|Born||3 March 1746|
|Died||15 July 1835 89) (aged|
Wysocko, Austrian Empire
|Noble family||House of Czartoryski|
|Spouse(s)||Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski|
Maria Anna Czartoryska
Adam George Czartoryski
Konstanty Adam Czartoryski
|Father||Georg Detlev von Flemming|
Elżbieta "Izabela" Dorota Czartoryska (néeFlemming; 3 March 1746 – 15 July 1835) was a Polish princess, writer, art collector, and prominent figure in the Polish Enlightenment. She was the wife of Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and a member of the influential Familia political party. She is also known for having founded Poland's first museum, the Czartoryski Museum, now located in Kraków.
She was the daughter of Count Georg Detlev von Flemming (Polish : Hrabia Jerzy Detloff Flemming) and Princess Antonina Czartoryska.
On 18 November 1761, in Wołczyn, she married Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, thus becoming a princess.
She was rumored to have had an affair with the Russian ambassador to Poland, Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin, who was alleged to have fathered her son Adam George Czartoryski.
She had also an affair with the Duke de Lauzun, who says himself in his "Mémoires" he fathered her second son Konstanty Adam.
In Paris in 1772, she met Benjamin Franklin, subsequently a leader of the American Revolution, and the French philosophers Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, who were bringing new ideas to the old order.
In 1775, together with her husband, Czartoryska completely transformed the Czartoryski Palace at Puławy into an intellectual and political meeting place. Her court was one of the most liberal and progressive in the Commonwealth, although some aspects of her behavior also caused scandals.
Izabela discovered the talent of the young painter Aleksander Orłowski and financed him.
While in Prussia with her daughter Maria Wirtemberska for the latter's marriage, she told Frederick II of her fears that her husband would be poisoned, which was what had caused a split between him and Stanisław August Poniatowski politically. Frederick laughed and told her that only monarchs were poisoned, and spread the conversation around his court to Izabela's detriment, according to Wirydianna Fiszerowa.
In 1784, she joined the Patriotic Party.
After the suppression of the Kościuszko Uprising, her sons Adam George and Konstanty Adam were taken as political hostages by Russia's Empress Catherine II.
In 1796, Izabela ordered the rebuilding of the ruined palace at Puławy and began a museum. Among the first objects to be included were Turkish trophies that had been seized by Polish King Jan III Sobieski's forces at the 1683 Battle of Vienna. Also included were Polish royal treasures and historic Polish family heirlooms. In 1801 Izabela opened the Temple of the Sibyl, also called "The Temple of Memory".It contained objects of sentimental importance pertaining to the glories and miseries of human life. During the November Uprising in 1830, the museum was closed. Izabela's son Adam George Czartoryski, going into exile in Paris, evacuated the museum's surviving objects to the Hôtel Lambert. His son Władysław Czartoryski would reopen the museum in 1878 in Kraków, where it exists today.
Puławy is a city in eastern Poland, in Lesser Poland's Lublin Voivodeship, at the confluence of the Vistula and Kurówka Rivers. Puławy is the capital of Puławy County. The city's 2019 population was estimated at 47,417. Its coat of arms is the Pahonia.
Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, in English known as Adam George Czartoryski, was a Polish nobleman, statesman, diplomat and author.
Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski was an influential Polish aristocrat, writer, literary and theater critic, linguist, traveller and statesman. He was a great patron of arts and a candidate for the Polish crown. He was educated in England and after his return to Poland in 1758, he became a member of the Sejm (parliament), Crown General of Podolia and Marshal of General Confederation of Kingdom of Poland.
Princess Konstancja Czartoryska was a Polish-Lithuanian noblewoman and the mother of King Stanisław August Poniatowski. She played a political role as a driving force within the Familia.
Princess Elżbieta Izabela Czartoryska, better known under her married name of Izabela Lubomirska, was a Polish noblewoman.
"Mold of the Earth" is one of the shortest micro-stories by the Polish writer Bolesław Prus.
Prince Władysław (Ladislaus) Czartoryski was a Polish noble, political activist in exile, collector of art, and founder of the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków.
The House of Czartoryski is a Polish princely family of Lithuanian-Ruthenian origin, also known as the Familia. The family, which derived their kin from the Gediminids dynasty, by the mid-17th century had split into two branches, based in the Klevan Castle and the Korets Castle, respectively. They used the Czartoryski coat of arms and were a noble family of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th century.
The Lady with an Ermine is a portrait painting widely attributed to the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. Dated to c. 1489–1491, the work is painted in oils on a panel of walnut wood. Its subject is Cecilia Gallerani, a mistress of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan; Leonardo was painter to the Sforza court in Milan at the time of its execution. It is the second of only four surviving portraits of women painted by Leonardo, the others being Ginevra de' Benci, La Belle Ferronnière and the Mona Lisa.
The Princes Czartoryski Museum – often abbreviated to Czartoryski Museum – is a historic museum in Kraków, Poland, and one of the country's oldest museums. The initial collection was formed in 1796 in Puławy by Princess Izabela Czartoryska. The Museum officially opened in 1878.
Prince Adam Karol Czartoryski is a Polish and Spanish aristocrat who is head of the Polish House of Czartoryski. He is related to both the Spanish royal family and to France's House of Orléans. In 2016, he sold the family art collection held in the Czartoryski Museum to the Polish state for approximately €100 million.
Prince Adam Ludwik Czartoryski was a Polish nobleman, landowner, and patron of the arts. He was the son of Prince Władysław Czartoryski and Princess Marguerite Adélaïde Marie of Orléans.
Princess Zofia Czartoryska was a Polish noblewoman. She was the youngest daughter of Countess Izabela Czartoryska née Fleming and her husband Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, though her father may actually have been Count Franciszek Ksawery Branicki. She ran a salon in Warsaw, Germany for Enlightenment era reform leaders of Poland-Lithuania.
The Royal Casket was a memorial created in 1800 by Izabela Czartoryska. The large wooden casket contained 73 precious relics that had once belonged to Polish royalty. The casket was inscribed: "Polish mementos assembled in 1800 by Izabela Czartoryska." It once reposed in the Temple of the Sibyl at Puławy.
Georg Detlev von Flemming was a General in Polish-Saxon service, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania in 1746–1764 and Voivode of Pomerelia in 1766.
The Temple of the Sibyl is a colonnaded round monopteral temple-like structure at Puławy, Poland, built at the turn of the 19th century as a museum by Izabela Czartoryska.
Elżbieta Helena Sieniawska, née Lubomirska, was a Polish noblewoman, Grand Hetmaness of the Crown, and a renowned patron of the arts.
Princess Maria Czartoryska, was a Polish noble, writer, musician and philanthropist.
Wirydianna Fiszerowa was a Polish noblewoman best known for her memoirs, which mention her life in pre- and post-partition Poland as well as her relations with prominent people of the time, including King Frederick II of Prussia, Izabela Czartoryska, King Stanisław II Augustus, Józef Poniatowski, Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, and Tadeusz Kościuszko, whom she adored.
The Czartoryski Palace is a palace in the town of Pulawy, Poland, whose origins date back to the second half of the 17th century and are related to the history of the magnate families: the Lubomirski, Sieniawski and, above all, the Czartoryski family.