in Italian Somaliland. Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi.jpg
Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, founder of Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi (Jowhar), the main agricultural colony in Italian Somaliland.

Italy gained control of the ports of the Benadir coastal area with the concession of a small strip of land on the coast from the Sultan of Zanzibar, [13] [14] and over the following decades, Italian settlement was encouraged. In 1905, Italy assumed the responsibility of creating a colony in southern Somalia, after several failed attempts, [15] following revelations that the Benadir Company had tolerated or collaborated in the perpetuation of the slave trade. [16] The administrative regulator was Governor Mercantelli, with the six subdivisions of Brava, Merca, Lugh, Itala, Bardera, and Jumbo. [17]

1911 map of Somalia showing Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland. Somalia1911.png
1911 map of Somalia showing Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland.

On April 5, 1908, the Italian Parliament enacted a basic law to unite all of the parts of southern Somalia into an area called "Somalia Italiana". The colonial power was then divided between the Parliament, the metropolitan government, and the colonial government. The power of the colonial government was the only power that was changed. The civil governor controlled export rights, regulated the rate of exchange, raised or lowered native taxes, and administered all civil services and matters relating to hunting, fishing, and conservation. [18] The governor was in control of the police force, while nominating local residents and military arrangements. [18]

From 5 April 1908 to 5 May 1936, the Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops (Regio corpo truppe coloniali della Somalia Italiana), originally called the "Guard Corps of Benadir", served as the territory's formal military corps. At the start of its establishment, the force had 2,600 Italian officers. [17] Between 1911 and 1912, over 1,000 Somalis from Mogadishu served as combat units along with Eritrean and Italian soldiers in the Italo-Turkish War. [19] Most of the troops stationed never returned home until they were transferred back to Italian Somaliland in preparation for the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. [20]

Effective Italian control remained largely limited to the coastal areas until the early 1920s. [21] After the collapse of Muhammad Abdullah Hassan's Dervish movement, rebellion and revolt occurred, with disputes arising between different clans in Northern Somalia. The government of the time served as a mediator while maintaining close control over the military. [22]

Colonial development and fascist era

Mogadishu in 1936, with the 13th century Arba'a Rukun Mosque in the foreground. Mogadishu1936.jpg
Mogadishu in 1936, with the 13th century Arba'a Rukun Mosque in the foreground.

In 1920, a member of the Italian Royal Family, The Duca degli Abruzzi, who was also a famous explorer, would establish the Società Agricola Italo-Somala (SAIS) in order to explore the agricultural potential of the territory. [23] That same year, the Duca founded the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi ("Villabruzzi"; Jowhar) as an agricultural settlement in Italian Somaliland. The area produced sugar, bananas and cotton. [21] On December 5, 1923, Cesare Maria De Vecchi di Val Cismon was named Governor in charge of the new colonial administration.

In November 1920, the Banca d'Italia, the first modern bank in Italian Somaliland, was established in Mogadishu. [24] [25]

After World War I in 1925, Trans-Juba, which was then a part of British East Africa, was ceded to Italy. This concession was purportedly a reward for the Italians having joined the Allies in World War I. [11]

Following an examination of the layout of the land, the Italians began new local infrastructure projects, including the construction of hospitals, farms and schools. [26]

The relationship between the Sultanate of Hobyo and Italy soured when Sultan Kenadid refused the Italians' proposal to allow a British contingent of troops to disembark in his Sultanate so that they might then pursue their battle against the Somali religious and nationalist leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan's Dervish forces. [27] Viewed as too much of a threat, Sultan Kenadid was eventually exiled to Aden in Yemen and then to Eritrea. His son Ali Yusuf Kenadid succeeded him on the throne. [28] In 1924, Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi adopted a policy of disarmentation of the northern Somali sultanates. [29] Sultan Ali Yusuf Kenadid was thereafter in turn exiled. [28] By November 1927, the forces of Sultan Osman Mahamuud of the Majeerteen Sultanate were also defeated. [29] The Dubats colonial troops and the Zaptié gendarmerie were extensively used by De Vecchi during these military campaigns. However, unlike the southern territories, the northern sultanates were not subject to direct rule due to the earlier treaties they had signed with the Italians. [30]

Cavalry and fort of the Sultanate of Hobyo, one of the ruling northern Somali polities in the Campaign of the Sultanates. Hobyo Sultanate Cavalry And Fort.jpg
Cavalry and fort of the Sultanate of Hobyo, one of the ruling northern Somali polities in the Campaign of the Sultanates.

In 1926, the agricultural colony of Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi comprised 16 villages, with some 3,000 Somali and 200 Italian inhabitants, and was connected by a 114 km new railway to Mogadishu. Italian colonial policy followed two principles in Italian Somaliland: preservation of the dominant clan and ethnic configurations and respect for Islam as the territory's religion. [31]

In 1928, the Italian authorities built the Mogadishu Cathedral (Cattedrale di Mogadiscio). It was constructed in a Norman Gothic style, based on the Cefalù Cathedral in Cefalù, Sicily. [32] Following its establishment, Crown Prince Umberto II made his first publicized visit to Mogadishu. [33] [34] To commemorate the visit, the Arch of Umberto was constructed. [34] The arch was built at the center of Mogadishu Garden. [35] The Mogadishu International Airport was constructed that same year. The facility was regarded as one of the finest in the region. [36]

In the early 1930s, the new Italian Governors, Guido Corni and Maurizio Rava, started a policy of assimilation of the Somalis. Many Somalis were enrolled in the Italian colonial troops, and thousands of Italian colonists moved to live in Mogadishu. The city grew in size and some small manufacturing companies opened up. The Italians also settled in agricultural areas around the capital, such as Jowhar and Janale (Genale). [21] [37]

In 1930, there were 22,000 Italians living in Italian Somaliland, representing 2% of the territory's population. The majority resided in the capital Mogadishu, with other Italian communities concentrated in Jowhar, Adale (Itala), Janale, Jamame and Kismayo. [38] [39]

In October 1934, Crown Prince Umberto II made his second publicized visit to Italian Somaliland. [33] King Victor Emmanuel III would also travel to the territory, arriving on 3 November that same year, accompanied by Emilio de Bono, after a non-stop flight from Rome. [40] [41] They were welcomed by the Governor Maurizio Rava and other colonial administrators. Victor Emmanuel III then traveled to Villabruzzi on 5 November. [42] King Victor Emmanuel then returned to Mogadishu where he celebrated his 65th birthday on 11 November. [43] Following his visit to Italian Somaliland, new maps and 14 stamps were published. [42] [44] To commemorate his visit, an Arch of Triumph was constructed in Mogadishu in 1934. [45]

Italian East Africa (1936–1941)

Italian East Africa in 1936. British Somaliland later annexed in 1940. Italian East Africa.png
Italian East Africa in 1936. British Somaliland later annexed in 1940.

By 1935, Mogadishu began to serve as a major naval base and port for the Italians. [46] Then Prime Minister of Italy Benito Mussolini regarded Greater Somalia (La Grande Somalia) as the crown jewel in Italy's colonial empire on the continent. He viewed himself less as an invader than as a liberator of the occupied Somali territories, including the Ogaden region, to which the Ethiopian Empire laid claim. On this basis, he justified his plan to invade Ethiopia. In October 1935, the southern front of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War was launched into Ethiopia from Italian Somaliland. The Italian General Rodolfo Graziani commanded the invasion forces in the south. [47] Over 40,000 Somali troops served in the war, mostly as combat units. They backed up the over 80,000 Italians serving alongside them at the start of the offensive. [48] [49] Many of the Somalis were veterans from serving in Italian Libya. [20] During the invasion of Ethiopia, Mogadishu served as a chief supply base. [50]

In June 1936, after the war ended, Italian Somaliland became part of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) forming the Somalia Governorate. The new colony of the Italian Empire also included Ethiopia and Eritrea. [51] To commemorate the victory, an Arch of Triumph was constructed in Mogadishu. [52]

From 1936 to 1940, new roads were constructed in the region, such as the "Imperial Road" from Mogadishu to Addis Abeba. New railways (114 km from Mogadishu to Jowhar) and many schools, hospitals, ports and bridges were also built. [53]

Since the start of the colony, many Somali troops fought in the so-called Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali. The soldiers were enrolled as Dubats, Zaptié and Bande irregolari. During World War II, these troops were regarded as a wing of the Italian Army's Infantry Division, as was the case in Libya and Eritrea. The Zaptié were considered the best: they provided a ceremonial escort for the Italian Viceroy (Governor) as well as the territorial police. There were already more than one thousand such soldiers in 1922. In 1941, in Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia, 2,186 Zaptìé plus an additional 500 recruits under training officially constituted a part of the Carabinieri. They were organised into a battalion commanded by Major Alfredo Serranti that defended Culqualber (Ethiopia) for three months until this military unit was destroyed by the Allies. After heavy fighting, all the Italian Carabinieri, including the Somali troops, received full military honors from the British. [54]

Fiat's Boero Building in Mogadishu (1940). Fiatmogadiscio1940.png
Fiat's Boero Building in Mogadishu (1940).

In 1935, there were over 50,000 Italians settlers living in Italian Somaliland, constituting 5% of the territory's population. [39] [55] [56] Of those, 20,000 resided in Mogadishu (Mogadiscio), representing around 40% of the city's 50,000 residents. [55] [57] [58] Mogadishu was an administrative capital of Italian East Africa, and new buildings were erected in the Italian architectural tradition. Other Italian settler communities were concentrated in Jowhar, Adale (Itala), Janale, Jamame, and Kismayo. [59] These figures do not include the more than 220,000 Italian soldiers stationed throughout Italian Somaliland during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. [60]

The colony was also one of the most developed in Africa in terms of the standard of living of the colonists and of the local inhabitants, mainly in the urban areas. By 1940, the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi ("Villabruzzi"; Jowhar) had a population of 12,000 people, of whom nearly 3,000 were Italian Somalis, and enjoyed a notable level of development with a small manufacturing area with agricultural industries (sugar mills, etc.). [61]

In the second half of 1940, Italian troops invaded British Somaliland, [62] and ejected the British. The Italians also occupied Kenyan areas bordering Jubaland around the villages of Moyale and Buna. [63]

In the spring of 1941, Britain regained control of British Somaliland and conquered Italian Somaliland with the Ogaden. However, until the summer of 1943, there was an Italian guerrilla war in all the areas of the former Italian East Africa.

British Military Administration (1941–1949)

A voting registration card in Mogadishu during the British military administration (1949). Voteregmog49.jpg
A voting registration card in Mogadishu during the British military administration (1949).

During the Second World War, Britain occupied Italian Somaliland and militarily administered the territory as well as British Somaliland. Faced with growing Italian political pressure inimical to continued British tenure and Somali aspirations for independence, the Somalis and the British came to see each other as allies. The first modern Somali political party, the Somali Youth Club (SYC), was subsequently established in Mogadishu in 1943; it was later renamed the Somali Youth League (SYL). [64] The SYL evolved into the dominant party and had a moderate ideology. Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) party served as the principal opposition to the right, although its platform was generally in agreement with that of the SYL. [65] Although the Italian leadership believed were unsure where the British army would land first, Operation Canvas, to capture southern Somalia occurred first in January 1941, whereas the subsequent attempt to capture British Somaliland happened two months later in Operation Appearance. [66] [67]

In November 1949, the United Nations finally opted to grant Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland, but only under close supervision and on the condition — first proposed by the Somali Youth League (SYL) and other nascent Somali political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (later Hizbia Dastur Mustaqbal Somali, or HDMS) and the Somali National League (SNL), that were then agitating for independence — that Somalia achieve independence within ten years. [68] [69]

Trust Territory of Somalia (1950–1960)

In 1949, when the British military administration ended, Italian Somaliland became a United Nations trusteeship known as the Trust Territory of Somaliland. Under Italian administration, this trust territory lasted ten years, from 1950 to 1960, with legislative elections held in 1956 and 1959.

During the 1950s, with UN funds pouring in and the presence of experienced Italian administrators who had come to see the region as their home, infrastructural and educational development blossomed in the region. School enrollment during this period was free. [70] The decade passed relatively without incident, and was marked by positive growth in virtually all aspects of local life.

The conditional return of Italian administration to southern Somalia gave the new trust territory several unique advantages compared with other African colonies. To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in political education and self-government. These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have. Although in the 1950s British colonial officials attempted, through various development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated. The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would cause serious difficulties when it came time to integrate the two parts. [71]

In the 1956 parliamentary election, the Somali Youth League would win 54.29% of votes versus 26.01% for the nearest party, the Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali. [72] The SYL would also earn 416 of the 663 seats in the 1958 municipal election, with the HDMS securing 175 seats. [73] By the 1959 parliamentary election, SYL would capture an even greater share of votes by winning 75.58% of the total ballot. [72] [74]

Italian was an official language in Italian Somaliland during the Fiduciary Mandate, as well as in the first years of independence. By 1952, the majority of Somalis had some understanding of the language. [75] In 1954, the Italian government established post-secondary institutions of law, economics and social studies in Mogadishu, the territory's capital. These institutions were satellites of the University of Rome, which provided all the instruction material, faculty and administration.

Independence (1960)

First President of the Somali National Assembly, speaker of the SOMALIA ACT OF UNION Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf. Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf2.jpg
First President of the Somali National Assembly, speaker of the SOMALIA ACT OF UNION Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf.

On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the former British Somaliland united to form the Somali Republic (Somalia), with Mogadishu as the nation's capital. [2] [76]

A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa and Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal and other members of the trusteeship and protectorate governments, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Somali National Assembly, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President of the Somali Republic, and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister (later to become President from 1967–1969). On 20 July 1961 and through a popular referendum, the people of Somalia ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960. [77]

Governors

See also

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The Mogadiscio-Villabruzzi Railway is an historical railway system that ran through southern Somalia. It was constructed between 1914 and 1927 by the colonial authorities in Italian Somaliland. The railway connected the capital city Mogadishu with Afgooye, and subsequently with Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi - usually called "Villabruzzi". The line was later dismantled by British troops during World War II. Plans for re-establishing the railway were done in the 1980s by the Siad Barre administration, but were aborted after the regime's collapse.

Rail transport in Somalia

Railway transport in Somalia consisted of the erstwhile Mogadishu–Villabruzzi Railway and secondary tracks. The system was built during the 1910s by the authorities in Italian Somaliland. Its track gauge was 950 mm, a gauge favoured by the Italians in their colonies in the Horn of Africa and North Africa. The railway was dismantled in the 1940s by the British during their military occupation of Italian Somaliland, and was subsequently never rehabilitated.

Majeerteen Sultanate

The Majeerteen Sultanate, also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa. Ruled by Boqor Osman Mahamuud during its golden age, the sultanate controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity had all of the organs of an integrated modern state and maintained a robust trading network. It also entered into treaties with foreign powers and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front. Much of the Sultanate's former domain is today coextensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia.

Military history of Somalia

The military history of Somalia encompasses the major conventional wars, conflicts and skirmishes involving the historic empires, kingdoms and sultanates in the territory of present-day Somalia, through to modern times. It also covers the martial traditions, military architecture and hardware employed by Somali armies and their opponents.

Italy–Somalia relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Italy and the Federal Republic of Somalia

Italy–Somalia relations are bilateral relations between Italy and Somalia.

Ali Yusuf Kenadid 2nd Sultan of the Sultanate of Hobyo

Ali Yusuf Kenadid was a Somali ruler. He was the second Sultan of the Sultanate of Hobyo.

Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops Italian colonial troops recruited from Italian Somaliland.

The Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops was the colonial body of the Royal Italian Army based in Italian Somaliland, in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.

Railway stations in Somaliland

The Railway Stations in Somaliland -or "Somalia"- were served by the Mogadishu–Villabruzzi Railway of 114 km.

Mogadishu under Italian rule

Mogadishu under Italian rule was the capital of Italian Somalia in the first half of the 20th century. Mogadishu was under direct Italian control from 1885 until February 1941, but formal control was only officially ended with the recognition of the independence of Ethiopia in the 1947 Treaty of Peace with Italy following the end of World War II.

Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi

Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi was a village that was founded as an agricultural settlement in Italian Somalia.

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Further reading