The scudo (pl. scudi) was the name for a number of coins used in various states in the Italian peninsula until the 19th century. The name, like that of the French écu and the Spanish and Portuguese escudo, was derived from the Latin scutum ("shield"). From the 16th century,the name was used in Italy for large silver coins. Sizes varied depending on the issuing country.
First scudo d'argento (silver shield) was issued in 1551 by Charles V (1519–1556) in Milan.
Under Maria Theresa and Joseph II the scudo d'argento had a weight of 23.10 g and a fineness of 896/1000.
In the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (under the control of the Habsburg Austrian Empire), the Lombardy-Venetia scudo was equivalent to the Conventionsthaler and was subdivided into six lire .
Before the Napoleonic Wars, the lira was subdivided into 20 soldi, each of 12 denari. Later, the lira was made up of 100 centesimi.
When Austria-Hungary decimalized in 1857, the scudo was replaced by the florin at a rate of 2 florin = 1 scudo. Coins of ½ and 1 soldo were issued, equal to ½ and 1 kreuzer, for use in Lombardy and Venetia.
In the Papal States, the Papal States scudo was the currency until 1866. It was divided into 100 baiocchi (sing. baiocco), each of 5 quattrini. It was replaced by the lira, equal to the Italian lira.
The Duchy of Modena and Reggio also issued scudi, worth four lire or one third of a tallero.
In Malta under the Order of St John, the Maltese scudo circulated from the 16th century until the Order was expelled in 1798. The currency remained the official currency of Malta until 1825 and the last coins were removed from circulation in 1886. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta has issued coins denominated in scudi since 1961.
The lira was the currency of Malta from 1972 until 31 December 2007. The lira was abbreviated as Lm, although the traditional ₤ sign was often used locally. In English, the currency was still frequently called the pound because of the past usage of British currency on the islands.
The lira was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002, of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy between 1807 and 1814, and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943. Between 1999 and 2002, the Italian lira was officially a national subunit of the euro. However, cash payments could be made in lira only, as euro coins or notes were not yet available.
The scudo is the official currency of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and was the currency of Malta during the rule of the Order over Malta, which ended in 1798. It is subdivided into 12 tarì, each of 20 grani with 6 piccoli to the grano. It is pegged to the euro.
The lira was the currency of the Kingdom of Sardinia between August 6, 1816 and March 17, 1861. It was subdivided into 100 centesimi and was equal in value to the French franc, which had replaced the Piedmontese shield by 1801. Being no more than the Savoyard version of the franc, it could circulate also in France, as the French coins could circulate in Piedmont. It was replaced at par by the Italian lira. As the great part of the 19th century currencies, it was not affected by significant episodes of inflation during all its existence.
The florin was the currency of Lombardy-Venetia between 1862 and 1866. It replaced the pound at a rate of 1 florin = 3 pounds. The florin was equivalent to the Austro-Hungarian gulden. Although it was subdivided into 100 soldi rather than 100 Kreuzer, Austrian coins circulated in Venetia. The only coins issued specifically for Venetia were copper 1⁄2 and 1 soldo pieces. The name soldo was chosen due to the equivalence of the predecimal Kreuzer and soldo, both worth 1⁄120 of a Conventionsthaler.
The pound was the currency of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.
The Tuscan florin was the currency of Tuscany between 1826 and 1859. It was subdivided into 100 quattrini, a local currency made by four pennies. There was an additional denomination called the paolo, worth 40 quattrini, in circulation.
The Roman scudo was the currency of the Papal States until 1866. It was subdivided into 100 baiocchi, each of 5 quattrini. Other denominations included the grosso of 5 baiocchi, the carlino of 7½ baiocchi, the giulio and paoli both of 10 baiocchi, the testone of 30 baiocchi and the doppia of 3 scudi.
The Papal lira was the currency of the Papal States between 1866 and 1870.
The lira was the distinct currency of Venice until 1807. It was subdivided into 20 soldi, each of 12 denari. The Venetian ducat (ducato) was equal to 124 soldi, whilst the tallero was equal to 7 lire. The lira of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy replaced the Venetian lira in 1807.
The scudo was the currency of the Duchy of Milan until 1796. It was subdivided into 6 lire, each of 20 soldi or 240 denari. It was equal to the Conventionsthaler. It was replaced by the lira of the Cispadane Republic, with Cispadanian lira equal to the Milanese. This in turn was replaced in 1797 by the lira of the Cisalpine Republic, followed by the French franc in 1802. In 1816, the Lombardy-Venetia scudo was introduced, also equal to the Conventionsthaler.
The tallero was the currency of Eritrea between 1890 and 1921. It was subdivided into 5 lire, each of 100 centesimi. The lira was equivalent to the Italian lira.
The lira was the currency of the mainland part of the Kingdom of the Sicily, known as the Kingdom of Naples, between 1812 and 1813. The currency was issued by Joachim Murat, who claimed the title of "King of the Two Sicilies" but only controlled the mainland part of the kingdom. Consequently, the currency is referred to as the "Neapolitan lira". It was subdivided into 100 centesimi and was equal to the Italian lira and French franc. It replaced the piastra, which circulated again following the restoration of Bourbon rule.
The lira was the distinct currency of Parma before 1802 and again from 1815 to 1859.
The Papal Mint is the pope's institute for the production of hard cash. Papal Mint also refers to the buildings in Avignon, Rome, and elsewhere that used to house the mint..
The scudo was the currency of the island Kingdom of Sardinia until 1816. It was subdivided into 2½ lire, each of 4 reales, 20 soldi, 120 cagliarese or 240 denari. The doppietta was worth 2 scudi. It was replaced by the Sardinian lira.
The scudo was the currency of the Piedmont and the other mainland parts of the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia until 1816. It was subdivided into 6 lire, each of 20 soldi or 240 denari. The doppia was worth 2 scudi. During the Subalpine Republic and French occupation (1800–1814), the French franc circulated, supplemented by a small number of locally produced coins. The scudo was replaced by the Sardinian lira.
Italy has a long history of different coinage types, which spans thousands of years. Italy has been influential at a coinage point of view: the florin, one of the most used coinage types in European history, was struck in Florence in the 13th century. Since Italy has been for centuries divided into many city-states, they all had different coinage systems, but when the country became unified in 1861, the Italian lira came into place, and was used until 2002. Today, Italy uses the Euro.