Jableh

Last updated
Jableh

جبلة
Jableh Collage.jpg
A collage of Jableh.
Nickname(s): 
جبلة الروح
Syria adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Jableh
Location in Syria
Coordinates: 35°21′N35°55′E / 35.350°N 35.917°E / 35.350; 35.917 Coordinates: 35°21′N35°55′E / 35.350°N 35.917°E / 35.350; 35.917
Country Syria
Governorate Latakia Governorate
District Jableh District
Nahiyah Jableh
Elevation
16 m (52 ft)
Population
  Total80,000
Demonym(s) Arabic: جبلاوي, translit.  Jablawi
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Geocode C3585

Jableh (Arabic : جبلة; Ǧabla, also spelt Jebleh, Jabala, Jablah, Gabala or Gibellum) is a coastal city on the Mediterranean in Syria, [1] 25 km (16 mi) north of Baniyas and 25 km (16 mi) south of Latakia, with c. 80,000 inhabitants (2008). As Ancient Gabala it was a Byzantine (arch)bishopric and remains a Latin Catholic titular see. It contains the tomb and mosque of Ibrahim Bin Adham, a legendary Sufi mystic who renounced his throne of Balkh and devoted himself to prayers for the rest of his life. [2]

Syria Country in Western Asia

Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Sunni make up the largest religious group in Syria.

Baniyas Place in Tartus Governorate, Syria

Baniyas is a city in Tartous Governorate, northwestern Syria, located 55 km south of Latakia and 35 km north of Tartous.

Latakia City in Latakia Governorate, Syria

Latakia is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate. Historically, it has also been known as Laodicea in Syria or Laodicea ad Mare. In addition to serving as a port, the city is a manufacturing center for surrounding agricultural towns and villages. According to the 2004 official census, the population of the city is 383,786, Its population greatly increased as a result of the ongoing Syrian Civil War due to the influx of refugees from rebel and terrorist held areas. It is the 4th-largest city in Syria after Aleppo, Damascus and Homs, and it borders Tartus to the south, Hama to the east, and Idlib to the north while Cape Apostolos Andreas, the most north-eastern tip of Cyprus is about 68 miles (109 km) away.

Contents

History

The Roman theater of Jableh Jableh 2.jpg
The Roman theater of Jableh

Jableh has been inhabited since at least the second millennium BCE. [3] The city was part of the Ugaritic kingdom and was mentioned as "Gbʿly" in the archives of the city c. 1200 BC. [4] In antiquity Jableh (then called Gabala) was an important Hellenistic and then Roman city. One of the main remains of this period is a theatre, capable of housing c. 7,000 spectators. Near the seashores even older remains were found dating to the Iron Age or Phoenician Era.

Ugarit archaeological site in Syria

Ugarit was an ancient port city in northern Syria, in the outskirts of modern Latakia, discovered by accident in 1928 together with the Ugaritic texts. Its ruins are often called Ras Shamra after the headland where they lie.

Roman theatre (structure) theatre building built in ancient Roman time

Roman theatres derive from and are part of the overall evolution of earlier Greek theatres. Indeed, much of the architectural influence on the Romans came from the Greeks, and theatre structural design was no different from other buildings. However, Roman theatres have specific differences, such as generally being built upon their own foundations instead of earthen works or a hillside and being completely enclosed on all sides.

In the medieval period, Jableh was part of the Principality of Antioch, one of the Crusader States, until it was captured by Saladin in 1189 during the Third Crusade. One famous resident was Hugh of Jabala, the city's bishop, who reported the fall of Edessa to Pope Eugene III, and was the first person to speak of Prester John.

Principality of Antioch former country

The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean, bordering the County of Tripoli to the south, Edessa to the east, and the Byzantine Empire or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date.

Saladin Kurdish leader. First Sultan of Egypt and Syria, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty

An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin, was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity, Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz, Yemen and other parts of North Africa.

Third Crusade attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin

The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187. It was largely successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus.

Less than 1 kilometer from the city centre lies the ancient site of Gibala, today known as Tell Tweini. This city was inhabited from the third millennium BCE until the Persian period.

Tell Tweini village in Syria

Tell Tweini, sometimes known as Gibala, is a 12 hectare archaeological site located 1 kilometre east of the modern city of Jableh, Syria. It is situated within the coastal plain of Jableh, a short distance of two other main archaeological sites: Tell Sukas (5 km) and Tell Siyannu (6 km). As a tell, the site is the result of centuries of habitation on the same place, which resulted in a rising mound, as every new generation built their houses on top of the remains of older structures. The tell is sited about 1.7 kilometers from the coast but it appears that in the Bronze Age a sea incursion provided a harbor access to the sea.

On May 23, 2016, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant claimed responsibility for four suicide bombings in Jableh, which had remained largely unaffected since the Syrian Civil War began in 2011. Purportedly targeting Alawite gatherings, the bombs killed over a hundred people. In Tartus, similarly insulated, another three bombers killed 48 people. [5]

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Salafi jihadist terrorist and militant group

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, officially as the Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh, is a Salafi jihadist militant group and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi doctrine of Sunni Islam. ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre.

Syrian Civil War Ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria

The Syrian Civil War is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations.

Tartus Place in Tartus Governorate, Syria

Tartus is a city on the Mediterranean coast of Syria. It is the second largest port city in Syria, and the largest city in Tartus Governorate. The population is 115,769. In the summer it is a vacation spot for many Syrians. Many vacation compounds and resorts are located in the region. The port holds a small Russian naval facility.

Economy

The majority of people in Jableh depend on agriculture for their life, people grow orange and lemon trees, olives, a large number of green houses for vegetables can be found in the country side. In the center of the city people work in trade and there are small factories in the city for cottons and for making orange juice.

Notable locals

Adunis Essayist, poet

Ali Ahmad Said Esber, also known by the pen name Adonis or Adunis, is a Syrian poet, essayist and translator who is considered one of the most influential and dominant Arab poets of the modern era. He led a modernist revolution in the second half of the 20th century, "exerting a seismic influence" on Arabic poetry comparable to T.S. Eliot's in the anglophone world.

Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Mujahid, teacher, Imam

Izz ad-Din Abd al-Qadar ibn Mustafa ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Qassam was a Syrian Muslim preacher, and a leader in the local struggles against British and French Mandatory rule in the Levant, and a militant opponent of Zionism in the 1920s and 1930s.

Sports

Jableh Sporting Club is a football (soccer) club based in Jableh, playing in the Al-Baath Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 10,000.

Climate

Jableh has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa).

Climate data for Jableh
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)12.8
(55.0)
14.0
(57.2)
17.7
(63.9)
21.4
(70.5)
25.0
(77.0)
28.3
(82.9)
30.0
(86.0)
28.8
(83.8)
27.6
(81.7)
26.5
(79.7)
21.5
(70.7)
15.5
(59.9)
22.4
(72.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)10.1
(50.2)
10.9
(51.6)
13.8
(56.8)
16.9
(62.4)
20.3
(68.5)
23.9
(75.0)
26.1
(79.0)
25.6
(78.1)
23.7
(74.7)
21.6
(70.9)
16.9
(62.4)
12.2
(54.0)
18.5
(65.3)
Average low °C (°F)7.3
(45.1)
7.8
(46.0)
9.9
(49.8)
12.4
(54.3)
15.5
(59.9)
19.4
(66.9)
22.2
(72.0)
22.3
(72.1)
19.8
(67.6)
16.7
(62.1)
12.3
(54.1)
8.9
(48.0)
14.5
(58.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)159
(6.3)
130
(5.1)
109
(4.3)
50
(2.0)
28
(1.1)
4
(0.2)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
15
(0.6)
52
(2.0)
89
(3.5)
190
(7.5)
828
(32.6)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm)141211841112691281
Source #1: http://www.worldweatheronline.com/jableh-weather-averages/al-ladhiqiyah/sy.aspx
Source #2: http://en.climate-data.org/location/47687/

Related Research Articles

Homs City in Homs Governorate, Syria

Homs, previously known as Emesa or Emisa, is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. It is 501 metres (1,644 ft) above sea level and is located 162 kilometres (101 mi) north of Damascus. Located on the Orontes River, Homs is also the central link between the interior cities and the Mediterranean coast.

Harran Place in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

Harran was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named "Harran".

Jerash City in Jerash Governorate, Jordan

Jerash is the capital and the largest city of Jerash Governorate, Jordan, with a population of 50,745 as of 2015. It is located 48 kilometres (30 mi) north of the capital of Jordan, Amman.

Tripoli, Lebanon City

Tripoli is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country. Situated 85 kilometers north of the capital Beirut, it is the capital of the North Governorate and the Tripoli District. Tripoli overlooks the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and it is the northernmost seaport in Lebanon. It holds a string of four small islands offshore, and they are also the only islands in Lebanon. The Palm Islands were declared a protected area because of their status of haven for endangered loggerhead turtles, rare monk seals and migratory birds.

Qamishli City in al-Hasakah, Syria

Qamishli is a city in northeastern Syria on the border with Turkey, adjoining the Turkish city of Nusaybin, and close to Iraq. According to the 2004 census, Qamishli had a population of 184,231. Qamishli is 680 kilometres (420 mi) northeast of Damascus.

Margat Village in Tartus, Syria

Margat, also known as Marqab from the Arabic Qalaat al-Marqab, is a castle near Baniyas, Syria, which was a Crusader fortress and one of the major strongholds of the Knights Hospitaller. It is located around 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the Mediterranean coast and approximately 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) south of Baniyas. The castle remained in a poor state of preservation until 2007 when some reconstruction and renovation began.

Names of the Levant Place

Over recorded history, there have been many names of the Levant, a large area in the Middle East, or its constituent parts. These names have applied to a part or the whole of the Levant. On occasion, two or more of these names have been used at the same time by different cultures or sects. As a natural result, some of the names of the Levant are highly politically charged. Perhaps the least politicized name is Levant itself, which simply means "where the sun rises" or "where the land rises out of the sea", a meaning attributed to the region's easterly location on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea.

Masyaf Place in Hama, Syria

Masyaf is a city in northwestern Syria. It is the center of the Masyaf District in the Hama Governorate. As of 2004, Masyaf had a religiously diverse population of 22,000 Ismailis, Alawites and Christians. The city is well known for its large medieval castle, particularly its role as the headquarters of the Nizari Ismailis and their elite Assassins unit.

Mediterranean Basin region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

Pre-Islamic Arabia Arabic civilization which existed in the Arabian Peninsula before the rise of Islam in the 630s

Pre-Islamic Arabia is the Arabian Peninsula prior to Muhammad's preaching of Islam in the early 7th century CE.

Latakia Governorate Governorate in Syria

Latakia Governorate is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. It is situated in western Syria, bordering Turkey. Its reported area varies in different sources from 2,297 km² to 2,437 km². The governorate has a population of 991,000. Members of the Alawite sect form a majority in the governorate, although Armenians, Turkmen, and Sunni Kurds form the majorities in the Kessab, Jabal Turkman, and Jabal al-Akrad regions respectively. The capital of Latakia had, by 2010 estimates, 400,000 inhabitants, 50% of whom were Alawites, 30% were Sunni, and 20% Christian.

Al-Rastan Place in Homs, Syria

ar-Rastan is the third largest city in the Homs Governorate, located 25 kilometers (16 mi) north of its administrative capital Homs and 22 kilometers (14 mi) from Hama. Nearby localities include Talbiseh and al-Ghantu to the south, al-Zaafaraniyah and al-Mashrafah to the southeast, Murayj al-Durr to the northeast, Tumin to the north, Deir al-Fardis to the northwest and Kafr Nan and the Houla village cluster to the west. Ar-Rastan had a population of nearly 40,000 in 2004.

Outline of Syria Overview of and topical guide to Syria

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Syria:

Tell Sukas

Tell Sukas is a Late Bronze Age archaeological mound on the Eastern Mediterranean coast about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) south of Jableh, Syria.

Sheikh Zuweid Place in North Sinai, Egypt

Sheikh Zuweid is a Bedouin town in the North Sinai Governorate of Egypt near the border with the Gaza Strip. It is situated between the cities of Arish and Rafah and is 334 kilometers northeast of Cairo. It has a population of around 60,000 as of 2015.

Arab al-Mulk Village in Latakia Governorate, Syria

Arab al-Mulk is a coastal village in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Jableh District in the Latakia Governorate, located south of Latakia. Nearby localities include Jableh to the north, Ayn al-Sharqiyah to the northeast, Qurfays and Dweir Baabda to the east and Baniyas to the south. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Arab al-Mulk had a population of 3,580 in the 2004 census. The inhabitants are mixed, with Sunni Muslims of Bedouin origins generally residing in the northern part of the village, and Alawites living in the southern part which is known as Beldi al-Melek.

Abu Qubays Village in Hama, Syria

Abu Qubays is a former medieval castle and currently an inhabited village in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Hama Governorate, located northwest of Hama. It is situated in the al-Ghab plain, west of the Orontes River. Nearby localities include Daliyah 21 kilometers to the west, al-Laqbah to the south, Deir Shamil to the southeast, Tell Salhab to the northeast and Nahr al-Bared further northeast. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Abu Qubays had a population of 758 in the 2004 census. Its inhabitants are predominantly Alawites.

On 23 May 2016, eight bombings were carried out by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Jableh and Tartus, coastline cities in Syria. 184 people were killed and at least 200 people injured. One of the major explosions occurred at the Jableh National Hospital, in the city of Jableh, were likely 43 people were killed. Doctors and nurses were among the dead. The bombings in Tartus targeted a bus station. Many of the blasts were only a few seconds apart. The attacks took place in relatively violence-free areas of Syria. Many of the facilities, which were hit, are no longer operational. The cities were government-controlled territory, that hosted Russian military bases. Russia has a naval base in Tartus and an air base near Jableh.

References

  1. "Gabala". Catholic Encyclopedia .
  2. Google Books Travels In Asia And Africa, 1325-54 By Battuta Ibn, Ibn Batuta Translated by Sir Hamilton Gibb (1996) ISBN   81-206-0809-7 p. 62
  3. Esber, Hawazan. "Small historical coastal cities: Urban development and freshwater resources". NESCO. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  4. William A. Ward, Martha Joukowsky (1992). The Crisis years: the 12th century B.C. : from beyond the Danube to the Tigris. p. 113.
  5. "IS blasts in Syria regime heartland kill more than 148", by AFP, via Channel NewsAsia