Iwi

Last updated

Iwi (Māori pronunciation:  [ˈiwi] ) are the largest social units in Aotearoa (New Zealand) Māori society. The Māori-language word iwi means "people" or "nation", [1] and is often translated as "tribe", [2] or "a confederation of tribes". The word is both singular and plural in the Māori language. Māori use the word rohe to describe the territory or boundaries of iwi. [3]

Contents

Iwi groups trace their ancestry to the original Polynesian migrants who, according to tradition, arrived from Hawaiki. Some iwi cluster into larger groupings that are based on whakapapa (genealogical tradition) and known as waka (literally "canoes", with reference to the original migration voyages). These super-groupings generally serve symbolic rather than practical functions. In pre-European times, most Māori were allied to relatively small groups in the form of hapū ("sub-tribes") [4] and whānau ("family"). [5] Each iwi contains a number of hapū; among the hapū of the Ngāti Whātua iwi, for example, are Te Uri-o-Hau, Te Roroa, Te Taoū, and Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei.

In modern-day New Zealand, iwi can exercise significant political power in the recovery and management of land and of other assets. (Note for example the 1997 Treaty of Waitangi settlement between the New Zealand Government and Ngāi Tahu, compensating that iwi for various losses of the rights guaranteed under the Treaty of Waitangi of 1840.) Iwi affairs can have a real impact on New Zealand politics and society. A 2004 attempt by some iwi to test in court their ownership of the seabed and foreshore areas polarised public opinion (see New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy ).

Naming

In Māori and in many other Polynesian languages, iwi literally means "bone". [6] Māori may refer to returning home after travelling or living elsewhere as "going back to the bones" — literally to the burial-areas of the ancestors. Māori author Keri Hulme's novel The Bone People (1985) has a title linked directly to the dual meaning of bone and "tribal people".

Many iwi names begin with Ngāti or with Ngāi (from ngā āti and ngā ai respectively, both meaning roughly "the offspring of"). Ngāti has become a productive morpheme in New Zealand English to refer to groups of people: examples are Ngāti Pākehā (Pākehā as a group), Ngāti Poneke (Māori who have migrated to the Wellington region), and Ngāti Rānana (Māori living in London). Ngāti Tūmatauenga ("Tribe of Tūmatauenga", the god of war) is the official Māori-language name of the New Zealand Army, and Ngā Opango ("Black Tribe") is a Māori-language name for the All Blacks.

In the southern dialect of Māori, Ngāti and Ngāi become Kāti and Kāi, terms found in such iwi as Kāti Māmoe and Ngāi Tahu/Kãi Tahu.

Structure

Each iwi has a generally recognised territory ( rohe ), but many of these overlap, sometimes completely. [7] This has added a layer of complication to the long-running discussions and court cases about how to resolve historical Treaty claims. The length of coastline emerged as one factor in the final (2004) legislation to allocate fishing-rights in settlement of claims relating to commercial fisheries.

Self-determination

Iwi can become a prospective vehicle for ideas and ideals of self-determination and/or tino rangatiratanga . Thus does the Māori Party mention in the preamble of its Constitution "the dreams and aspirations of tangata whenua to achieve self-determination for whānau, hapū and iwi within their own land". [8] Some Tūhoe envisage self-determination in specifically iwi-oriented terms. [9]

Iwi identity

Increasing urbanisation of Māori has led to a situation where a significant percentage do not identify with any particular iwi. The following extract from a 2000 High Court of New Zealand judgment (discussing the process of settling fishing rights) illustrates some of the issues:

... 81 percent of Māori now live in urban areas, at least one-third live outside their tribal influence, more than one-quarter do not know their iwi or for some reason do not choose to affiliate with it, at least 70 percent live outside the traditional tribal territory and these will have difficulties, which in many cases will be severe, in both relating to their tribal heritage and in accessing benefits from the settlement. It is also said that many Māori reject tribal affiliation because of a working class unemployed attitude, defiance and frustration. Related but less important factors, are that a hapu may belong to more than one iwi, a particular hapu may have belonged to different iwi at different times, the tension caused by the social and economic power moving from the iwi down rather than from the hapu up, and the fact that many iwi do not recognise spouses and adoptees who do not have kinship links. [10]

In the 2006 census, 16 per cent of the 643,977 people who claimed Māori ancestry did not know their iwi. Another 11 per cent did not state their iwi, or stated only a general geographic region, or merely gave a waka name. [11] Initiatives like the Iwi Helpline are trying to make it easier for people to identify their iwi, [12] and the proportion who "don’t know" dropped relative to previous censuses. [11]

Pan-tribalism

Some established pan-tribal organisations may[ according to whom? ] exert influence across iwi divisions.[ citation needed ] The Rātana Church, for example, operates across iwi divisions, and the Māori King Movement, though principally congregated around Waikato/Tainui, aims to transcend some iwi functions in a wider grouping.[ citation needed ]

Iwi radio

Many iwi operate or are affiliated with media organisations. Most of these belong to Te Whakaruruhau o Nga Reo Irirangi Māori (the National Māori Radio Network), a group of radio stations which receive contestable Government funding from Te Māngai Pāho (the Māori Broadcast Funding Agency) to operate on behalf of iwi and hapū. Under their funding agreement, the stations must produce programmes in the local Māori language and actively promote local Māori culture. [13]

A two-year Massey University survey of 30,000 people published in 2003 indicated 50 per cent of Māori in National Māori Radio Network broadcast areas listened to an iwi station. [14] An Auckland University of Technology study in 2009 suggested the audience of iwi radio stations would increase as the growing New Zealand Māori population tried to keep a connection to their culture, family history, spirituality, community, language and iwi. [15]

The Victoria University of Wellington Te Reo Māori Society campaigned for Māori radio, helping to set up Te Reo o Poneke, the first Māori-owned radio operation, using airtime on Wellington student-radio station Radio Active in 1983. [16] Twenty-one iwi radio stations were set up between 1989 and 1994, receiving Government funding in accordance with a Treaty of Waitangi claim. [17] This group of radio stations formed various networks, becoming Te Whakaruruhau o Nga Reo Irirangi Māori. [18]

Major iwi

Largest iwi by population

  1. Ngāpuhi – 125,601 (in 2013) – based in the Northland Region
  2. Ngāti Porou – 71,049 (in 2013) – based in Gisborne and East Cape
  3. Ngāti Kahungunu – 61,626 (in 2013) – based on the east coast of the North Island
  4. Ngāi Tahu – 54,819 (in 2013) – based in the South Island
  5. Waikato Tainui – 40,083 (in 2013) – based in the Waikato Region
  6. Ngāti Tūwharetoa – 35,874 (in 2013) – based in the central North Island
  7. Ngāti Maniapoto – 35,358 (in 2013) – based in Waikato and Waitomo
  8. Tūhoe – 34,890 (in 2013) – based in Te Urewera and Whakatane
  9. Te Arawa – 19,719 (in 2013) – based in the Bay of Plenty

Largest iwi groupings by population

  1. No affiliation – 110,928 (in 2013) – includes New-Zealand-based Māori with no iwi affiliation
  2. Waikato Tainui – 55,995 (in 2013) – based in the Waikato Region
  3. Ngāi Tahu Whanui – 55,986 (in 2013) – based in the South Island
  4. Te Arawa – 43,374 (in 2013) – confederation of iwi and hapū based in Rotorua and the Bay of Plenty
  5. Te Hiku, or Muriwhenua – 33,711 (in 2013) – group of iwi and hapū in the Northland region
  6. Ngāti Raukawa – 29,442 (in 2013) – group of iwi and hapū in the Waikato region, Taupo and Manawatū
  7. Te Atiawa – 23,094 (in 2013) – group of iwi and hapū in Taranaki and Wellington
  8. Hauraki Māori – 14,313 (in 2013) – group of iwi and hapū at or around the Hauraki Gulf

Other notable iwi

Related Research Articles

Te Rauparaha Māori chief and war leader of Ngāti Toa (1760s–1849)

Te Rauparaha was a Māori rangatira (chief) and war leader of the Ngāti Toa tribe who took a leading part in the Musket Wars. He was influential in the original sale of land to the New Zealand Company and was a participant in the Wairau Affray in Marlborough.

The Musket Wars were a series of as many as 3,000 battles and raids fought throughout New Zealand among Māori between 1807 and 1837, after Māori first obtained muskets and then engaged in an intertribal arms race in order to gain territory or seek revenge for past defeats. The battles resulted in the deaths of between 20,000 and 40,000 people and the enslavement of tens of thousands of Māori and significantly altered the rohe, or tribal territorial boundaries, before the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. The wars are seen as an example of the "fatal impact" of indigenous contact with Europeans.

Ngāpuhi Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāpuhi is a Māori iwi associated with the Northland region of New Zealand and centred in the Hokianga, the Bay of Islands, and Whangarei.

Ngāti Whātua Māori iwi (tribe) in New Zealand

Ngāti Whātua is a Māori iwi (tribe) of the lower Northland Peninsula of New Zealand's North Island. It comprises a confederation of four hapū (subtribes) interconnected both by ancestry and by association over time: Te Uri-o-Hau, Te Roroa, Te Taoū, and Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei. The four hapū can act together or separately as independent tribes.

Ngāti Toa Māori iwi (tribe) in New Zealand

Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Toarangatira or Ngāti Toa Rangatira, is a Māori iwi (tribe) based in the southern North Island and in the northern South Island of New Zealand. Its rohe extends from Whanganui in the north, Palmerston North in the east, and Kaikoura and Hokitika in the south. Ngāti Toa remains a small iwi with a population of only about 4500. It has four marae: Takapūwāhia and Hongoeka in Porirua City, and Whakatū and Wairau in the north of the South Island. Ngāti Toa's governing body has the name Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira.

In Māori and New Zealand English, a hapū functions as "the basic political unit within Māori society".

Claims and settlements under the Treaty of Waitangi have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975. Successive governments have increasingly provided formal legal and political opportunity for Māori to seek redress for breaches by the Crown of the guarantees set out in the Treaty of Waitangi. While it has resulted in putting to rest a number of significant longstanding grievances, the process has been subject to criticisms from a number of angles, from those who believe that the redress is insufficient to compensate for Māori losses, to those who see no value in revisiting painful and contentious historical issues. The settlements are typically seen as part of a broader Māori Renaissance.

Ngāti Awa Māori iwi (tribe) in New Zealand

Ngāti Awa is a Māori iwi (tribe) centred in the eastern Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand. It is made of 22 hapū (subtribes), with 15,258 people claiming affiliation to the iwi in 2006. The Ngāti Awa people are primarily located in towns on the Rangitaiki Plain, including Whakatāne, Kawerau, Edgecumbe, Te Teko and Matatā. Two urban hapū also exist in Auckland and Wellington.

Ngāti Ruanui Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāti Ruanui is a Māori iwi traditionally based in the Taranaki region of New Zealand. In the 2006 census, 7,035 people claimed affiliation to the iwi. However, most members now live outside the traditional areas of the iwi.

The Māori protest movement is a broad indigenous-rights movement in New Zealand. While there were a range of conflicts between Māori and Europeans prior to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the signing provided a legal context for protesting, as the Treaty of Waitangi made New Zealand a British colony with British law and governance applying. The British authorities had drafted the Treaty with the intention of establishing a British Governor of New Zealand, recognising Māori ownership of their lands, forests and other possessions, and giving Māori the rights of British subjects. However, the Māori and English texts of the Treaty differ in meaning significantly; particularly in relation to the meaning of having and ceding sovereignty. These discrepancies, and the subsequent colonisation by the British, led to disagreements in the decades following the signing, including full-out warfare.

Muaūpoko Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Muaūpoko is a Māori iwi on the Kapiti Coast of New Zealand.

Ngāi Takoto Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāi Takoto is a Māori iwi from Northland, New Zealand. The iwi is one of the six Muriwhenua iwi of the far north of the North Island. Ngāi Takoto trace their whakapapa (ancestry) back to Tuwhakatere, and trace their arrival in New Zealand to the Kurahaupo waka (canoe). The rohe of the iwi is focused on the upper North Island and extends to Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Island, Cape Reinga, Pao Island, Ninety Mile Beach, Waimimiha River, Ohaku hills, Whangatane River, Rangaunu Harbour and North Cape.

Ngāi Tāmanuhiri Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāi Tāmanuhiri is a Māori iwi of New Zealand and were formerly known by the name of Ngai Tahu, and Ngai Tahu-po respectively. They are descendants of Tahu-nui who is also the eponymous ancestor of the Kai Tahu iwi of Te Waipounamu.

Ngāti Mutunga Māori iwi (tribe) in New Zealand

Ngāti Mutunga is a Māori iwi (tribe) of New Zealand, whose original rohe were in north Taranaki. They migrated from Taranaki, first to Wellington, and then to the Chatham Islands in the 1830s. The rohe of the iwi include Wharekauri, Te Whanga Lagoon and Waitangi on Chatham Island, and Pitt Island, also part of the Chatham Islands. The principal marae are at Urenui in Taranaki, and on the Chatham Islands.

Ngāti Tama Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Ngāti Tama is a historic Māori iwi of present-day New Zealand which whakapapas back to Tama Ariki, the chief navigator on the Tokomaru waka. The iwi of Ngati Tama is located in north Taranaki around Poutama. The Mōhakatino river marks their northern boundary with the Tainui and Ngāti Maniapoto iwi. Titoki marks the southern boundary with Ngati Mutunga. The close geographical proximity of Tainui's Ngati Toa of Kawhia and Ngati Mutunga explains the long, continuous, and close relationship among the three Iwi.

Rongowhakaata Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Rongowhakaata is a Māori iwi of the Gisborne region of New Zealand.

Taranaki (iwi) Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Taranaki (Tuturu) is a Māori iwi of New Zealand.

Te Uri-o-Hau Māori hapū (sub-tribe) of the iwi (tribe) Ngāti Whātua in Aotearoa New Zealand

Te Uri-o-Hau is a Māori iwi (tribe) of the greater Ngāti Whātua confederation. While some have considered it to be merely a hapū (subtribe) of Ngāti Whātua, Te Uri-o-Hau can act independently of the other 3 principle iwi of the Ngāti Whātua Confederation. Te Uri-o-Hau itself has hapū within it. Its rohe (area) includes Dargaville, Maungaturoto, Mangawhai, Wellsford and the Kaipara Harbour. In 2018 it was estimated 1,314 people were affiliated to the iwi, based off 2018 New Zealand Census data.

Te Whakaruruhau o Ngā Reo Irirangi Māori New Zealand indigenous radio network

Te Whakaruruhau o Ngā Reo Irirangi Māori is a New Zealand radio network consisting of radio stations that serve the country's indigenous Māori population. Most stations receive contestable government funding from Te Māngai Pāho, the Māori Broadcast Funding Agency, to operate on behalf of affiliated iwi (tribes) or hapū (sub-tribes). Under their funding agreement, the stations must produce programmes in the Māori language, and must actively promote Māori culture.

Te Waiohua Māori iwi (tribe) in New Zealand

Te Waiohua or Te Wai-o-Hua is a Māori iwi (tribe) confederation that thrived in the early 18th century. The hapu's rohe was primarily the central Tāmaki Makaurau area and the Māngere peninsula, until the 1740s when the paramount chief Kiwi Tāmaki was defeated by the Ngāti Whātua hapū Te Taoū. The descendants of the Waiohua confederation today include Ngati Te Ata Waiohua, Te Ākitai Waiohua, Ngā Oho of Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei and Waikato Tainui.

References

  1. Back cover: Ballara, A. (1998). Iwi: The dynamics of Māori tribal organisation from c.1769 to c.1945. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press.
    - See also: Durie, A. (1999). Emancipatory Māori education: Speaking from the heart. In S. May (Ed.), Indigenous community education (pp. 67–78). Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters.
    - See also: Healey, S. M. (2006). The nature of the relationship of the Crown in New Zealand with iwi Māori. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    - See also: Sharp, A. (1999). What if value and rights lie foundationally in groups? The Maori case. Critical Review of International, Social and Political Philosophy, 2(2), 1–28.
  2. Taylor, R. (1848). A leaf from the natural history of New Zealand, or, A vocabulary of its different productions, &c., &c., with their native names .
    - White, J. (1887). The ancient history of the Maori, his mythology and traditions .
    - Smith, S. P. (1910). Maori wars of the nineteenth century; the struggle of the northern against the southern Maori tribes prior to the colonisation of New Zealand in 1840 .
    - Best, E. (1934). The Maori as he was: A brief account of Maori life as it was in pre-European days .
    - Buck, P. (1949). The coming of the Maori.
  3. "Glossary of Māori terms". Te Kete Ipurangi – New Zealand Government. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  4. Ballara (1998, p. 17)
  5. Ballara (1998, p. 164)
  6. "Iwi: glossary definition". National Library of New Zealand. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  7. Waitangi Tribunal – About the Reports
  8. "The Rules of the Maori Party". The Māori Party. Retrieved 2008-09-07. The Maori Party is born of the dreams and aspirations of tangata whenua to achieve self-determination for whānau, hapū and iwi within their own land; to speak with a strong, independent and united voice; and to live according to kaupapa handed down by our ancestors. The vision for the Maori Party will be based on these aspirations [...]
  9. Tahana, Yvonne (2008-08-09). "Tuhoe leader backs self rule". The New Zealand Herald . Auckland: APN . Retrieved 2008-09-07. Calls from Maori activist Tame Iti for self-government arrangements for the Tuhoe tribe similar to those Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have in the UK have been backed by a leader likely to negotiate the tribe's Treaty settlement. ... While other iwi have focused on economic transfer of assets as a way of achieving tino rangatiratanga or self-determination, Tuhoe have spelled out their intention to negotiate constitutional issues.
  10. "Paterson J noted the changes in Maori society since 1840, and in particular urbanisation, which, it had been submitted, meant that an allocation to iwi would not deliver the benefits of the settlement to the beneficiaries. He said (at 320–321)", from 2000
  11. 1 2 Table 30, QuickStats About Māori, 2006 Census. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand.
  12. "Iwi Helpline" (PDF). teohu.maori.nz. Te Ohu. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  13. "Iwi Radio Coverage" (PDF). maorimedia.co.nz. Māori Media Network. 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  14. "The hidden success of Māori radio". Massey University. 1 August 2003. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  15. Robie, David (1 May 2009). "Diversity reportage in Aotearoa: demographics and the rise of the ethnic media" (PDF). Pacific Journalism Review. Auckland. 15 (1): 67–91. doi:10.24135/pjr.v15i1.965 . Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  16. Walker, Piripi (22 October 2014). "First iwi radio station". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  17. Smith, Cherryl Waerea-I-Te Rangi Smith (1994). Kimihia Te Maramatanga: Colonisation and Iwi Development (PDF). Auckland: University of Auckland. pp. 119–141. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  18. "Maori Radio Upgrade Project". avc-group.eu. AVC Group. Retrieved 19 September 2015.