Ivy Bridge (microarchitecture)

Last updated

Ivy Bridge
Ivy Bridge Codename Logo.jpg
Intel's internal Ivy Bridge logo [1]
General information
LaunchedApril 29, 2012;9 years ago (April 29, 2012)
DiscontinuedJune 5, 2015;6 years ago (June 5, 2015)
CPUID code0306A9h
Product code80633 (extreme desktop)
80634 (server LGA1356)
80635 (server E5 LGA2011)
80636 (server E7 LGA2011)
80637 (desktop)
80638 (mobile)
Performance
Max. CPU clock rate 1.4 to 4.1 GHz
Cache
L1 cache 64 KB per core
L2 cache256 KB per core
L3 cache2 to 8 MB shared
Architecture and classification
Min. feature size 22 nm
ArchitectureIvy Bridge x86
Instructions x86, x86-64
Extensions
Physical specifications
Transistors
Cores
  • 2–4 (Mainstream)
    2–15 (Xeon)
GPU(s) HD Graphics 2500
650 to 1150 MHz
HD Graphics 4000
350 to 1300 MHz
HD Graphics P4000
650 to 1250 MHz
Socket(s)
Products, models, variants
Model(s)
History
Predecessor Sandy Bridge (Tock)
Successor Haswell (Tock/Architecture)
An uncovered Intel Core i5-3210M (BGA) inside of a laptop, an Ivy Bridge CPU Intel Core i5-3210M SR0N0 BGA-1023.jpg
An uncovered Intel Core i5-3210M (BGA) inside of a laptop, an Ivy Bridge CPU

Ivy Bridge is the codename for Intel's 22 nm microarchitecture used in the third generation of the Intel Core processors (Core i7, i5, i3). Ivy Bridge is a die shrink to 22 nm process based on FinFET ("3D") Tri-Gate transistors, from the former generation's 32 nm Sandy Bridge microarchitecture—also known as tick–tock model. The name is also applied more broadly to the Xeon and Core i7 Ivy Bridge-E series of processors released in 2013.

Contents

Ivy Bridge processors are backward compatible with the Sandy Bridge platform, but such systems might require a firmware update (vendor specific). [2] In 2011, Intel released the 7-series Panther Point chipsets with integrated USB 3.0 and SATA 3.0 to complement Ivy Bridge. [3]

Volume production of Ivy Bridge chips began in the third quarter of 2011. [4] Quad-core and dual-core-mobile models launched on April 29, 2012 and May 31, 2012 respectively. [5] Core i3 desktop processors, as well as the first 22 nm Pentium, were announced and available the first week of September 2012. [6]

Ivy Bridge is the last Intel platform to fully support Windows XP and the earliest Intel microarchitecture to officially support Windows 10 64-bit. [7]

Overview

The Ivy Bridge CPU microarchitecture is a shrink from Sandy Bridge and remains largely unchanged. Like its predecessor, Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge was also primarily developed by Intel's Israel branch, located in Haifa, Israel. [8] Notable improvements include: [9] [10]

Ivy Bridge features and performance

The mobile and desktop Ivy Bridge chips also include significant changes over Sandy Bridge:

Translation lookaside buffer sizes [24] [25]
CachePage Size
NameLevel4 KB2 MB1 GB
DTLB1st64324
ITLB1st1288 / logical corenone
STLB2nd512nonenone

Benchmark comparisons

Compared to its predecessor, Sandy Bridge:

Thermal performance issues

Ivy Bridge's temperatures are reportedly 10 °C higher compared to Sandy Bridge when a CPU is overclocked, even at default voltage setting. [29] Impress PC Watch, a Japanese website, performed experiments that confirmed earlier speculations that this is because Intel used a poor quality (and perhaps lower cost) thermal interface material (thermal paste, or "TIM") between the chip and the heat spreader, instead of the fluxless solder of previous generations. [30] [31] [32] The mobile Ivy Bridge processors are not affected by this issue because they do not use a heat spreader between the chip and cooling system.

Enthusiast reports describe the TIM used by Intel as low-quality, [32] and not up to par for a "premium" CPU, with some speculation that this is by design to encourage sales of prior processors. [30] Further analyses caution that the processor can be damaged or void its warranty if home users attempt to remedy the matter. [30] [33] The TIM has much lower thermal conductivity, causing heat to trap on the die. [29] Experiments with replacing this TIM with a higher-quality one or other heat removal methods showed a substantial temperature drop, and improvements to the increased voltages and overclocking sustainable by Ivy Bridge chips. [30] [34]

Intel claims that the smaller die of Ivy Bridge and the related increase in thermal density is expected to result in higher temperatures when the CPU is overclocked; Intel also stated that this is as expected and will likely not improve in future revisions. [35]

Models and steppings

All Ivy Bridge processors with one, two, or four cores report the same CPUID model 0x000306A9, and are built in four different configurations differing in the number of cores, L3 cache and GPU execution units.

Die code nameCPUIDSteppingDie sizeDie dimensionsTransistorsCoresGPU EUsL3 cacheSockets
Ivy Bridge-M-20x000306A9P094 mm2 [36] 7.656 x 12.223 mm~634 million [lower-alpha 1] 26 [37] 3 MB [38] LGA 1155,
Socket G2,
BGA-1224,
BGA-1023,
BGA-1284
Ivy Bridge-H-2L1118 mm2 [36] 8.141 x 14.505 mm~830 million [lower-alpha 1] 2164 MB
Ivy Bridge-HM-4N0133 mm2 [36] 7.656 x 17.349 mm~1008 million [lower-alpha 1] 466 MB [38]
Ivy Bridge-HE-4E1160 mm2 [36] 8.141 x 19.361 mm~1400 million [39] 4168 MB

Ivy Bridge-based Xeon processors

Intel Ivy Bridge-based Xeon microprocessors (also known as Ivy Bridge-E) is the follow-up to Sandy Bridge-E, using the same CPU core as the Ivy Bridge processor, but in LGA 2011, LGA 1356 and LGA 2011-1 packages for workstations and servers.

Additional high-end server processors based on the Ivy Bridge architecture, code named Ivytown, were announced September 10, 2013 at the Intel Developer Forum, after the usual one year interval between consumer and server product releases. [40] [41] [42]

The Ivy Bridge-EP processor line announced in September 2013 has up to 12 cores and 30 MB third level cache, with rumors of Ivy Bridge-EX up to 15 cores and an increased third level cache of up to 37.5 MB, [43] [44] although an early leaked lineup of Ivy Bridge-E included processors with a maximum of 6 cores. [45]

Both Core-i7 and Xeon versions are produced: the Xeon versions marketed as Xeon E5-1400 V2 act as drop-in replacements for the existing Sandy Bridge-EN based Xeon E5, Xeon E5-2600 V2 versions act as drop-in replacements for the existing Sandy Bridge-EP based Xeon E5, while Core-i7 versions designated i7-4820K, i7-4930K and i7-4960X were released on September 10, 2013, remaining compatible with the X79 and LGA 2011 hardware. [44] [46]

For the intermediate LGA 1356 socket, Intel launched the Xeon E5-2400 V2 (codenamed Ivy Bridge-EN) series in January 2014. [47] These have up to 10 cores. [48]

A new Ivy Bridge-EX line marketed as Xeon E7 V2 had no corresponding predecessor using the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture but instead followed the older Westmere-EX processors.

List of Ivy Bridge processors

Processors featuring Intel's HD 4000 graphics (or HD P4000 for Xeon) are set in bold. Other processors feature HD 2500 graphics or HD Graphics unless indicated by N/A.

Desktop processors

List of announced desktop processors, as follows:

Processor
branding and model
Cores
(threads)
CPU clock rate Graphics clock rate L3
cache
TDP Release
date
Release
price
(USD)
Motherboard
Normal Turbo NormalTurboSocketInterfaceMemory
Core i7
Extreme
4960X 6 (12)3.6 GHz4.0 GHzN/A15 MB130 W2013-09-10$999 [49] LGA
2011
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0 [a]
Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1866
Core i7 4930K 3.4 GHz3.9 GHz12 MB$583 [49]
4820K 4 (8)3.7 GHz10 MB$323 [49]
3770K 3.5 GHz650 MHz1150 MHz8 MB77 W2012-04-23$332 LGA
1155
Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1600 [50]
3770 3.4 GHz$294
3770S 3.1 GHz65 W
3770T 2.5 GHz3.7 GHz45 W
Core i5 3570K 4 (4)3.4 GHz3.8 GHz6 MB77 W$225
3570 2012-05-31 [51] $205
3570S 3.1 GHz65 W
3570T 2.3 GHz3.3 GHz45 W
3550 3.3 GHz3.7 GHz77 W2012-04-23
3550S 3.0 GHz65 W
3475S 2.9 GHz3.6 GHz1100 MHz2012-05-31 [51] $201
3470 3.2 GHz77 W$184
3470S 2.9 GHz65 W
3470T 2 (4)3 MB35 W
3450 4 (4)3.1 GHz3.5 GHz6 MB77 W2012-04-23
3450S 2.8 GHz65 W
3350P 3.1 GHz3.3 GHzN/A69 W2012-09-03$177
3340 650 MHz1050 MHz77 W2013-09-01$182
3340S 2.8 GHz65 W
3335S2.7 GHz3.2 GHz2012-09-03$194
3330S $177
3330 3.0 GHz77 W$182
Core i3 3250 2 (4)3.5 GHzN/A3 MB55 W2013-06-09$138 DMI 2.0
PCIe 2.0
3245 3.4 GHz$134
3240 2012-09-03$138
3225 3.3 GHz$134
3220 $117
3210 3.2 GHz2013-01-20
3250T 3.0 GHz35 W2013-06-09$138
3240T 2.9 GHz2012-09-03
3220T 2.8 GHz$117
Pentium G2140 2 (2)3.3 GHz55 W2013-06-09$86
G2130 3.2 GHz2013-01-20
G2120 3.1 GHz2012-09-03
G2120T 2.7 GHz35 W2013-06-09$75
G2100T 2.6 GHz2012-09-03
G2030 3.0 GHz55 W2013-06-09$64Dual channel DDR3-1333
G2020 2.9 GHz2013-01-20
G2010 2.8 GHz
G2030T 2.6 GHz35 W2013-06-09
G2020T 2.5 GHz2013-01-20
Celeron G1630 2 (2)2.8 GHz2 MB55 W2013-09-01$52
G1620 2.7 GHz2013-01-20
G1610 2.6 GHz$42
G1620T 2.4 GHz35 W2013-09-01
G1610T 2.3 GHz2013-01-20
  1. Requires a compatible motherboard.

Suffixes to denote:

Server processors

Processor
branding and model
Cores
(threads)
CPU clock rate Graphics clock rate L3
cache
TDP Release
date
Price
(USD)
Motherboard
Normal Turbo NormalTurboSocketInterfaceMemory
Xeon E7 8893v2 6 (12)3.4 GHz3.7 GHzN/A37.5 MB155 W2014-02-18$6841 LGA
2011-1
QPI
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600
8891v2 10 (20)3.2 GHz
8895v2 15 (30)2.8 GHz3.6 GHzOEM
(Oracle) [52]
8890v2 3.4 GHz$6841
4890v2 $6619
2890v2 $6451
8880Lv2 2.2 GHz2.8 GHz105 W$5729
8880v2 2.5 GHz3.1 GHz130 W
4880v2 $5506
2880v2 $5339
8870v2 2.3 GHz2.9 GHz30 MB$4616
4870v2 $4394
2870v2 $4227
8857v2 12 (12)3.0 GHz3.6 GHz$3838
4860v2 12 (24)2.6 GHz3.2 GHz
8850v2 2.3 GHz2.8 GHz24 MB105 W$3059
4850v2 $2837
2850v2 $2558
4830v2 10 (20)2.2 GHz2.7 GHz20 MB$2059
4820v2 8 (16)2.0 GHz2.5 GHz16 MB$1446
4809v2 6 (12)1.9 GHzN/A12 MB$1223Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1333
Xeon E5 4657Lv2 12 (24)2.4 GHz3.2 GHz30 MB115 W2014-03-03$4394 LGA
2011
QPI
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1866
4650v2 10 (20)25 MB95 W$3616
4640v2 2.2 GHz2.7 GHz20 MB$2725
4624Lv2 1.9 GHz2.5 GHz25 MB70 W$2405
4627v2 8 (8)3.3 GHz3.6 GHz16 MB130 W$2108
4620v2 8 (16)2.6 GHz3.0 GHz20 MB95 W$1611Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600
4610v2 2.3 GHz2.7 GHz16 MB$1219
4607v2 6 (12)2.6 GHzN/A15 MB$885Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1333
4603v2 4 (8)2.2 GHz10 MB$551
2697v2 12 (24)2.7 GHz3.5 GHz30 MB130 W2013-09-10$2614Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1866
2696v22.5 GHz3.3 GHz120 WOEM
2695v2 2.4 GHz3.2 GHz115 W$2336
2692v22.2 GHz3.0 GHzJune 2013OEM
(Tianhe-2)
2651v21.8 GHz2.2 GHz105 W2013-09-10
2690v2 10 (20)3.0 GHz3.6 GHz25 MB130 W$2057
2680v2 2.8 GHz115 W$1723
2670v2 2.5 GHz3.3 GHz$1552
2660v2 2.2 GHz3.0 GHz95 W$1389
2658v2 2.4 GHz$1750
2650Lv2 1.7 GHz2.1 GHz70 W$1219Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600
2648Lv2 1.9 GHz2.5 GHz$1479Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1866
2687Wv2 8 (16)3.4 GHz4.0 GHz150 W$2108
2667v2 3.3 GHz130 W$2057
2650v2 2.6 GHz3.4 GHz20 MB95 W$1166
2640v2 2.0 GHz2.5 GHz$885Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600
2628Lv2 1.9 GHz2.4 GHz70 W$1216
2643v2 6 (12)3.5 GHz3.8 GHz25 MB130 W$1552Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1866
2630v2 2.6 GHz3.1 GHz15 MB80 W$612Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600
2630Lv2 2.4 GHz2.8 GHz60 W
2620v2 2.1 GHz2.6 GHz80 W$406
2618Lv2 2.0 GHzN/A50 W$520Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1333
2637v2 4 (8)3.5 GHz3.8 GHz130 W$996Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1866
2609v2 4 (4)2.5 GHzN/A10 MB80 W$294Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1333
2603v2 1.8 GHz$202
2470v2 10 (20)2.4 GHz3.2 GHz25 MB95 W2014-01-09$1440 LGA
1356
QPI
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
Up to triple
channel
DDR3-1600
2448Lv2 1.8 GHz2.4 GHz70 W$1424
2450Lv2 1.7 GHz2.1 GHz60 W$1219
2450v2 8 (16)2.5 GHz3.3 GHz20 MB95 W$1107
2440v2 1.9 GHz2.4 GHz$832
2428Lv2 1.8 GHz2.3 GHz60 W$1013
2430v2 6 (12)2.5 GHz3.0 GHz15 MB80 W$551
2420v2 2.2 GHz2.7 GHz$406
2430Lv2 2.4 GHz2.8 GHz60 W$612
2418Lv2 2.0 GHzN/A50 W$607Up to triple
channel
DDR3-1333
2407v2 4 (4)2.4 GHz10 MB80 W$250
2403v2 1.8 GHz$192
1680v2 8 (16)3.0 GHz3.9 GHz25 MB130 W2013-09-10$1723 LGA
2011
QPI
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1866
1660v2 6 (12)3.7 GHz4.0 GHz15 MB$1080
1650v2 3.5 GHz3.9 GHz12 MB$583
1620v2 4 (8)3.7 GHz10 MB$294
1607v2 4 (4)3.0 GHzN/A$244Up to quad
channel
DDR3-1600
1428Lv2 6 (12)2.2 GHz2.7 GHz15 MB60 W2014-01-09$494 LGA
1356
Up to triple
channel
DDR3-1600
1410v2 4 (8)2.8 GHz3.2 GHz10 MB80 WOEM
Pentium 1403v2 2 (2)2.6 GHzN/A6 MB
1405v2 1.4 GHz40 W$156
Xeon E3 1290v2 4 (8)3.7 GHz4.1 GHz8 MB87 W2012-05-14$885 LGA
1155
DMI 2.0
PCIe 3.0
Up to dual
channel
DDR3-1600
1280v2 3.6 GHz4.0 GHz69 W$623
1275v2 3.5 GHz3.9 GHz650 MHz1.25 GHz77 W$350
1270v2 N/A69 W$339
1265Lv2 2.5 GHz3.5 GHz650 MHz1.15 GHz45 W$305
1245v2 3.4 GHz3.8 GHz650 MHz1.25 GHz77 W$273
1240v2 N/A69 W$261
1230v2 3.3 GHz3.7 GHz$230
1225v2 4 (4)3.2 GHz3.6 GHz650 MHz1.25 GHz77 W$224
1220v2 3.1 GHz3.5 GHzN/A69 W$203
1220Lv2 2 (4)2.3 GHz3 MB17 W$189
1135Cv2 4 (8)3.0 GHzN/A8 MB55 W2013-09-10OEMBGA
1284
1125Cv2 2.5 GHz40 W$448
1105Cv2 1.8 GHz25 W$320

Mobile processors

Processor
branding and model
Cores
(threads)
Programmable TDPCPU TurboGraphics clock rate L3
cache
Release
date
Price
(USD)
SDP [53] cTDP downNominal TDPcTDP up1-coreNormalTurbo
Core i7 3940XM 4 (8)N/A45 W / ? GHz55 W / 3.0 GHz65 W / ? GHz3.9 GHz650 MHz1350 MHz8 MB2012-09-30$1096
3920XM 45 W / ? GHz55 W / 2.9 GHz65 W / ? GHz3.8 GHz1300 MHz2012-04-23
3840QM N/A45 W / 2.8 GHzN/A2012-09-30$568
3820QM 45 W / 2.7 GHz3.7 GHz1250 MHz2012-04-23
3740QM 1300 MHz6 MB2012-09-30$378
3720QM 45 W / 2.6 GHz3.6 GHz1250 MHz2012-04-23
3635QM 45 W / 2.4 GHz3.4 GHz1200 MHz2012-09-30N/A
3632QM 35 W / 2.2 GHz3.2 GHz1150 MHz$378
3630QM 45 W / 2.4 GHz3.4 GHz
3615QM 45 W / 2.3 GHz3.3 GHz1200 MHz2012-04-23
3612QM 35 W / 2.1 GHz3.1 GHz1100 MHz
3610QM 45 W / 2.3 GHz3.3 GHz
3689Y 2 (4)7 W / ? GHz10 W / ? GHz13 W / 1.5 GHz2.6 GHz350 MHz850 MHz4 MB2013-01-07$362
3687U N/A14 W / ? GHz17 W / 2.1 GHz25 W / 3.1 GHz3.3 GHz1200 MHz2013-01-20$346
3667U 14 W / ? GHz17 W / 2.0 GHz25 W / 3.0 GHz3.2 GHz1150 MHz2012-06-03
3537U 14 W / ? GHz25 W / 2.9 GHz3.1 GHz1200 MHz2013-01-20
3555LE N/A25 W / 2.5 GHzN/A3.2 GHz550 MHz1000 MHz2012-06-03$360
3540M 35 W / 3.0 GHz3.7 GHz650 MHz1300 MHz2013-01-20$346
3525M35 W / 2.9 GHz3.6 GHz1350 MHzQ3 2012
3520M 1250 MHz2012-06-03$346
3517U 14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.9 GHz25 W / 2.8 GHz3.0 GHz350 MHz1150 MHz
3517UE 14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.7 GHz25 W / 2.6 GHz2.8 GHz1000 MHz$330
Core i5 3610ME N/A35 W / 2.7 GHzN/A3.3 GHz650 MHz950 MHz3 MB$276
3439Y 7 W / ? GHz10 W / ? GHz13 W / 1.5 GHz2.3 GHz350 MHz850 MHz2013-01-07$250
3437U N/A14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.9 GHz25 W / 2.4 GHz2.9 GHz650 MHz1200 MHz2013-01-20$225
3427U 14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.8 GHz25 W / 2.3 GHz2.8 GHz350 MHz1150 MHz2012-06-03
3380M N/A35 W / 2.9 GHzN/A3.6 GHz650 MHz1250 MHz2013-01-20$266
3365M35 W / 2.8 GHz3.5 GHz1350 MHzQ3 2012
3360M 1200 MHz2012-06-03$266
3340M 35 W / 2.7 GHz3.4 GHz1250 MHz2013-01-20$225
3339Y 7 W / ? GHz10 W / ? GHz13 W / 1.5 GHz2.0 GHz350 MHz850 MHz2013-01-07$250
3337U N/A14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.8 GHz2.7 GHz350 MHz1100 MHz2013-01-20$225
3320M N/A35 W / 2.6 GHz3.3 GHz650 MHz1200 MHz2012-06-03
3317U 14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.7 GHz2.6 GHz350 MHz1050 MHz
3230M N/A35 W / 2.6 GHz3.2 GHz650 MHz1100 MHz2013-01-20
3210M 35 W / 2.5 GHz3.1 GHz2012-06-03
Core i3 3229Y 7 W / ? GHz10 W / ? GHz13 W / 1.4 GHzN/A350 MHz850 MHz2013-01-07$250
3227U N/A14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.9 GHz1100 MHz2013-01-20$225
3217U 14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.8 GHz1050 MHz2012-06-24
3217UE 14 W / ? GHz17 W / 1.6 GHz900 MHzJuly 2013$261
3130M N/A35 W / 2.6 GHz650 MHz1100 MHz2013-01-20$225
3120M 35 W / 2.5 GHz2012-09-30
3120ME 35 W / 2.4 GHz900 MHzJuly 2013
3110M 1000 MHz2012-06-24
3115C 25 W / 2.5 GHzN/A4 MB2013-09-10$241
Pentium B925C 15 W / 2.0 GHzOEM
A1018 2 (2)35 W / 2.1 GHz650 MHz1000 MHz1 MBJune 2013$86 (India)
2030M 35 W / 2.5 GHz1100 MHz2 MB2013-01-20$134
2020M 35 W / 2.4 GHz2012-09-30
2127U 17 W / 1.9 GHz350 MHz2013-06-09
2117U 17 W / 1.8 GHz1000 MHz2012-09-30
2129Y 7 W10 W / 1.1 GHz850 MHz2013-01-07$150
Celeron 1019Y 7 W10 W / 1.0 GHz800 MHzApril 2013$153
1020E N/A35 W / 2.2 GHz650 MHz1000 MHz2013-01-20$86
1020M 35 W / 2.1 GHz
1005M 35 W / 1.9 GHz2013-06-09
1000M 35 W / 1.8 GHz2013-01-20
1037U 17 W / 1.8 GHz350 MHz
1017U 17 W / 1.6 GHz2013-06-09
1007U 17 W / 1.5 GHz2013-01-20
1047UE 17 W / 1.4 GHz900 MHz$134
927UE 1 (1)17 W / 1.5 GHz1 MB$107

Suffixes to denote:

Roadmap

Intel demonstrated the Haswell architecture in September 2011, which began release in 2013 as the successor to Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge. [54]

Fixes

Microsoft has released a microcode update for selected Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge CPUs for Windows 7 and up that addresses stability issues. The update, however, negatively impacts Intel G3258 and 4010U CPU models. [55] [56] [57]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 Transistor counts for M-2, H-2 and HM-4 were determined by a comparison of transistor counts in Sandy Bridge and HE-4. Performing a comparative analysis gave counts of 108 million transistors per core, 67 million transistors per 1 MB of L3 cache, 88 million transistors for the memory controller and other chip features, and roughly 21 million transistors for each execution unit inside the Intel HD 4000. All this is an attempt to determine the transistor count mathematically, and is not backed by any sources. Thus, these transistor counts may be inaccurate.

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The Intel Core microarchitecture is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. It is based on the Yonah processor design and can be considered an iteration of the P6 microarchitecture introduced in 1995 with Pentium Pro. High power consumption and heat intensity, the resulting inability to effectively increase clock rate, and other shortcomings such as an inefficient pipeline were the primary reasons why Intel abandoned the NetBurst microarchitecture and switched to a different architectural design, delivering high efficiency through a small pipeline rather than high clock rates. The Core microarchitecture initially did not reach the clock rates of the NetBurst microarchitecture, even after moving to 45 nm lithography. However after many generations of successor microarchitectures which used Core as their basis, Intel managed to eventually surpass the clock rates of Netburst with the Devil's Canyon microarchitecture reaching a base frequency of 4 GHz and a maximum tested frequency of 4.4 GHz using 22 nm lithography.

Nehalem (microarchitecture)

Nehalem is the codename for Intel's 45 nm microarchitecture released in November 2008. It was used in the first-generation of the Intel Core i5 and i7 processors, and succeeds the older Core microarchitecture used on Core 2 processors. The term "Nehalem" comes from the Nehalem River.

Sandy Bridge Intel processor microarchitecture

Sandy Bridge is the codename for Intel's 32 nm microarchitecture used in the second generation of the Intel Core processors. The Sandy Bridge microarchitecture is the successor to Nehalem and Westmere microarchitecture. Intel demonstrated a Sandy Bridge processor in 2009, and released first products based on the architecture in January 2011 under the Core brand.

Tick–tock was a production model adopted in 2007 by chip manufacturer Intel. Under this model, every microarchitecture change (tock) was followed by a die shrink of the process technology (tick). It was replaced by the process–architecture–optimization model, which was announced in 2016 and is like a tick–tock cycle followed by an optimization phase. As a general engineering model, tick–tock is a model that refreshes one side of a binary system each release cycle.

Platform Controller Hub

The Platform Controller Hub (PCH) is a family of Intel's single-chip chipsets, first introduced in 2009. It is the successor to the Intel Hub Architecture, which used two chips - a northbridge and southbridge instead, and first appeared in the Intel 5 Series.

Haswell (microarchitecture) Intel processor microarchitecture

Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge. Intel officially announced CPUs based on this microarchitecture on June 4, 2013, at Computex Taipei 2013, while a working Haswell chip was demonstrated at the 2011 Intel Developer Forum. With Haswell, which uses a 22 nm process, Intel also introduced low-power processors designed for convertible or "hybrid" ultrabooks, designated by the "U" suffix.

Intel Turbo Boost is Intel's trade name for a feature that automatically raises certain versions of its processors' operating frequency, and thus performance, when demanding tasks are running. Turbo-Boost-enabled processors are the Core i3, Core i5, Core i7, Core i9 and Xeon series manufactured since 2008, more particularly, those based on the Nehalem, and later microarchitectures. The frequency is accelerated when the operating system requests the highest performance state of the processor. Processor performance states are defined by the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) specification, an open standard supported by all major operating systems; no additional software or drivers are required to support the technology. The design concept behind Turbo Boost is commonly referred to as "dynamic overclocking".

Intel Core Mid-range to high-end central processing units

Intel Core are streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computers central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.

LGA 2011

LGA 2011, also called Socket R, is a CPU socket by Intel released on November 14, 2011. It launched alongside with LGA 1356 to replace its predecessor, LGA 1366 and LGA 1567. While LGA 1356 was designed for dual-processor or low-end servers, LGA 2011 was designed for high-end desktops and high-performance servers. The socket has 2011 protruding pins that touch contact points on the underside of the processor.

LGA 1155

LGA 1155, also called Socket H2, is a socket used for Intel microprocessors based on Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge microarchitectures.

Skylake (microarchitecture) CPU microarchitecture by Intel

Skylake is the codename used by Intel for a processor microarchitecture that was launched in August 2015 succeeding the Broadwell microarchitecture. Skylake is a microarchitecture redesign using the same 14 nm manufacturing process technology as its predecessor, serving as a "tock" in Intel's "tick–tock" manufacturing and design model. According to Intel, the redesign brings greater CPU and GPU performance and reduced power consumption. Skylake CPUs share their microarchitecture with Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake, Cannon Lake, Whiskey Lake, and Comet Lake CPUs.

Intel Quick Sync Video is Intel's brand for its dedicated video encoding and decoding hardware core. Quick Sync was introduced with the Sandy Bridge CPU microarchitecture on 9 January 2011 and has been found on the die of Intel CPUs ever since.

Westmere (microarchitecture)

Westmere is the code name given to the 32 nm die shrink of Nehalem. While sharing the same CPU sockets, Westmere included Intel HD Graphics, while Nehalem did not.

Broadwell (microarchitecture) Fifth model generation of Intel Processor

Broadwell is the fifth generation of the Intel Core Processor. It's Intel's codename for the 14 nanometer die shrink of its Haswell microarchitecture. It is a "tick" in Intel's tick–tock principle as the next step in semiconductor fabrication. Like some of the previous tick-tock iterations, Broadwell did not completely replace the full range of CPUs from the previous microarchitecture (Haswell), as there were no low-end desktop CPUs based on Broadwell.

Intel Ivy Bridge-based Xeon microprocessors is the follow-up to Sandy Bridge-E, using the same CPU core as the Ivy Bridge processor, but in LGA 2011, LGA 1356 and LGA 2011-1 packages for workstations and servers.

Kaby Lake is Intel's codename for its seventh generation Core microprocessor family announced on August 30, 2016. Like the preceding Skylake, Kaby Lake is produced using a 14 nanometer manufacturing process technology. Breaking with Intel's previous "tick–tock" manufacturing and design model, Kaby Lake represents the optimized step of the newer process–architecture–optimization model. Kaby Lake began shipping to manufacturers and OEMs in the second quarter of 2016, and mobile chips have started shipping while Kaby Lake (desktop) chips were officially launched in January 2017.

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