J. Bruce Ismay

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J. Bruce Ismay
J. Bruce Ismay.jpeg
Born
Joseph Bruce Ismay

(1862-12-12)12 December 1862
Crosby, Lancashire, [1] England
Died17 October 1937(1937-10-17) (aged 74)
Mayfair, London, England
Other namesBruce Ismay
OccupationChairman and Managing director of White Star Line
TitleShip-owner
Spouse(s)
Julia Florence Schieffelin
(m. 1888;his death 1937)
Children
  • Margaret Bruce Ismay
  • Henry Bruce Ismay
  • Thomas Bruce Ismay
  • Evelyn Constance Ismay
  • George Bruce Ismay
Parent(s)

Joseph Bruce Ismay ( /ɪzˈm/ ; 12 December 1862 – 17 October 1937) was an English businessman who served as chairman and managing director of the White Star Line. [2] In 1912, he came to international attention as the highest-ranking White Star official to survive the sinking of the company's brand new flagship RMS Titanic, for which he was subject to severe criticism.

White Star Line British shipping company

The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, more commonly known as the White Star Line (WSL), was a British shipping company. Founded out of the remains of a defunct packet company, it gradually rose up as one of the most prominent shipping lines in the world, providing passenger and cargo services between the British Empire and the United States. While many other shipping lines focused primarily on speed, White Star branded their services by focusing more on providing steady and comfortable passages, for both upper class travellers and immigrants. Today it is most famous for the innovative vessel Oceanic of 1870, and for the losses of some of their best passenger liners, including the wrecking of RMS Atlantic at Halifax in 1873, the sinking of RMS Republic off Nantucket in 1909, the infamous loss of RMS Titanic in 1912 and that of HMHS Britannic while serving as a hospital ship in 1916. Despite its casualties, the company retained a prominent hold on shipping markets around the globe before falling into decline during the Great Depression, which ultimately led to a merger with its chief rival, Cunard Line, which operated as Cunard-White Star Line until 1950. Cunard Line then operated as a separate entity until 2005 and is now part of Carnival Corporation & plc. As a lasting reminder of the White Star Line, modern Cunard ships use the term White Star Service to describe the level of customer care expected of the company.

Flagship vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships

A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag. Used more loosely, it is the lead ship in a fleet of vessels, typically the first, largest, fastest, most heavily armed, or best known.

RMS <i>Titanic</i> British transatlantic passenger liner, launched and foundered in 1912

RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in 1912 after the ship struck an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Of the estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, more than 1,500 died, making it one of modern history's deadliest peacetime commercial marine disasters. RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time she entered service and was the second of three Olympic-class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line. She was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. Thomas Andrews, chief naval architect of the shipyard at the time, died in the disaster.

Contents

Early life

Ismay was born in Crosby, Lancashire. [1] He was the son of Thomas Henry Ismay (7 January 1837 – 23 November 1899) and Margaret Bruce (13 April 1837 – 9 April 1907), daughter of ship-owner Luke Bruce. [3] Thomas Ismay was the senior partner in Ismay, Imrie and Company and the founder of the White Star Line. [lower-alpha 1] [4] The younger Ismay was educated at Elstree School and Harrow, [5] then tutored in France for a year. He was apprenticed at his father's office for four years, after which he toured the world. He then went to New York City as the company representative, eventually rising to the rank of agent. [6] Bruce was one of the founding team of Liverpool Ramblers football club in 1882. [7]

Crosby, Merseyside town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, in Merseyside, England

Crosby is a coastal town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, in Merseyside, England. Historically in Lancashire, it is situated north of Bootle, south of Southport and Formby and west of Netherton.

Lancashire County of England

Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston. The county has a population of 1,449,300 and an area of 1,189 square miles (3,080 km2). People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians.

Thomas Henry Ismay British businessman

Thomas Henry Ismay was the founder of the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, more commonly known as the White Star Line. His son was Joseph Bruce Ismay, who travelled on the maiden voyage of his company's ocean liner, the RMS Titanic, in 1912.

On 4 December 1888, Ismay married Julia Florence Schieffelin (5 March 1867 – 31 December 1963), daughter of George Richard Schieffelin and Julia Matilda Delaplaine of New York, with whom he had five children: [8]

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Basil Sanderson, 1st Baron Sanderson of Ayot, MC, was a British businessman and public servant.

In 1891, Ismay returned with his family to the United Kingdom and became a partner in his father's firm, Ismay, Imrie and Company. In 1899, Thomas Ismay died, and Bruce Ismay became head of the family business. Ismay had a head for business, and the White Star Line flourished under his leadership. In addition to running his ship business, Ismay also served as a director of several other companies. In 1901, he was approached by Americans who wished to build an international shipping conglomerate, which agreed to merge his firm into the International Mercantile Marine Company. [4]

International Mercantile Marine Co. company

The International Mercantile Marine Co., originally the International Navigation Company, was a trust formed in the early twentieth century as an attempt by J.P. Morgan to monopolize the shipping trade.

Chairman of White Star Line

After the death of his father on 23 November 1899, [11] [12] Bruce Ismay succeeded him as the chairman of White Star Line. He decided to build four ocean liners to surpass the RMS Oceanic built by his father: the ships were dubbed the Big Four: RMS Celtic, RMS Cedric, RMS Baltic, and RMS Adriatic. These vessels were designed more for size and luxury than for speed. [13]

RMS <i>Oceanic</i> (1899) 1899 ship

RMS Oceanic was a transatlantic ocean liner built for the White Star Line. She sailed on her maiden voyage on 6 September 1899 and was the largest ship in the world until 1901. At the outbreak of World War I she was converted to an armed merchant cruiser. On 8 August 1914 she was commissioned into Royal Navy service.

RMS <i>Cedric</i> ship

RMS Cedric was an ocean liner owned by the White Star Line. She was the second of a quartet of ships over 20,000 tons, dubbed The Big Four, and was the largest vessel in the world at the time of her launch. After her maiden voyage in 1903, she was in service until 1932.

RMS <i>Baltic</i> (1903) ocean liner of the White Star Line that sailed between 1904 and 1933

RMS Baltic was an ocean liner of the White Star Line that sailed between 1904 and 1933. At 23,876 gross tons, she was the world's largest ship until 1905. She was the third of a quartet of ships, all measuring over 20,000 gross tons, dubbed The Big Four.

In 1902, Ismay negotiated the sale of the White Star Line to J.P. Morgan & Co., which was organising the formation of International Mercantile Marine Company, an Atlantic shipping combine which absorbed several major American and British lines. IMM was a holding company that controlled subsidiary operating corporations. Morgan hoped to dominate transatlantic shipping through interlocking directorates and contractual arrangements with the railroads, but that proved impossible because of the unscheduled nature of sea transport, American antitrust legislation, and an agreement with the British government. [14] White Star Lines became one of the IMM operating companies and, in February 1904, Ismay became president of the IMM, with the support of Morgan. [15]

RMS Titanic

Illustration of the sinking of the Titanic Titanic the sinking.jpg
Illustration of the sinking of the Titanic

In 1907, Ismay met Lord Pirrie of the Harland & Wolff shipyard to discuss White Star's answer to the RMS Lusitania and the RMS Mauretania, [lower-alpha 2] the recently unveiled marvels of their chief competitor, Cunard Line. Ismay's new type of ship would not be as fast as their competitors, but it would have huge steerage capacity and luxury unparalleled in the history of ocean-going steamships. The latter feature was largely meant to attract the wealthy and the prosperous middle class. Three ships of the Olympic Class were planned and built. They were in order RMS Olympic, RMS Titanic and RMS (later HMHS) Britannic. In a highly controversial move, during construction of the first two Olympic class liners, Ismay authorized the projected number of lifeboats reduced from 48 to 16, the latter being the minimum allowed by the Board of Trade, based on the RMS Olympic's tonnage. [16] [17]

Ismay occasionally accompanied his ships on their maiden voyages, and this was the case with the Titanic. [4] During the voyage, Ismay talked with either (or possibly both) chief engineer Joseph Bell or Captain Edward J. Smith about a possible test of speed if time permitted. [18] After the ship collided with an iceberg 400 miles south of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland on the night of 14 April 1912, Ismay bore the full brunt of his errors in the ship's lifeboat capacity when it was made clear the ship would founder before any rescue ships would reach the area. Ismay stepped aboard Collapsible C, which was launched less than 20 minutes before the ship went down. [19] He later testified that as the ship was in her final moments, he turned away, unable to watch his creation sink beneath the waters of the North Atlantic. Collapsible C was picked up by the Carpathia about 3–4 hours later.

After being picked up by the Carpathia, Ismay was led to the cabin belonging to the ship's doctor, Frank Mcgee. He gave Captain Rostron a message to send to White Star's New York office: "Deeply regret advise you Titanic sank this morning fifteenth after collision iceberg, resulting serious loss life further particulars later. Bruce Ismay". Ismay did not leave Dr. Mcgee's cabin for the entire journey, ate nothing solid, and was kept under the influence of opiates. [20] [21] Another survivor, 17-year-old Jack Thayer, visited Ismay to try to console him, despite having just lost his father in the sinking.

[Ismay] was staring straight ahead, shaking like a leaf. Even when I spoke to him, he paid absolutely no attention. I have never seen a man so completely wrecked. [22]

When he arrived in New York, Ismay was hosted by Philip Franklin, vice president of the company. He also received a summons to appear before a Senate committee headed by Republican Senator William Alden Smith. Ismay later testified at the Titanic disaster inquiry hearings held by both the U.S. Senate (chaired by Senator William Alden Smith) the following day, and the British Board of Trade (chaired by Lord Mersey) a few weeks later.

Criticism

After the disaster, Ismay was savaged by both the American and the British press for deserting the ship while women and children were still on board. Some papers called him the "Coward of the Titanic" or "J. Brute Ismay" and suggested that the White Star flag be changed to a yellow liver. Some ran negative cartoons depicting him deserting the ship. The writer Ben Hecht, then a young newspaperman in Chicago, wrote a scathing poem contrasting the actions of Capt. Smith and Ismay. The final verse reads: "To hold your place in the ghastly face / of death on the sea at night / is a seaman's job, but to flee with the mob / is an owner's noble right." [23]

Some maintain Ismay followed the "women and children first" principle, having assisted many women and children himself. Ismay's actions were defended in the official British inquiry, which found "Mr. Ismay, after rendering assistance to many passengers, found "C" collapsible, the last boat on the starboard side, actually being lowered. No other people were there at the time. There was room for him and he jumped in. Had he not jumped in he would merely have added one more life, namely, his own, to the number of those lost." [24]

Ismay had boarded Collapsible C with first-class passenger William Carter; both said they did so after there were no more women and children near that particular lifeboat. [25] Carter's own behaviour and reliability, however, were criticised by Mrs. Lucile Carter, who sued him for divorce in 1914; she testified Carter had left her and their children to fend for themselves after the crash and accused him of "cruel and barbarous treatment and indignities to the person". [26] London society ostracised Ismay and labelled him a coward. On 30 June 1913, Ismay resigned as president of International Mercantile Marine and chairman of the White Star Line, to be succeeded by Harold Sanderson. [27]

Ismay announced during the United States Inquiry that all the vessels of the International Mercantile Marine Company would be equipped with lifeboats in sufficient numbers for all passengers. [28] Following the inquiry, Ismay and the surviving officers of the ship returned to England aboard RMS Adriatic.

Titanic controversy

During the congressional investigations, some passengers testified that during the voyage they heard Ismay pressuring Captain Edward J. Smith to go faster, in order to arrive in New York ahead of schedule and generate some free press about the new liner. The book The White Star Line: An Illustrated History (2000) by Paul Louden-Brown states that this was unlikely, and that Ismay's record does not support the notion that he had any motive to do so. [29]

Writing on the BBC News magazine website, Rosie Waites reports that Ismay was widely vilified in America after the sinking of the Titanic, due to the hostility shown in the yellow press controlled by William Randolph Hearst, who had fallen out with Ismay. Waites writes "Ismay was almost universally condemned in America, where the Hearst syndicated press ran a vitriolic campaign against him, labelling him 'J. Brute Ismay'. It published lists of all those who died but in the column of those saved it had just one name – Ismay's." [30]

Following from the Hearst press depiction of Ismay, Waites writes that every subsequent film about the Titanic has depicted Ismay as a villain, starting with the 1943 Nazi propaganda film Titanic ; the 1996 miniseries Titanic ; James Cameron's Titanic ; and Julian Fellowes' TV miniseries Titanic , where he is shown to be a racist who orders a group of non-British crew members locked below to drown. [30] Louden-Brown, consultant to the Cameron film, has stated that he thought the antagonistic characterisation of Ismay was unfair and he tried to challenge this. Louden-Brown said "Apart from being told, under no circumstances are we prepared to adjust the script, one thing they also said is 'this is what the public expect to see'." [30] The 1958 film A Night to Remember did not blame Ismay for the disaster, but also presented him in an unfavourable and cowardly light, while a Titanic-themed episode of the science fiction television series Voyagers! portrayed Ismay dressing as a woman in order to sneak into a lifeboat.

Lord Mersey, who led the 1912 British inquiry into the sinking of the Titanic, concluded that Ismay had helped many other passengers before finding a place for himself on the last lifeboat to leave the starboard side. [30]

Later life

Bruce Ismay's family grave at Putney Vale Cemetery, London in 2014 Bruce Ismay grave Putney Vale 2014.jpg
Bruce Ismay's family grave at Putney Vale Cemetery, London in 2014

Though cleared of blame by the official British inquiry, Ismay never recovered from the Titanic disaster. Already emotionally repressed and insecure before his voyage on Titanic, [31] the tragedy sent him into a state of deep depression from which he never truly emerged. [32] He kept a low profile afterwards. He lived part of the year in a large cottage, Costelloe Lodge, near Casla in Connemara, Ireland. Paul Louden-Brown, in his history of the White Star Line, writes that Ismay continued to be active in business, and that much of his work was for The Liverpool & London Steamship Protection & Indemnity Association Limited, a company founded by his father. According to Louden-Brown:

Hundreds of thousands of pounds were paid out in insurance claims to the relatives of the Titanic's victims; the misery created by the disaster and its aftermath dealt with by Ismay and his directors with great fortitude, this, despite the fact that he could easily have shirked his responsibilities and resigned from the board. He stuck with the difficult task and during his twenty-five year chairmanship hardly a page of the company's minutes does not contain some mention of the Titanic disaster. [29]

Ismay maintained an interest in maritime affairs. He inaugurated a cadet ship called Mersey used to train officers for Britain's Merchant Navy, donated £11,000 to start a fund for lost seamen, and in 1919 gave £25,000 (equivalent to £1,128,486 in 2018) [33] to set up a fund to recognise the contribution of merchant mariners in World War I. [34]

After the tragedy, Ismay's wife Florence ensured the subject of Titanic was never again discussed within the family. His granddaughter, historian and author Pauline Matarasso, likened her grandfather to a "corpse" in his later years:

Having had the misfortune (one might say the misjudgement) to survive - a fact he recognised despairingly within hours - he withdrew into a silence in which his wife made herself complicit - imposing it on the family circle and thus ensuring that the subject of the Titanic was as effectively frozen as the bodies recovered from the sea. [35]

In his personal life, Ismay became a man of solitary habits, spending his summers at his Connemara cottage and indulging in a love of trout and salmon fishing. When in London, he would attend concerts by himself at St. George's Hall or visit a cinema, at other times wandering through the London parks and engaging transients in conversation. [36] A family friend observed the spectre of Titanic was never far from Ismay's thoughts, saying that he continually "tormented himself with useless speculation as to how the disaster could possibly have been avoided." [37] At a Christmastime family gathering in 1936, less than a year before Ismay's death, one of his grandsons by his daughter Evelyn, who had learned Ismay had been involved in maritime shipping, enquired if his grandfather had ever been shipwrecked. Ismay finally broke his quarter-century silence on the tragedy that had blighted his life, replying, "Yes, I was once in a ship which was believed to be unsinkable." [37]

Death

Ismay's health declined in the 1930s, following a diagnosis of diabetes, [38] which worsened in early 1936, when the illness resulted in the amputation of his right leg below the knee. He was subsequently largely confined to a wheelchair. [39] On the morning of 14 October 1937, he collapsed in his bedroom at his Mayfair, London residence after suffering a massive stroke, which left him unconscious, blind and mute. [39] Three days later, on 17 October, J. Bruce Ismay died at the age of 74. [2]

Ismay's funeral was held at St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, on 21 October 1937, [40] and he is buried in Putney Vale Cemetery, London. [41] He left a very considerable personal estate, which excluding property was valued at £693,305 (equivalent to £43,942,697 in 2018) [33] . After his death, his wife Florence renounced her British subject status in order to restore her American citizenship on 14 November 1949. Julia Florence Ismay, née Schieffelin, died 31 December 1963, aged 96, in Kensington, London.

Portrayals

See also

Notes

  1. Oceanic Steam Navigation Company was generally known as White Star Line, which was the name of the company purchased by Thomas Ismay.
  2. The duo themselves were designed to compete with the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse and SS Deutschland (1900) owned respectively by the Norddeutscher Lloyd and the Hamburg America Line, the two German top shipping companies.

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References

Citations

  1. 1 2 'Merseyside' did not exist before 1 April 1974.'Lancashire' is correct
  2. 1 2 "J. Bruce Ismay, 74, Titanic Survivor. Ex-Head of White Star Line Who Retired After Sea Tragedy Dies in London". New York Times . 19 October 1937. Retrieved 6 April 2008. Joseph Bruce Ismay, former chairman of the White Star Line and a survivor of the Titanic disaster in 1912, died here last night. He was 74 years old.
  3. Mr Joseph Bruce Ismay, Encyclopedia Titanica. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  4. 1 2 3 ‹See Tfd› (in French) Histoire de la White Star Line, le Site du Titanic. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  5. Frances Wilson, How to Survive the Titanic Or The Sinking of J. Bruce Ismay, Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011, ISBN   978-1-4088-2111-4. (page)
  6. Chirnside 2004, p. 144.
  7. http://www.liverpoolramblersafc.com/about/
  8. Married in early December, The New York Times, Encyclopedia Titanica. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  9. "Family 8 - pafg14.htm - Generated by Personal Ancestral File". Ismayons.com. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  10. Reading Room Manchester (30 April 1943). "Commonwealth War Graves Commission". Cwgc.org. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  11. Thomas Henry Ismay, The Ismay Family. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  12. Thomas Henry Ismay dead, The New York Times, Encyclopedia Titanica. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  13. Chirnside 2004, p. 11.
  14. John J. Clark, and Margaret T. Clark, "The International Mercantile Marine Company: A Financial Analysis," American Neptune 1997 57(2): 137–154.
  15. Griscom is no longer head of the Ship Combine, The New York Times, Encyclopedia Titanica. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  16. 3 November 2008 Channel 4 documentary The Unsinkable Titanic.
  17. ‹See Tfd› (in French) Les canots de sauvetage, le Site du Titanic. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  18. Piouffre 2009, pp. 111–112.
  19. ‹See Tfd› (in French) Composition du radeau pliable C, le Site du Titanic. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  20. Piouffre 2009, p. 207.
  21. Piouffre 2009, p. 209.
  22. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=m-xoPImeijsC&pg=PA203&lpg=PA203&dq=I+have+never+seen+a+man+so+completely+wrecked&source=bl&ots=tfKUYVrhba&sig=GP5SOOd7yBLeFvfdGP6Tg27jmhI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjhxdqAtsXcAhWpgVwKHebBBvAQ6AEIFzAB#v=onepage&q=I%20have%20never%20seen%20a%20man%20so%20completely%20wrecked&f=true
  23. ISBN   978-0-688-04939-3 Walter Lord, "The Night Lives On". New York: William Morrow and Company. 1986. pp. 211–12.
  24. "Shipping casualties (loss of the steamship Titanic). Report of a formal investigation into the circumstances attending the foundering on 15th April, 1912, of the British steamship Titanic, of Liverpool, after striking ice in or near latitude 410 46' N., Longitude 500 14' W., North Atlantic Ocean, whereby loss of life ensued." Cd. 6532, p. 40.
  25. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/entertainment/theatre-arts/did-joseph-bruce-ismay-dress-as-a-woman-to-flee-titanic-28603354.html
  26. Walter Lord, The Night Lives On. New York: William Morrow and Company. 1986. pp. 216–217. ISBN   978-0-688-04939-3
  27. Wilson, Andrew 2012, p. 214-215.
  28. Piouffre 2009, p. 257.
  29. 1 2 Louden-Brown, Paul (10 January 2001). "Ismay and the Titanic". Titanic Historical Society. Archived from the original on 15 May 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Waites, Rosie (5 April 2012). "Five Titanic myths spread by films". BBC News. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  31. Wilson, Andrew 2012, p. 198-202.
  32. Wilson, Andrew 2012, p. 6-7.
  33. 1 2 UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  34. Titanic 15 April 1912, www.titanictown.plus.com. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
  35. Wilson, Andrew 2012, p. 7.
  36. Wilson, Andrew 2012, p. 215-216.
  37. 1 2 Wilson, Andrew 2012, p. 216.
  38. https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/entertainment/theatre-arts/did-joseph-bruce-ismay-dress-as-a-woman-to-flee-titanic-28603354.html
  39. 1 2 Wilson, Andrew 2012, p. 218.
  40. Wilson, Andrew 2012, p. 219.
  41. Kerrigan, Michael (1998). Who Lies Where – A guide to famous graves. London: Fourth Estate Limited. p. 285. ISBN   978-1-85702-258-2.

Sources

Further reading