Jack Kemp

Last updated

Congressional Portrait Collection image (c. 1975) Jack Kemp-Congressional Portrait Collection.jpg
Congressional Portrait Collection image (c. 1975)
Kemp with President Ronald Reagan in 1983 C13539-3a.jpg
Kemp with President Ronald Reagan in 1983

As a self-described "bleeding-heart conservative", [8] Kemp represented a part of the suburban Buffalo region known as the Southtowns (that traditionally voted Democratic) in the United States House of Representatives from 1971 to 1989. [85] [86] He was described as having the charisma of the earlier John F. Kennedy. [8] [87] David Rosenbaum described Kemp as an independent politician who often legislated outside his committees' jurisdictions and often spoke in favor of ideals and principles rather than his party's political platforms. [5] As a supply-sider, he was not a proponent of balanced budgeting and trivialized it while speaking of growth as an economic goal. [5] [88]

The Erie County, New York Republicans had drafted Kemp after incumbent congressman Richard D. McCarthy decided to run for the United States Senate. [5] During his inaugural campaign, his district was in economic malaise, and The New York Times described him as a John F. Kennedy throwback who campaigned on family values, patriotism, sports, and defense. [7] Upon his election to the Congress in a class of sixty-two freshmen, he was one of six newcomers—along with Ronald Dellums, Bella Abzug, Louise Day Hicks, Robert Drinan, and Pete du Pont—discussed in Time . The article described him as a football fan like United States President Richard Nixon and as the recipient of advice from White House adviser Robert Finch and former Kemp boss Herb Klein, Nixon's director of communications. The Nixon aides encouraged Kemp to endorse the Cambodian invasion and to oppose criticism of Nixon's war policies in order to firm up Kemp's support from military hawks. [89]

Kemp championed several Chicago school and supply-side economics issues, including economic growth, free markets, free trade, tax simplification and lower tax rates on both employment and investment income. [90] He was a long-time proponent of the flat tax. [91] He also defended the use of anti-Communist contra forces in Central America, [92] supported the gold standard, spoke for civil rights legislation, opposed abortion, and was the first lawmaker to popularize enterprise zones, [5] which he supported to foster entrepreneurship and job creation and expand homeownership among public housing tenants. [90] [93] During his career, he sometimes sounded like a liberal Democrat; [7] he supported affirmative action [94] [95] and rights for illegal immigrants. [96] The New York Times described Kemp as the most proactive combatant in the war on poverty since Robert F. Kennedy. [97] He differed from Rockefeller Republicans and earlier combatants such as Lyndon Johnson by supporting incentive-based systems instead of traditional social programs. [7] For his commitment to inner city concerns from within the Republican party, David Gergen heralded him as a "courageous voice in the wilderness." [98] Although he was liberal on many social issues and supported civil liberties for homosexuals, he opposed certain gay rights such as the right to teach in schools. [24] Kemp at times felt his role was that of "freewheeling, entrepreneurial, wildcatting backbencher." [99]

Time identified 38-year-old second-term congressman Kemp as a future leader in its 1974 "Faces for the Future" feature. [100] Another early-career notable magazine appearance was in a 1978 issue of Esquire . [14] The article explained allegations of homosexual activity among staffers in Ronald Reagan's Sacramento office in 1967; Kemp was not implicated. [4] Kemp considered running for the U.S. Senate in 1980 and Hugh Sidey mentioned him as a contender to unseat Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election [87] and was a front runner for the vice presidency at the 1980 Republican National Convention, [5] [101] where he received 43 votes from conservative detractors of George H. W. Bush. After he was reelected for a sixth term in 1980, his Republican peers elected him to a party leadership position, [102] and he served seven years as chairman of the House Republican Conference. [3] This promotion occurred immediately after Kemp and David Stockman urged Reagan by memorandum to dedicate his first 100 days to working on an economic package with Congress. [103] [104] Kemp considered running for Governor of New York in 1982 but ultimately decided to stay in the House. By 1984, many viewed Kemp as Reagan's heir apparent. [4]

USS Buffalo (SSN-715) commissioning
Jack Kemp, Joanne, Judith.jpg
Jack, Joanne and Judith Kemp
Kemp USS Buffalo .jpg
Kemp and naval officers
October 25, 1980

Kemp had his first encounter with supply-side economics in 1976, when The Wall Street Journal's Jude Wanniski interviewed him at his Congressional office. Kemp questioned Wanniski all day (until midnight, at Kemp's Bethesda, Maryland home) and was eventually converted to University of Southern California professor Arthur Laffer's supply-side discipline. [5] [105] Thereafter, Kemp espoused supply-side economics freely, and in 1978 he and Sen. William Roth of Delaware proposed tax-cutting legislation. [5] Kemp has been credited as responsible for supply-side economics' inclusion in President Reagan's economic plan, [106] [107] although at the time of Robert Mundell's Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics recognition some attributed much of the credit to Mundell, Laffer, Robert Bartley, and Wanniski. [108] In 1979, Kemp wrote An American Renaissance ( ISBN   0-06-012283-8), to deliver his message that "A rising tide lifts all boats." [109] Although the realization of early 1980s tax cuts are attributed to Reagan, they were initiated by Kemp and Roth through their 1981 Kemp–Roth Tax Cut legislation. [5] Reagan's budget based on this legislation passed over the objection of United States House Committee on Ways and Means Chairman Dan Rostenkowski. [110] [111]

During the Reagan years, Kemp and his followers ignored budget balancing while promoting tax cuts and economic growth. [112] [113] These tax cuts have been credited by conservatives for the economic growth from 1983 to 1990, [114] which by 1996 had become one of the longest expansions in American history. [115] Kemp notes that Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volcker's success at stemming inflation and the favorable regulatory environment were also major factors. [116] Detractors note that the expansion was fueled by undesirable sectors like gaming, prisons, medical treatment, and credit card use. [115]

An early Kemp tax reform attempt was an unsuccessful 1979 proposal to index tax brackets for cost of living fluctuations, [117] which was incorporated in Reagan's 1980 package. [105] Kemp co-sponsored a legislative attempt at enterprise zones in 1980. [118] One of Kemp's more trying times as a congressman came in 1982 when Reagan decided to reverse the tax cuts and promote tax increases. The reversal was controversial and stimulated opposition by Kemp. Nonetheless, the revised taxes passed. [119] [120] In 1983, Kemp opposed the policies of chairman Volcker on multiple occasions. The debates included domestic monetary involvement and roles in funding the International Monetary Fund. [121] [122]

Kemp delivered speeches at several Republican National Conventions. He addressed the convention on July 15 at the 1980 Republican National Convention in Detroit, Michigan and on August 21 at the 1984 Republican National Convention in Dallas, Texas. [123] During the 1984 Convention, with Trent Lott as Republican Party Platform Committee chairman, Congressmen Kemp and Newt Gingrich claimed control of the party platform to the consternation of G.O.P. senators Bob Dole and Howard Baker. [86] Kemp's official role was as the chairman of the platform subcommittee on foreign policy. However, the three platform planks that he proposed involved tax hikes, the gold standard and the role of the Federal Reserve. [124] Despite Kemp's official role, his real influence as an author was on the grammatical structure of the plank on tax hikes. [125] [126] By 1985, Kemp was a leading contender for the 1988 Presidential nomination. [127] He also delivered remarks on free enterprise zones at the 1992 Republican National Convention in Houston, Texas. [128] Despite efforts and considerations of expanding his political domain, Kemp never held a fundraiser outside of his suburban Western New York district until well into his eighth term in Congress. [129]

Kemp was a critic of association football, known as soccer in the United States. [130] In 1986, during a House floor debate over whether the United States should host the 1994 FIFA World Cup, Kemp proclaimed: "I think it is important for all those young out there—who someday hope to play real football, where you throw it and kick it and run with it and put it in your hands—[that] a distinction should be made that football is democratic capitalism, whereas soccer is a European socialist sport." [131] [132] Kemp compared his speech to George Carlin's 1984 comedy routine on the differences between baseball and American football and wrote that his "tongue was firmly planted in cheek" when making the speech. [133] Despite the levity of the speech, it garnered significant backlash. [131] [132] However, he continued to insist that soccer's main problem is "it doesn't have a quarterback". [133] Kemp noted that about half of his grandchildren play or have played organized soccer and claimed to have "changed" his position on soccer. He even attended the 1994 FIFA World Cup with longtime soccer fan Henry Kissinger, although he wrote during the 2006 FIFA World Cup that soccer can be interesting to watch but is still a "boring game". [133]

Presidential bid (1988)

Kemp as he leaves a meet-the-candidates rally for 1988 Republican presidential candidates in County Stadium in Union, South Carolina, on October 3, 1987. William Daroff is standing directly behind Kemp's left shoulder. 19871003 Jack Kemp Rally.jpg
Kemp as he leaves a meet-the-candidates rally for 1988 Republican presidential candidates in County Stadium in Union, South Carolina, on October 3, 1987. William Daroff is standing directly behind Kemp's left shoulder.

In 1988, if Kemp had won his campaign for the United States Presidency, [5] it would have made him the first person to move from the United States House of Representatives to the White House since James Garfield. [134] When he formed his exploratory committee, he signed Ed Rollins, Reagan's 1984 re-election political director, as an advisor. [135] From the outset, Kemp had failed to position himself as the primary alternative to Vice President Bush. [83] Except for a select few cognoscenti, [136] the general public did not recognize Kemp's leadership ability, although he was a successful man of ideas. [83] [137] In fact, most of the Republican electorate found themselves unfamiliar with Kemp early in his campaign. [136] Political pundits recognized him, however, as a visionary idea man. [138] In addition, he was quickly perceived as a verbose speaker who sometimes lost contact with his audience. [83] Although Kemp tried to appeal to conservatives, his libertarian philosophies of tolerance and individual rights and his commitment to supporting minorities, women, blue-collar workers and organized labor clashed with conservative voters' social and religious values. [83] To Democrats, Kemp's free-market philosophies were a form of laissez-faire anarchy. [139] However, as much as Kemp wanted to minimize government's role, he acknowledged that moves toward a more laissez-faire system should be well-thought out. [140]

After the May 1987 Gary HartDonna Rice scandal, a questionnaire by The New York Times requested things such as psychiatric records and access to FBI files from all 14 presidential candidates. Candidates from each party expressed opinions on both sides of the personal privacy issue, and Kemp rejected the Times inquiry as "beneath the dignity of a presidential candidate". [141] [142] His campaign was on an early positive course with many key early endorsements in New Hampshire, but Bush held the support of much of the Republican establishment in New York. [4] Although he had an eclectic mix of supporters, Kemp's campaign began borrowing against anticipated Federal matching funds because it had quickly spent itself into the red, [4] which may have been due to the use of expensive direct mail fundraising techniques. [143] To offset his socially moderate stances, Kemp clarified his opposition to abortion, his support of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and his support for a stronger military than that favored by Secretary of State George Shultz. [4] [83] To position himself as Reagan's successor, Kemp called for Shultz's resignation based on claims that Shultz had neglected freedom fighters in Afghanistan and Nicaragua and had waffled on SDI. [144] In an attempt to highlight his stands on key Reagan Era foreign policy initiatives, Kemp traveled in September 1987 to Costa Rica, Honduras and El Salvador to lobby the presidents of those nations against the Arias Peace Plan—a peace accord US conservatives felt too conciliatory to Central American communists. He was accompanied on the trip by 50-plus US conservative leaders. [145]

Despite a platform covering the full range of political subjects, Kemp's primary campaign weapon was a fiscal policy based on tax cuts. As part of his fiscal policy, he opposed a Social Security benefits freeze and endorsed a freeze on government spending. [146] Some viewed Kemp's supply-side stance as an attempt to ignore the national budget deficit. In late 1987, political pundits saw that Kemp needed to gain support from the far right on non-social issues. [147] Kemp was among the majority of Republican candidates in opposition to Reagan's INF Treaty agreement with the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev despite general Republican voter approval of the treaty. With aspirations of support from right-wing voters, all candidates with low levels of poll support for the nomination took this same "sabre-rattling" stand. [148] [149] By early 1988, the moderates (Bush and Dole) were clearly the front-runners and Kemp was battling with Pat Robertson as the conservative alternative to the moderates. [150]

He used a somewhat negative advertising campaign that seemed to have the intended initial effect of boosting him to serious contention. [151] His 1988 campaign was based on the platform of supply-side economics and inner-city enterprise zones. [8] In Bare Knuckles and Back Rooms: My Life in American Politics, campaign chairman Rollins described Kemp as a candidate with foibles. [152] Kemp's campaign managers say he was unmanageable: he ignored timers on his speeches, refused to call contributors, and refused to practice for debates. A humbling Super Tuesday, in which his 39 delegate total was fewer than eventual nominee and President Bush and both Dole and Pat Robertson, ended his campaign. [5] [8] After withdrawing from the race, he was still considered a contender for the Vice President nomination. [153] In 1989, the Kemps switched their official residence from Hamburg, New York to Bethesda, Maryland, [154] their residence at the time of his death. [9] In 1994, Kemp's 1988 campaign reached a settlement with the Federal Election Commission by agreeing to pay $120,000 in civil penalties for 1988 campaign election law violations for, among other things, excessive contributions, improper direct corporate donations, press overbilling, exceeding spending limits in Iowa and New Hampshire, and failure to reimburse corporations for providing air transportation. [155]

Cabinet (1989–1993)

HUD Secretary Kemp with Sybil Mobley, a Florida A&M University Dean. Jack Kemp as HUD secretary.jpg
HUD Secretary Kemp with Sybil Mobley, a Florida A&M University Dean.

As a so-called "bleeding-heart conservative", Kemp was a logical choice for Bush as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, [156] whose job would be to foster public sector and private sector methods to meet the demands of public housing. [157] However, the scandals of Reagan's Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Samuel Pierce and the neglect of the president were obstacles from the start, and Kemp was unsuccessful at either of his major initiatives: enacting enterprise zones and promoting public housing tenant ownership. [158] The goal of these two plans was to change public housing into tenant-owned residences and to lure industry and business into inner cities with federal incentives. [159] Although Kemp did not affect much policy as HUD's director, he cleaned up HUD's reputation, [158] [160] and developed a plan to salvage the Federal Housing Administration. [161] He halted or revamped certain programs and developed an antidrug offensive, [162] [163] which enabled him to collaborate with Director of the National Drug Control Policy Bill Bennett. [164] He supported "Operation Clean Sweep" and similar movements to prohibit firearm possession in public housing. [163] [165]

Although Kemp coaxed Bush to support a $4 billion housing program that encouraged public housing tenants to buy their own apartments, the Democratic Congress allocated only $361 million to the plan. [8] In addition to opposition in Congress, Kemp fought White House Budget Director Richard Darman, who opposed Kemp's pet project HOPE (Homeownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere). The project involved selling public housing to its tenants. Darman also opposed Kemp's proposed welfare adjustment of government offsets. [97] HOPE was first proposed to White House chief of staff John Sununu in June 1989 to create enterprise zones, increase subsidies for low-income renters, expand social services for the homeless and elderly, and enact tax changes to help first-time home buyers. [97] Sununu opposed it at first as did most of the Cabinet, but in August 1990 Sununu, at the urging of United States Attorney General Dick Thornburgh, encouraged President Bush to endorse Kemp's Economic Empowerment Task Force. However, the Persian Gulf War and the budget negotiations overshadowed Kemp's new project. [97] Darman battled Kemp and his allies such as Gingrich, James Pinkerton, and Vin Weber. [97] The budget left him with $256 million for his plan, which Kemp increased during some appropriations battles. [97] Soon after Clayton Yeutter was appointed chief White House domestic policy advisor, Kemp's Economic Empowerment Task Force was abolished. [97]

President Bush avoided federal antipoverty issues, [166] and instead used Kemp to speak on the administration's low priority conservative activist agenda. [167] [168] Bush's contribution to the urban agenda had been volunteerism through his "Points of Light" theme, [169] and Kemp received stronger support for his ideas from presidential candidate Bill Clinton. [170] By the time of the Los Angeles riots of 1992, Bush was a bit late in supporting enterprise zones, tenant ownership and welfare reform: [8] Mort Zuckerman compared Bush's vision on racial issues to that of a man riding backwards in a railroad car. [171] Nonetheless, the riots made Kemp a focal point of the administration, [172] [173] even though at first, Kemp had been overlooked. [174] However, Charles E. Schumer had probably summarized the prospects of Kemp's success in advance best when he said in 1989, "Good ideas with money can do a whole lot. Good ideas without money aren't probably going to do a whole lot," and the issue here was the decision not to fund Kemp's ideas. [109] Although Kemp was unable to procure money for his visions, he was among the administration's leading users of first class corporate jets. [175] He cited lingering effects from a knee injury as the reason he had to fly first class at government expense as the Housing Secretary. [176]

Generally, his time as housing secretary was considered unsuccessful. [5] However, although he could not get federal funding for empowerment zones passed during his tenure, by 1992 38 states had created empowerment zones, [177] and in 1994 $3.5 billion was approved for them under President Clinton. [178] A free market Kemp initiative to allow homeowners to subdivide their houses for the purpose of creating rental units without inordinate bureaucracy did not get executed under the Clinton administration, however. [179] In 1992, with H. Ross Perot mounting a formidable campaign, Kemp was again considered a vice presidential candidate. [180] [181]

Kemp was partly at fault for not achieving either of his primary goals because he did not get along with the rest of the Cabinet. [97] At one point, Kemp told James Baker, White House Chief of Staff, that Bush's best chance to win reelection was to dump his economic advisors in dramatic fashion. [182] Before the 1992 Republican National Convention, Kemp and six prominent Republican conservatives prepared a controversial memo urging Bush to revise his economic policy. [183] Contemporaneously, conservative Republicans in office and in the media such as William F. Buckley Jr. and George Will felt Dan Quayle should be ousted in favor of Kemp. [184] This followed Kemp's reference to parts of the President's economic policy as "gimmicks" after the 1992 State of the Union Address. [185] Kemp was respected within the party for opposing Bush, [186] and towards the end of Bush's administration insiders recognized his value. [187] In late 1991, 81 of the 166 Republican Congressmen signed a letter co-authored by Curt Weldon and Dan Burton requesting that Bush cede some domestic authority to Kemp as a "domestic policy czar." [186] The letter, highlighting Kemp's "energy, enthusiasm and national clout", insulted Bush. [188] Kemp was a bit of a surprise to stay in the Bush Cabinet for the duration of his presidency, [189] and he was described as one of the few Bush Administration members who would take tough stands. [190] Kemp did not expect to be retained if the Republicans were reelected in 1992, [191] and some pundits agreed with him. [187]

Post-HUD years (1993–1996)

Kemp gave public speeches for $35,000 apiece between his time as Housing Secretary and his vice presidential nomination. By 1994, Kemp had embarked on 241 fund-raising dinners to raise $35 million for a 1996 Presidential bid and to pay off his 1988 campaign debts. [8] After stepping down from his $189,000 Secretary of Housing and Urban Development job, Kemp personally earned $6.9 million in the next three years, primarily for speaking on behalf of local Republican candidates. [96] [192] During the Super Bowl XXVIII festivities, Kemp hosted a notable fundraiser series. [193]

Kemp was considered the star of the 1992 Republican National Convention. [194] In 1992 and 1993, Kemp was considered the favorite or co-favorite for the 1996 Presidential nomination. [195] [196] [197] At the time of the 1994 mid-term elections, Kemp was widely anticipated to announce his candidacy for 1996, [198] and his supporters wanted a formal announcement by the end of the year. [199] In January 1995, Kemp's stated reason for not entering the 1996 Republican Party presidential primaries was that his personal beliefs were out of balance with the contemporary Republican political landscape: Kemp opposed term limits, he always preferred tax cuts to anything resembling a balanced budget amendment and, unlike most Republicans, favored federal incentives to combat urban poverty. [200] [201] In 1995, Gloria Borger noted Kemp was not in step with the 1994 Contract with America. [202] Kemp also noted a distaste for the vast fundraising necessary for a presidential campaign. [203] Gergen stated that by 1996 the selection process had become so expensive, mean and personally invasive that it discouraged several top Republicans from running. [204] In 1995, while the world awaited the campaign decision announcement by Colin Powell, Kemp had positive thoughts on the prospect of such a campaign. [205]

Senate Majority Leader Dole and Gingrich appointed Kemp to head a tax reform commission, (the Kemp Commission), in response to voter concern that the tax code had become too complicated. [206] Kemp championed many issues including the flat tax, [91] which he formally proposed after he was appointed. [207] [208] [209] The proposal included some politically popular income tax deductions, such as mortgage interest, [210] but it remained fairly general. [211] Among the 1996 Republican Party candidates, both Steve Forbes and Phil Gramm proposed the flat tax. [209] [212]

During the campaign, Kemp's endorsement was highly coveted. [213] [214] Forbes had tried to get Kemp to run in the 1996 campaign, but Kemp declined and in fact endorsed Forbes just as Dole was closing in on the nomination, and just after Dole gained the endorsements of former contenders Lamar Alexander and Richard Lugar. [8] [215] Some feel the primary reason for the endorsement was to keep the flat tax idea and other supply-side views alive. [216] [217] Many thought Kemp had destroyed his own political future with the endorsement, and Kemp profusely apologized to Dole's campaign offices. [8] After it became clear Dole would be the nominee, Kemp attempted to form a bipartisan seminar with Felix Rohatyn to produce a fiscal plan that could be endorsed by both parties. [218]

Kemp was also outspoken on immigration on around this time: according to Kemp's interpretation of a scientific index that he and Bennett support, "immigrants are a blessing, not a curse." [219] In 1994, Kemp and Bennett opposed California ballot Proposition 187, a measure to bar illegal immigrants from obtaining public services, in direct opposition to first-term Republican California Governor Pete Wilson, one of its endorsers who was running for re-election. [220] [221] Republican Senate candidate Michael Huffington had also endorsed the proposition. [222] Kemp supported rights for illegal immigrants, and opposed Lamar Smith and Alan Simpson's proposed restrictions on legal immigration. [223]

Vice presidential nomination (1996)

Bob Dole and Kemp were featured on the cover of Time, but were nearly displaced by a story about Mars (inset on cover) Dole Kemp Time Magazine cover.jpg
Bob Dole and Kemp were featured on the cover of Time , but were nearly displaced by a story about Mars (inset on cover)

Kemp had a reputation as the highest-profile progressive Republican. When Dole declined an invitation to speak to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, he suggested Kemp as a substitute even before Kemp had become the vice presidential nominee. [224] On August 5, 1996, Dole announced a 15% across-the-board tax cut in response to both the Forbes campaign and Kemp's tax reform commission. Several of Dole's other campaign ideas came from Kemp and Bill Bennett's Empower America, which had Jeane Kirkpatrick, Weber, Forbes and Alexander as principals. For example, Dole borrowed Kirkpatrick's tough foreign policy, Bennett's "right conduct" and even Alexander's school choice interest. [225]

Bennett declined the offer to be Dole's running mate but suggested Kemp, [226] a man described as Dole's antagonist. [227] On August 16, 1996, [228] the Republican Party chose Kemp as its vice presidential nominee, running alongside former Senator Dole. Kemp was seen as a means to attract conservative and libertarian-minded voters like those of tough nomination-challengers Forbes and Pat Buchanan. [229] Kemp was chosen over Connie Mack, John McCain, and Carroll Campbell, [230] and it is assumed that this was partly because Kemp had several former staffers in influential positions as Dole's senior advisors. [231] Dole had had a long history of representing the budget-balancing faction of the Party, while Kemp had had a long history of representing the tax-cutting advocates, [232] and Kemp's tax-cutting fiscal track record was seen as the perfect fit for the ticket. [233] When Kemp became Dole's running mate in 1996, they appeared on the cover of the August 19, 1996 issue of Time magazine, [234] but the pair barely edged out a story on the reported discovery of extraterrestrial life on Mars, which was so close to being the cover story that Time inset it on the cover and wrote about how difficult the decision was. [235]

The two politicians had a storied history stemming from alternative perspectives and objectives. Dole was a longstanding conservative deficit hawk who had even voted against John F. Kennedy's tax cuts, while Kemp was an outspoken supply-sider. In the early 1980s, according to David Stockman, Kemp persuaded Reagan to make a 30% across-the-board tax cut a central 1980 presidential campaign feature. Once Reagan was elected, Dole was the Senate Finance Committee chairman who Kemp claims resisted the plan every step of the way. Dole concedes he expressed reservations about the 1981 plan. The big confrontation came after the tax plan was approved and after Dole subsequently proposed tax increases that he referred to as reforms. Kemp was vocal in his opposition to the reforms and even penned an op-ed piece in The New York Times, which enraged Dole. Reagan supported the reforms at Dole's request, causing Kemp to summon allies to meetings to stop the act, which eventually passed in 1982. [236] At the 1984 Republican National Convention, Kemp, along with allies such as Gingrich and Lott, added a plank to the party platform that put President Reagan on record as ruling out tax increases. Gingrich called this action "Dole proofing" the platform, and the plank passed over Dole's opposition. Then, in 1985, Dole proposed an austere budget that barely passed in the Senate with appendectomy patient Pete Wilson casting the tying vote and Vice President Bush casting the deciding vote. In meetings with the president that excluded Dole, Kemp reworked the budget to exclude crucial Social Security cutbacks. This is said to have been Dole's most crushing political defeat and to have contributed to the Republican loss of control of the Senate. During the 1988 presidential election, the two antagonized each other. After Bush won and Kemp left Congress for the Cabinet, the two did not really cross paths again until 1996, when Kemp endorsed Dole's opponent Forbes on the eve of the New York Primary in March. [236]

Dole despised Kemp's economic theories, [94] but he felt Kemp-like tax cuts offered his best chance at electoral success. [237] For his part, Kemp had to make concessions as well: he had to back expelling the children of illegal immigrants from public schools despite his longstanding opposition to Proposition 187 and mute his opposition to abolishing affirmative-action programs in California. [228] [238] Some derided Kemp for his compromise and referred to him as a "con artist". [239] From the outset of their campaign, Dole-Kemp trailed, [240] and they faced skeptics even from within the party. [241] However, Kemp was able to use the nomination to promote his opposition to Clinton's partial birth abortion ban veto. [242] During the campaign, Kemp and Forbes advocated for a stronger stand on tax cutting than Dole used. [243] [244] However, in general, the opinion was that Kemp was helpful to the ticket's chances of catching Bill Clinton, [245] [246] [247] and Kemp's advocacy gave a clear picture of the tax reforms that would likely occur on the condition of a successful campaign. [248] Kemp was seen as likely to influence several types of swing voters, especially those of his native state of California, [232] and even the Democrats feared Kemp might lure voters. [239]

After receiving the nomination, Kemp became the ticket's spokesman for minorities and the inner-city. [249] [250] [251] Due to agreement on the self-help policy that Louis Farrakhan has endorsed in many fora including the Million Man March, Kemp in a sense aligned himself with Farrakhan. [252] [253] However, Farrakhan was perceived as being anti-Semitic, [253] and Kemp was considered an ally of Republican Jews. [254] This issue necessitated some political sidestepping. [253] As the nominee, Kemp at times overshadowed Dole. [242] In fact, more than once, Kemp was described as if he was the presidential nominee. [242] [255] In addition to having overshadowed Dole, despite the negative ad campaigns that the ticket used, Kemp was a very positive running mate who relied on a pep rally type of campaign tour full of football-related metaphors and hyperbole. [256] Although some enjoyed Kemp's style, referring to him as the Good Shepherd, [256] his detractors, such as U.S. News & World Report writer Steven V. Roberts, criticized the extensive use of recounting stories of passing balls relative to the use of recounting stories of passing bills. [257] During the campaign, Kemp expressed the opinion that Republican Party leaders did not stand behind the ticket wholeheartedly. [258] Despite Kemp's voice on minority issues, Colin Powell's support and polls that showed about 30% of blacks identified themselves as conservatives on issues such as school prayer, school vouchers and criminal justice, the Republicans were unable to improve upon historical support levels from African-American voters. [259]

Both Al Gore and Kemp had presidential aspirations, which induced pursuit of debate on a higher plane. [260] In addition, Gore and Kemp were long-time friends, unlike Gore and his previous vice presidential opponent Dan Quayle. Thus, as debaters they avoided personal attacks. [261] However, some felt Kemp failed to counter substantive attacks. [262] In the final October 9, 1996 vice presidential debate against Al Gore (held as the Dole–Kemp ticket trailed badly in the national polls), Kemp was soundly beaten, [263] [264] and Al Gore's performance is considered one of the best modern debate performances. [265] The debate topics ranged broadly from the usual such as abortion and foreign policy to the unusual such as an incident preceding the then-current baseball playoffs, in which Roberto Alomar, the Baltimore Orioles' second baseman, cursed and spat on an umpire. [266] [267] The Mexico policy debate was one of the more interesting topics for critical review. [268] The Gore victory was not a surprise since Kemp had been outmatched by Gore in previous encounters, [95] and Gore had a reputation as an experienced and vaunted debater. [269]

Late career

Kemp with Sue Myrick, Phil English and Mike Turner (c. May 2004) Turner Kemp English Myrick.jpg
Kemp with Sue Myrick, Phil English and Mike Turner (c. May 2004)

In 1993, Kemp, Bennett, Kirkpatrick and financial backer Theodore Forstmann co-founded the free market advocacy group Empower America, [90] [270] which later merged with Citizens for a Sound Economy to form Freedom Works. Empower America represented the populist wing of the party: while avoiding divisive issues such as abortion and gay rights, it promoted free markets and growth over balancing the budget and cutting the deficit. [271] [272] He resigned as Co-Chairman of Freedom Works in March 2005 after the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) questioned his ties to Samir Vincent, a Northern Virginia oil trader implicated in the U.N. Oil-for-food scandal who pleaded guilty to four criminal charges, including illegally acting as an unregistered lobbyist of the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein. [273] Testimony about Kemp became prominent in the trial. [274] Also, FBI informant Richard Fino tied Kemp to James Cosentino just weeks before the 1996 election. [275]

By 1996, Kemp had been named a director of six corporate boards. He was a director for Hawk Corporation, IDT Corporation, CNL Hotels and Resorts, InPhonic, Cyrix Corporation and American Bankers Insurance Group. [276] [277] Kemp briefly served on the board of Oracle Corporation, whose CEO was his friend Larry Ellison, [278] in 1996, but resigned when he ran for vice president; he was named to the board of Six Flags, Inc. in December 2005. [279] Kemp opted not to stand for re-election to IDT's board in 2006. [280] He also served on the Habitat for Humanity board of directors, [281] and served on the board of Atlanta-based software maker EzGov Inc. [282] Kemp also served on the board of directors of Election.com, [283] which was the private company that ran the world's first election on the internet (won by Al Gore), the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary. Kemp was also a business partner with Edra and Tim Blixseth promoting membership in the elite private ski and golf Yellowstone Club. Kemp also partnered with the Blixseths in a failed anti-terrorism software venture called Blxware which was investigated for "conning" the federal government out of $20 million in contracts for software which fraudulently claimed to detect secret messages from Al-Qaeda in television broadcast signals. [284] Kemp was the founder and chairman of Kemp Partners, a strategic consulting firm that helps clients achieve both business and public policy goals.

In addition to corporate boards of directors, Kemp served on several advisory boards such as the UCLA School of Public Policy Advisory Board, and the Toyota Diversity Advisory Board as well as the Howard University Board of Trustees, on which he served since 1993. [281] On March 25, 2003, Kemp was selected as chairman of the board of Directors of USA Football, a national advocacy group for amateur football created by the National Football League (NFL) and the NFL Players Association. The organization supports Pop Warner, American Youth Football, Boys and Girls Clubs of America, National Recreation and Park Association, Police Athletic League, YMCA, and the Amateur Athletic Union. [9] He was also vice president of NFL Charities.

Kemp, Adrian Fenty, and Eleanor Holmes Norton at DC Vote rally on Capitol Hill 20070917 Jack Kemp, Adrian Fenty and Eleanor Holmes Norton.jpg
Kemp, Adrian Fenty, and Eleanor Holmes Norton at DC Vote rally on Capitol Hill

In the late 1990s, Kemp remained outspoken on political issues: he was critical of Clinton's International Monetary Fund lax policies toward South Korea. [285] In early 1998, he was a serious contender for the 2000 United States presidential election, but his campaign possibilities faltered, [286] and he instead endorsed eventual winner George W. Bush. Kemp continued his political advocacy for reform of taxation, Social Security and education. [9] When a 1997 budget surplus was earmarked for debt repayment, Kemp opposed the plan in favor of tax cuts. [287] Along with John Ashcroft and Alan Krueger, he endorsed reform of payroll taxes to eliminate double taxation. [288] In addition to his fiscal and economic policies, Kemp advocated against abortion when Congress was considering a bill banning intact dilation and extractions. [289] He also advocated for retired NFL veterans on issues such as cardiovascular screening, assisted living, disability benefits, and the 2007 joint replacement program. [290] He argued in support of reforming immigration laws. [291] In the late 1990s, Kemp also was a vocal advocate for free market reform in Africa, arguing that the continent had great economic growth potential if it could shed autocratic and statist governmental policies. [292]

In 1997, when Gingrich was embroiled in a House ethics controversy, Kemp served as an intermediary between Dole and Gingrich to save the Republican Party leader. [293] Later, in 2002, when Lott made caustic remarks about Strom Thurmond, Kemp was upset, and he supported Lott's apology, saying he had encouraged him to "repudiate segregation in every manifestation." [294] Kemp was among the prominent leaders who pledged to raise money in 2005 for Scooter Libby's defense when he was charged with perjury and obstruction of justice in a case regarding the release of Central Intelligence Agency information. [295]

In June 2004, Kemp rescinded his support of Vernon Robinson for Congress due to the latter's views on immigration laws, citing Robinson's choice to run "as a Pat Buchanan Republican". [296] [297]

In 2006 Kemp, along with 2004 vice-presidential nominee John Edwards, co-chaired the Council on Foreign Relations task force on Russia, [298] producing a document called "Russia's Wrong Direction: What the United States Can and Should Do". [299] After their task force roles ended, the pair advocated solutions to poverty in America at various fora. [300]

Kemp with then-United States Senator Barack Obama at the Public Internet Channel launch at the National Press Club in 2006. 20080222 Sen. Barack Obama and Jack Kemp at the Public Internet Channel Launch.jpg
Kemp with then-United States Senator Barack Obama at the Public Internet Channel launch at the National Press Club in 2006.

On January 6, 2008, Kemp endorsed McCain in the 2008 Republican presidential primaries shortly before the New Hampshire primary, which surprised conservative Republican tax cutters. [301] However, as McCain neared the official nomination, the press associated McCain with Kemp more and more. [302] Kemp prepared an open letter to Sean Hannity, Rush Limbaugh, Laura Ingraham and other conservative talk show hosts on McCain's behalf to quell their dissatisfactions. [303] [304] [305] In addition, Kemp and Phil Gramm advised McCain on economic policy. [306]

He was a syndicated newspaper columnist. [307]

In February 2008, Kemp was associated with a group called "Defense of Democracies" that was advocating an electronic surveillance bill that failed in the House of Representatives. The group's television ad caused such controversy that some of its advisors, including Schumer and Donna Brazile, resigned. [308]

He was a member of the advisory council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation [309] and served as Co-Chair of the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission Cabinet. [310]

He was a board member for the Lott IMPACT Trophy, which is named after Pro Football Hall of Fame defensive back Ronnie Lott, and is awarded annually to college football's Defensive IMPACT Player of the Year. [311]

Illness and death

Kemp in 2007 JackKempCropped.jpg
Kemp in 2007

On January 7, 2009, Kemp's office issued a statement announcing that he had cancer; the type of cancer and the anticipated treatment were not announced. His diagnosis and prognosis were never publicly disclosed. However, he continued to serve as chairman of his Washington-based Kemp Partners consulting firm and continued his involvement in charitable and political work until his death. [312] [313]

On May 2, 2009, Kemp died from cancer at his home in Bethesda, Maryland, at the age of 73. [314] President Barack Obama praised Kemp's work on race, adding that Kemp understood that divisions involving race and class stood in the way of the country's common goals, and former President George W. Bush said that Kemp "will be remembered for his significant contributions to the Reagan Revolution and his steadfast dedication to conservative principles during his long and distinguished career in public service." [315] It was later revealed that melanoma was the probable type of cancer Kemp died from [316]

Legacy

Kemp speaks at the National Press Club in 2006. 20080222 Jack Kemp at Public Internet Channel at the National Press Club.jpg
Kemp speaks at the National Press Club in 2006.

Kemp's legacy includes the Kemp–Roth Tax Cut of the 1980s, also known as the first of two "Reagan tax cuts." These served as the foundation of supply-side economics, known as Reaganomics. Many Republicans have endorsed this Laffer Curve view that tax cuts can spur economic growth and reduce deficits. Although George H. W. Bush called this philosophy voodoo economics, George W. Bush and his Treasury Secretary, John W. Snow, were believers. [317] Kemp is also remembered alongside George Wallace and William Jennings Bryan for influencing history by changing the direction of presidential elections despite their defeats. [318]

In the early 21st century, Kemp continued to be considered along with Reagan as the politician most responsible for the implementation of supply-side tax cuts and along with Steve Forbes as the political figure most responsible for their continued place in the marketplace of political ideas. [319] He has been described as a beacon of economic conservatism and a hero for his urban agenda. [320] [321] Today, he continues to be described as a hero to fiscal conservatives who believe that free markets and low taxes work better than government bureaucracies. [107] [303] Kemp was considered the leader of the progressive conservatives who are socially conservative, but avoid protectionist fiscal and trade policy. [322]

In addition to Roth, he has had numerous political allies. At times, he collaborated with Gingrich and Lott on deregulation and tax cuts, [5] [323] collaborated with McCain and Phil Gramm on tax cuts and spending restraints, [324] legislated with and campaigned for Joseph Lieberman, [325] and fought poverty with James Pinkerton. [97] Pete du Pont was a progressive conservative ally. [322] After retiring from Congress and serving in the Cabinet, Kemp remained close to Gingrich, Lott, Weber, and Mack. [8] [202] [326] Kemp was a member of the federal committee to promote Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a national holiday. [245] As a progressive voter, he had civil rights leaders such as Benjamin Hooks, Andrew Young and Coretta Scott King and conservative black intellectuals like Glenn C. Loury and Robert L. Woodson as supporters and friends. [109] He boasted of having Democratic friends such as William H. Gray III, Charles B. Rangel and Robert Garcia. [7] Ken Blackwell was a Deputy Secretary under Kemp. [327] During the Reagan presidency, when Kemp was able to effect tax cutting, a leading United States Senate tax-cutting proponent was Democrat Bill Bradley, a former basketball star. [328] Several American football players have followed Kemp to Congress, including Steve Largent, [329] J. C. Watts, [330] and Heath Shuler. [331]

Congressman Paul Ryan cites Kemp as a mentor, and mentioned him in his acceptance speech as the Republican Vice-Presidential nominee in 2012. [332]

"Growth is obviously what Jack Kemp was about" stated Fred Barnes [333] in the opening of the session "Growth! Growth! Growth!" of Jack Kemp Foundation's Forum on The Future of the American Idea, in 2014. Kemp didn't believe in limits to growth, [334] a blind spot shared by any politicians of his era and which prompted him to dismiss the 1991 Report of the United Nations Population Fund as "Nonsense" [335]

Senator Arlen Specter in a severe rebuke of federal governmental policy, stated just one day after Kemp died of cancer, that Kemp would still be alive if the federal government had done a better job funding cancer research. [336]

Following Kemp's death, his son, Jimmy Kemp, created the Jack Kemp Foundation to continue his father's legacy. [337] A 501(c)(3) charitable organization, the foundation's mission statement is to "develop, engage and recognize exceptional leaders who champion the American Idea". The foundation is located in Washington, D.C., and is committed to advancing the universal values of the American Idea: growth, freedom, democracy and hope. [338]

The football stadium at Occidental College is named after him. [339]

Electoral history

Books

In addition to authoring significant legislation as a congressman, Kemp wrote or co-authored several books:

Kemp also wrote the foreword to several books:

Papers

See also

Explanatory footnotes

  1. There was no 1960 All-Star game.

Citations

  1. "President Obama Names Medal of Freedom Recipients" Archived December 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine , White House Office of the Press Secretary, July 30, 2009
  2. According to the State of California. California Birth Index, 1905–1995. Center for Health Statistics, California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, California. Searchable at http://www.familytreelegends.com/records/39461
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Payton, Melissa (May 5, 1997). "114th Commencement Speaker and Honorary Degree Recipient Doctor of Laws, Honoris Causa". USC News. University of Southern California. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2008.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Dowd, Maureen (June 28, 1987). "Is Jack Kemp Mr. Right?". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Rosenbaum, David E. (August 11, 1996). "A Passion for Ideas: Jack French Kemp". The New York Times . Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  6. Shogan, Robert (April 7, 1987). "Kemp Enters '88 Race, Urges Strong Defense". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 May, Clifford D. (December 20, 1988). "Man in the News; Theorist With a Heart; Jack French Kemp". The New York Times . Retrieved March 15, 2008.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Stengel, Richard (August 19, 1996). "Jack Be Nimble". Time . Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 "Jack Kemp To Chair USA Football". Green Bay Packers, Inc. Archived from the original on November 10, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2008.
  10. Moore, Jim (January 19, 2008). "Go 2 Guy: L.A. phenom to test Franklin". SeattlePI.com. Seattle Post-Intelligencer . Retrieved April 1, 2008.
  11. "Fairfax Facts". Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on August 30, 2006. Retrieved April 1, 2008.
  12. "U.S. Vice President: Jack Kemp, Republican". Alaska Division of Elections. 1996. Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
  13. "About the SCIAC". Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Martinez, Michael (September 8, 1996). "Kemp Success Began at Oxy". Los Angeles Daily News . Farlex, Inc. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  15. "Jack Kemp". The Baltimore Sun . Retrieved May 4, 2009.
  16. "Occidental Players/Alumni - Pro-Football-Reference.com". Pro-Football-Reference.com.
  17. Sam Farmer, "Football Umpires are in the Line of Fire", Los Angeles Times, November 11, 2008, revised December 8, 2008
  18. Gonzalez, Virginia (August 11, 1996). "Kemp's Wife Prepared For Role, Mom Says". Los Angeles Daily News . Farlex, Inc. Archived from the original on September 3, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  19. "All-Time Players: Jeff Kemp". NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  20. Brewer, Jerry (June 21, 2009). "Time to Cherish". The Seattle Times. pp. 33, 36.
  21. "Biography of Jack Kemp". pbs.org. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2008.
  22. 1 2 https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/Narrative/QQ/p-nid/84 The C. Everett Koop Papers
  23. Schaeffer, Frank. Crazy for God: How I Grew Up as One of the Elect, Helped Found The Religious Right, and Lived to Take All (or Almost All) of It Back. Carrol & Graf Publishers, 2007, pp. 284–285.
  24. 1 2 "In His Own Words: Jack Kemp and the Issues". The New York Times . August 11, 1996. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  25. Farnsworth, Elizabeth (August 15, 1996). "Second Lady Hopeful". MacNeil/Lehrer Productions. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
  26. "Sure, He'd Rather Be President, but Conservative Jack Kemp May Be the Right Man on the Right for Hud". PEOPLE.com.
  27. Rosenbaum, David E. (August 11, 1996). "A Passion for Ideas: Jack French Kemp". The New York Times.
  28. Tribe, Ivan M., "Gerald R. Ford Jr. : The Most Recent Masonic President" Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , The Scottish Rite Journal of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, September 2003
  29. Hodapp, Christopher L., "Brother Jack Kemp, 33° R.I.P. ", Monday, May 4, 2009
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Schultz, Randy (2003). Legends of the Buffalo Bills. Sports Publishing LLC. ISBN   1-58261-687-6.
  31. "Greatest game ever played". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on January 10, 2008. Retrieved December 26, 2008.
  32. Mosse, David (February 1, 2007). "What if the Colts-Giants game had not been such a classic?". ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved December 26, 2008.
  33. Kemp, Jack (January 27, 2001). "A Giant in '58". The New York Times . Retrieved March 6, 2008.
  34. 1 2 "Army Let Kemp Play Ball During Berlin Crisis". The Washington Post . Washington, DC. September 1, 1987.
  35. 1 2 Mianowany, Joseph (August 31, 1987). "Kemp exempted from active duty in '61". UPI.com. Boca Raton, FL. United Press International.
  36. Gruver, p. 44.
  37. Gruver, p. 55.
  38. 1 2 3 4 Rosenthal, Harold (compiled by the Elias Sports Bureau), ed. (1970). Official History American Football League – 1960–1969. The Sporting News. pp. 68–69.
  39. "1960 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  40. Gruver, p. 56.
  41. Gruver, pp. 58–59.
  42. Gruver, p. 61.
  43. 1 2 Gruver, p. 71.
  44. "1961 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  45. Gruver, p. 266.
  46. Gruver, pp. 82–83.
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 Maiorana (1994), p. 86.
  48. Gruver, p. 83.
  49. Gruver, Ed (1997). The American Football League: A Year-by-Year History, 1960–1969. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.
  50. Maiorana (1994), p. 93–94.
  51. Maiorana (1994), p. 104.
  52. "1963 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  53. Gruver, p. 115.
  54. "Any Time, Any Place". Time . November 6, 1964. Archived from the original on January 27, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  55. Reeves, Jeremy (September 9, 2011). "Aaron Rodgers got off to sizzling start for Green Bay Packers". The Times-Picayune . Nola.com . Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  56. "NFL: Super Start for Green Bay". Sport360.com. September 10, 2011. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
  57. 1 2 "1964 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  58. Maiorana (1994), p. 116.
  59. Maiorana (1994), p. 125.
  60. "1965 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  61. "The Game Nobody Saw". Time . January 7, 1966. Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  62. "1965 Buffalo Bills". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  63. Maiorana (1994), p. 126.
  64. Gruver, p. 151.
  65. Maiorana (1994), p. 127.
  66. Maiorana (1994), pp. 136–37.
  67. 1 2 3 "Jack Kemp". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference, LLC. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
  68. Maiorana (1994), p. 147.
  69. Maiorana (1994), p. 148.
  70. Maiorana (1994), p. 157.
  71. Maiorana (1994), pp. 158–66.
  72. Maiorana (2000), p. 174.
  73. Gaughan, Mark (July 16, 2012). "Jack Kemp records you may not know". The Buffalo News . Archived from the original on May 11, 2013.Note that this source lists Young with 43 rushing touchdowns; it does not include the nine accrued during Young's time in the USFL.
  74. Garcia, Guy D. (December 3, 1984). "untitled". Time . Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  75. "Hall of Very Good Class of 2012". Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  76. "Individual Records: Passing". NFL Record & Fact Book. NFL Enterprises LLC. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2008.
  77. "Individual Records: Fumbles". NFL Record & Fact Book. NFL Enterprises LLC. Archived from the original on November 5, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2008.
  78. "Q&A With Jack Kemp". NFL Players. October 23, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  79. "Theodore Roosevelt Award (NCAA)". AwardsAndHonors.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
  80. "NCAA Theodore Roosevelt Award Recipients". NCAA. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
  81. "The NCAA News: Teddy winner Jack Kemp dies at age 73". NCAA. May 4, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2009.[ dead link ]
  82. Berkow, Ira (August 11, 1996). "A Quarterback Who Doesn't Like Warming the Bench". The New York Times . Retrieved April 1, 2008.
  83. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stanley, Alessandra (April 13, 1987). "Campaign Portrait". Time . Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
  84. Waldman, Steven (November 30, 1997). "Sweating to the Oldies: Toiling together will do as much for race relations as talking together". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  85. May, Clifford D. (December 20, 1988). "Man in the News; Theorist With a Heart; Jack French Kemp". The New York Times . Retrieved April 8, 2009.
  86. 1 2 Thomas, Evan (September 3, 1984). "Struggling for a Party's Soul". Time . Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
  87. 1 2 Sidey, Hugh (May 29, 1978). "Roses with a Touch of Ragweed". Time . Archived from the original on October 14, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  88. Greider, William (December 1981). "The Education of David Stockman". Atlantic Monthly . The Atlantic.com. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  89. "Newcomers in the House". Time . November 16, 1970. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  90. 1 2 3 "Jack Kemp". kemppartners.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved February 24, 2008.
  91. 1 2 "The New 12 Steps to Recovery". Time . January 17, 1996. Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  92. May, Clifford (September 9, 1987). "Kemp, in Honduras, Assails Latin Peace Plan". The New York Times . Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  93. "Babbitt: Think Small". Time . August 26, 1996. Archived from the original on February 14, 2004. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  94. 1 2 Trillin, Calvin (November 18, 1996). "The Endless Campaign". Time . Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  95. 1 2 Kramer, Michael (September 23, 1996). "Campaign 2000". Time . Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  96. 1 2 Kramer, Michael (August 19, 1996). "In From the Cold". Time . Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  97. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Deparle, Jason (February 28, 1993). "How Jack Kemp Lost the War on Poverty". The New York Times . Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  98. Gergen, David (September 1, 1996). "A Bridge to Nowhere". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  99. Borger, Gloria; Michael Barone (August 18, 1996). "'Born for the Job': The Kemp interview". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  100. Collins, James (December 5, 1994). "Where Are They Now?". Time . Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  101. "Where Did He Get Those Figures?". Time . April 14, 1980. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  102. "Final Payments". Time . December 22, 1980. Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  103. Church, George J. (December 22, 1980). "Eight for the Cabinet". Time . Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  104. Byron, Christopher (December 29, 1980). "Outlook '81: Recession". Time . Archived from the original on November 20, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  105. 1 2 Church, George J. (September 22, 1980). "Conservative Conservatism". Time . Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  106. Lowenstein, Roger (September 23, 2007). "Deep Voodoo". The New York Times . Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  107. 1 2 Barone, Michael (December 1, 1996). "Divided Against Itself: The Republican Party: Can its five factions ever find happiness again?". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  108. Egan, Jack (October 17, 1999). "Supply-Side Godfather: The influential and controversial Robert Mundell wins the Nobel in economics". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  109. 1 2 3 Traub, James (May 9, 1989). "Jack Kemp Faces Reality". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  110. Isaacson, Walter (June 1, 1981). "A Less Than Perfect "10–10–10"". Time . Archived from the original on January 16, 2005. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  111. Wallis, Claudia (May 25, 1981). "Act II, Scene 1, Form 1040". Time . Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  112. Rauch, Jonathan (February 1989). "Is the Deficit Really So Bad?". Atlantic Monthly . The Atlantic.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2004. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  113. Schneider, William (January 1987). "The New Shape of American Politics". Atlantic Monthly . The Atlantic.com. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  114. Mitchell, Daniel J. (July 19, 1996). "The Historical Lessons of Lower Tax Rates". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on May 30, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2008.
  115. 1 2 Rowe, Jonathan (October 13, 1996). "Major Growing Pains: The economy's rosy, but people aren't. So what's going on here?". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  116. Pethokoukis, James (December 21, 2007). "A Chat With Jack Kemp". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on March 2, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  117. "Budget Battle". Time . May 21, 1979. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  118. "Free Enterprise Oases". Time . July 14, 1980. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  119. Andersen, Kurt (August 16, 1982). "Thunder on the Right". Time . Archived from the original on October 15, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  120. Isaacson, Walter (August 30, 1982). "Scoring on a Reverse". Time . Archived from the original on October 15, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  121. Greenwald, John (July 25, 1983). "Paul Volcker Superstar". Time . Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  122. "Short of Cash". Time . August 8, 1983. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  123. Kemp, Jack, An American Idea: Ending Limits to Growth, Goodrich, 1985
  124. Tifft, Susan (August 20, 1984). "Coronation in Prime Time". Time . Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  125. "Rallying Round a Comma Cause". Time . August 27, 1984. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  126. Doemer, William (August 27, 1984). "Party Time in Dallas". Time . Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  127. Kelly, James (July 15, 1985). "Already Jockeying for Position". Time . Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
  128. "In Their Own Words; Excerpts From the Remarks By Housing Secretary Kemp". The New York Times . August 19, 1992. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
  129. Scardino, Albert; Alan Finder (November 3, 1985). "The Region; Jack Kemp's War Chest Grows". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  130. Prabhakar, Rahul (September 5, 2006). "Jack Kemp, Ten Years Later". Harvard Political Review. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  131. 1 2 Waters, David (July 12, 2006). "Jack Kemp is wrong; soccer is very democratic". Scripps Howard News Service. Archived from the original on October 18, 2006. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  132. 1 2 Gross, Daniel (June 30, 2004). "The Capitalism of Soccer". Slate . The Washington Post. Newsweek Interactive Co. LLC. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  133. 1 2 3 Kemp, Jack (June 19, 2006). "What I really think about soccer". Townhall.com. Salem Web Network. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved February 24, 2008.
  134. Demott, John S. (March 9, 1987). "The High Jumper from St. Louis Missouri". Time . Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
  135. "American Notes". Time . December 15, 1986. Archived from the original on December 21, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
  136. 1 2 "Iranscam's". Time . January 19, 1987. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
  137. Barrett, Laurence I. (January 19, 1987). "Rushing to An Early Kickoff". Time . Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
  138. Schneider, William (July 1987). "The Republicans in '88". Atlantic Monthly . Atlantic Online. pp. 58–82. Archived from the original on August 12, 2004. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  139. Schneider, William (April 1987). "The Democrats in '88". Atlantic Monthly . Atlantic Online. Archived from the original on August 4, 2004. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  140. Clift, Eleanor (June 4, 1990). "The Right's War on Poverty: Conservatives Offer New Solutions To Old Problems". Newsweek . Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  141. Zuckerman, Laurence (June 22, 1987). "Full Disclosure, Semi-Outrage". Time . Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
  142. Barrett, Laurence I. (May 25, 1987). "Sounds of the Righteous Brothers". Time . Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
  143. Barrett, Laurence I. (July 20, 1987). "But Mike's Raking in Money". Time . Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved March 16, 2008.
  144. Barrett, Laurence I. (March 2, 1987). "Tacking Further to the Right". Time . Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
  145. May, Clifford (September 9, 1987). "Kemp, in Honduras, Assails Latin Peace Plan". The New York Times . Retrieved October 11, 2011.
  146. Shapiro, Walter (August 8, 1988). "Yes, There Are Issues". Time . Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  147. Shapiro, Walter (September 14, 1987). "The Unreal Campaign". Time . Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
  148. Griffith, Thomas (December 14, 1987). "An Offer They Can Refuse". Time . Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
  149. Shapiro, Walter (November 9, 1987). "Yapping From The Right". Time . Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
  150. May, Clifford D. (February 16, 1988). "Three Candidates in 2 Parties Bracing for the Battle of Their Political Lives; Jack F. Kemp: The Congressman Has to Finish Third to Remain Credible". The New York Times . Retrieved March 15, 2008.
  151. Stanley, Alessandra (August 8, 1988). "Campaign Journal". Time . Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  152. Bruni, Frank (September 3, 1996). "Kemp Tries to Rein in His Words". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  153. Lamar, Jacob V. (August 8, 1988). "The Great G.O.P. Veepstakes Scoreboard". Time . Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  154. Firestone, David (August 13, 1996). "Of Knishes, Soulfulness and Kemp". The New York Times . Retrieved March 3, 2008.
  155. "Kemp Agrees to Pay Campaign Penalties". The New York Times . June 22, 1994. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  156. Lamar, Jacob V. (December 26, 1988). "A Clean Bill of Health". Time . Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
  157. "New Supply Side for Jack Kemp". The New York Times . December 21, 1988. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
  158. 1 2 Holmes, Steven A. (August 20, 1996). "Kemp's Legacy as Housing Secretary: One of Ideas, Not Accomplishments". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  159. Kramer, Michael (May 11, 1992). "The Political Interest". Time . Archived from the original on March 9, 2008. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
  160. Magnuson, Ed (July 24, 1989). "Jack Be Nimble, Jack Be Quick". Time . Archived from the original on July 11, 2009. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
  161. "Business Notes Mortgage Insurance". Time . June 18, 1990. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
  162. "American Notes Housing". Time . May 22, 1989. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
  163. 1 2 Prudhomme, Alex (May 1, 1989). "Evicting The Drug Dealers". Time . Archived from the original on May 25, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
  164. Sidey, Hugh (January 23, 1989). "Back in the Bully Pulpit". Time . Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
  165. Prudhomme, Alex (June 17, 1991). "Firearms: Chicago's Uphill Battle". Time . Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
  166. Goodgame, Dan (May 18, 1992). "Bleeding-Heart Conservatives". Time . Archived from the original on November 21, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
  167. "Smoldering Embers, Scared Politicians". Time . May 18, 1992. Archived from the original on November 21, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
  168. "Decoding Bush". Newsweek . February 10, 1992. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  169. Walsh, Kenneth T.; Joseph P. Shapiro (May 10, 1992). "'They Are Not Our Issues': White House maneuvers". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  170. "Tough Love From The Dems: Looking For A New Way To Stress Family Values". Newsweek . December 23, 1991. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  171. Zuckerman, Mortimer B. (May 17, 1992). "The New Realism". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  172. Deparle, Jason (May 7, 1992). "After The Riots; As Los Angeles Smoke Lifts, Bush Can See Kemp Clearly". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  173. Fineman, Howard (May 18, 1992). "Filling The Political Void". Newsweek . Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  174. Fenyvesi, Charles (May 3, 1992). "Kemp Followers; Don't Move; The Third Man; Sure Thing; Together Again; Blackballed: Kemp should have been sent on L.A. riot duty, friends say; Pero is almost certain to be in on fall presidential debates; Carl Sagan snubbed by prestigious science organization". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  175. Alter, Jonathan (July 8, 1991). "Addicted To Perks: How America's Elites Rationalize Their Problem". Newsweek . Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  176. Frantz, Douglas (August 18, 1996). "Army Allowed Kemp to Skip Army Call-Up For an Injury". The New York Times . Retrieved March 3, 2008.
  177. Rainie, Harrison; Matthew Cooper; Joseph P. Shapiro; Scott Minerbrook; Paul Glastris; Jeannye Thornton; Dorian Friedman (May 10, 1992). "Requiem for the Cities?: A new fight over urban policy has begun. The key will be to focus on the right problems and to avoid overselling chances for success". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  178. "Clinton . . . $3.5 Billion for Empowerment Zones". Time . December 21, 1994. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  179. Maass, Peter (December 22, 1996). "20 Silver Bullets: 7. How to Make Housing Affordable: Let People Subdivide Their Homes". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  180. Shapiro, Walter (July 6, 1992). "Spelling Out The Job Specs". Time . Archived from the original on August 12, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  181. Fenyvesi, Charles (July 12, 1992). "Waiting Game; Charmed By Perot; Under the Volcano; Sigh of Relief; One and the Same; Out of Time: Perot will name veep choice after GOP convention; Cheney says Pentagon still probing 109 POW sightings; Worst taste of the year: sending Ice-T's album in body bag". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  182. Fenyvesi, Charles (October 11, 1992). "Darmanophobia; Travel Plans; In the Middle; Ego Tripped; Safe Deposit; Amazing Grace: Darman role in debate strategy angers GOP conservatives; Gates mission to Moscow mystifies Kremlin leadership; Storm over Norm: Does Schwarzkopf take too much credit?". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  183. Fenyvesi, Charles (August 9, 1992). "Take a Memo; Home, Sweet Home; All's Not Lost; Lost Cause; Wrong Numbers: Kemp and allies to challenge Bush on economy at convention; Nixon to the president: There is still hope for your campaign; 'Pro-choice' Republicans give up fight over platform plank". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  184. Morganthau, Tom; Ann McDaniel (August 3, 1992). "The Quayle Question". Newsweek . Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  185. "Kemp Says Parts of Bush's Plan for the Economy Are Gimmicks". The New York Times . February 2, 1992. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  186. 1 2 Dowd, Maureen (November 26, 1991). "Washington Memo; For Bush, the Kemp Thing Reappears". The New York Times . Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  187. 1 2 Zeman, Ned; Lucy Howard (November 25, 1991). "Does Kemp Want Out?". Newsweek . Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  188. Will, George F. (December 16, 1991). "No Happy Warriors Here". Newsweek . Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  189. Ellis, David (November 5, 1990). "Who's Next Out the Door?". Time . Archived from the original on November 13, 2007. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
  190. Shannon, Elaine (August 7, 1989). "A Loose Cannon's Parting Shot". Time . Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
  191. Fenyvesi, Charles (August 16, 1992). "Ultimatum to Iraq; The Doctor Is Back; Moving On; Turnaround; Debating the Debates; Roger Redux: Saddam Hussein will be probable target of U.S. move in Iraq; Baker: The master of spin control is back at the old game; Ailes may rejoin the Bush campaign". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 7, 2009. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  192. Fritsch, Jane (September 6, 1996). "Kemp Earned $6.9 Million, Mostly as Speaker, Since '92". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  193. Fenyvesi, Charles (January 30, 1994). "Back to Strength; Thinking the Unthinkable; Kemp Followers; The Wrong Fields; Past Prime Time; Backing Up Bill: Saddam Hussein's military is almost back to prewar potency; Rostenkowski could lose March 15 primary, insiders say; Clinton's speech insurance: Seven floppy disks, two paper copies". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  194. Roberts, Steven V. (August 23, 1992). "The GOP: Four Years from Now". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  195. Fenyvesi, Charles (July 11, 1993). "Refuge for Abdel Rahman?; Double Standard; Still No. 1; Second Thoughts; Getting the Jump; Clinton's Bush League: Shiek Abdel Rahman secretly offered asylum by Afghanistan; First lady to keep administration health reform portfolio; Clinton foreign policy getting Bush-like look". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  196. Fenyvesi, Charles (May 2, 1993). "Surveying the Field; Picking Up Speed; Getting Out; Co-Portraits: As Clinton slips, Republicans savor prospects for 1996; Bosnians blame foreign Muslim volunteers for atrocities; Official presidential photo becomes double exposure". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  197. Fenyvesi, Charles (November 1, 1992). "Early Line; Promises, Promises; On Its Way; The Real Hillary?; Poor Perot: Kemp rates as early favorite in '96 GOP sweepstakes; North Korea sends another Scud cargo to Iran, Syria; Perot's campaign: Is his $60 million ad blitz tax deductible?". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  198. Stanglin, Douglas; Gordon Witkin; David Fischer; Gary Cohen; Kathryn Bushkin; Steven V. Roberts; Charles Fenyvesi; Tim Zimmermann (October 30, 1994). "Rising Specter?; Political Capital; Central Casting; Peace – At Last; Price War; FBI to Congress: Just Say No". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  199. Fenyvesi, Charles (July 24, 1994). "Hot Footprints; How Washington Works; Snubbing Harvard; Kemp's Followers; Beating Bush; Taking Ames: Pentagon traces mystery plutonium to Russian atomic ministry; Democrats gave seed money to new group battling religious right; Jim Baker tops Bush in Texas fund-raising league". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  200. "Kemp . . . Not Republican Enough". Time . January 30, 1995. Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  201. Kramer, Michael (February 13, 1995). "Eyes on the Prize". Time . Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  202. 1 2 Borger, Gloria (January 22, 1995). "The Repository of Reagan Optimism". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  203. Lewis, Neil A. (January 31, 1995). "Kemp Rejects Presidential Bid, Citing Dislike of Fund Raising". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  204. Gergen, David (February 25, 1996). "Republican Wreckage". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  205. Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. (September 25, 1995). "Can He Stay on the Pedestal?". Time . Archived from the original on January 14, 2005. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  206. Hage, David; David Fischer (April 9, 1995). "Sweating the Details: The House passes tax cuts, but trimming deficits will be a tougher exercise". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  207. "Back in the Pocket". Time . April 3, 1995. Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  208. "Quayle in Dole Country". Time . September 21, 1995. Archived from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  209. 1 2 Birnbaum, Jeffrey H. (January 8, 1996). "Secrets of the Kemp Commission". Time . Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  210. Dentzer, Susan (February 4, 1996). "Arrest Him, He Stole My Flat Tax!". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  211. Marks, John; Michael Barone (January 21, 1996). "Unfriendly Fire on the Rising Star: As he climbs in the polls, Steve Forbes is accused of violating a cardinal rule of his trade". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  212. "Who's the Flattest of Them All?". Time . January 16, 1996. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  213. Berke, Richard L. (January 31, 1996). "Politics: The Endorsements;Hopefuls Go a-Courtin' And Kemp Is the Prize". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  214. "Politics;Kemp Keeps His Neutrality". The New York Times . February 1, 1996. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  215. "Kemp Backs Forbes". Time . March 6, 1996. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  216. Marks, John (March 10, 1996). "What, Exactly, Does Forbes Want?". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  217. Tollerson, Ernest (March 7, 1996). "Politics: Endorsement;Kemp Supports Forbes in Bid to Salvage Flat-Tax Plan as an Issue in the Campaign". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  218. Stanglin, Douglas; David Makovsky; David Fischer; Tim Zimmermann; Richard J. Newman; Jim Impoco; Ted Gest; Josh Chetwynd; Gary Cohen (July 7, 1996). "Can the Middle East Bank on Bibi?; The Name Game; Unkindest Cuts; Joining Forces; Speaking Out; Star Search". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  219. Miles, Jack (April 1995). "The Coming Immigration Debate". Atlantic Monthly . The Atlantic.com. Archived from the original on August 12, 2004. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
  220. Adams, Kathleen; et al. (October 31, 1994). "The Week October 16–22". Time . Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  221. Carlson, Margaret (October 31, 1994). "Public Eye Alienable Rights". Time . Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  222. Roberts, Steven V.; Kenneth T. Walsh; Dorian Friedman (November 6, 1994). "Revenge of the Centrists: As voters tire of partisan squabbles, moderates in both parties seek to lead from the middle". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  223. Bowermaster, David (September 15, 1995). "Closing the Golden Door: The immigration battle". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  224. "How about Never?". Time . July 9, 1996. Archived from the original on March 7, 2005. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  225. Barone, Michael (August 18, 1996). "A Conservatism of the Head". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  226. Goodgame, Dan (September 16, 1996). "The Chairman of Virtue". Time . Archived from the original on October 30, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  227. Lacayo, Richard; Michael Duffy (August 19, 1996). "Punching Up The Ticket". Time . Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  228. 1 2 Nagourney, Adam (August 16, 1996). "Kemp Gives Early Look at Strategy". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  229. Ayers, B. Drummond Jr. (August 15, 1996). "In New Role, Kemp Fights With His Past Over Ideology". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  230. "Gipper Junior on Deck?". Time . August 8, 1996. Archived from the original on February 3, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  231. Nagourney, Adam (August 11, 1996). "Kemp Will See Familiar Faces in the Dole Camp". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  232. 1 2 Borger, Gloria; Steven V. Roberts; Bruce B. Auster; Michael Barone; Kathryn Bushkin; Cornelia Carter; Jerelyn Eddings; Mel Elfin; David Fischer; Barbrara Ray; Kenneth T. Walsh; Warren Cohen (August 18, 1996). "Off to the Races: The GOP's long-distance runner isn't lonely any more. But can he catch Bill Clinton?". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  233. Stevenson, Richard W. (August 11, 1996). "Kemp Fiscal Views Win Party's Heart". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  234. "Bob Dole, Jack Kemp / Time Cover". Time Covers. August 19, 1996. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2008.
  235. Issacson, Walter (August 19, 1996). "To Our Readers". Time . Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  236. 1 2 Kolbert, Elizabeth (September 29, 1996). "Dole, in Choosing Kemp, Buried A Bitter Past Rooted in Doctrine". The New York Times . Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  237. Gibbs, Nancy; Michael Duffy (August 26, 1996). "A Spoonful of Sugar Helps the Medicine Go Down". Time . Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  238. "The Jack Kemp Reverse". The New York Times . August 15, 1996. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  239. 1 2 Roberts, Steven V.; Michael Barone; Gloria Borger; Cornelia Carter; Warren Cohen; Jerelyn Eddings; David Fischer; Linda Kulman; Kenneth T. Walsh (September 1, 1996). "Lookin' Good: Ahead in the polls, Clinton and Gore try building a bridge to re-election". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  240. "On The Road Again". Time . August 16, 1996. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  241. "Dole Tries To Pep Up Terrified Troops". Time . September 11, 1996. Archived from the original on October 30, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  242. 1 2 3 Nagourney, Adam (August 19, 1996). "Kemp Attacks Clinton's Abortion Veto". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  243. Lacayo, Richard (November 18, 1996). "The Next Act". Time . Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  244. Dentzer, Susan (August 4, 1996). "Bob Dole in the Carnival of Tax Cuts". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  245. 1 2 Winerip, Michael (August 12, 1996). "Kemp Brings Sense of Relief And Hope for Ohio's G.O.P." The New York Times . Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  246. "Dole, Kemp and the G.O.P." Time . September 9, 1996. Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  247. "The Odd Couple". Time . August 12, 1996. Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  248. Barone, Michael (September 15, 1996). "What a New Crew Might Do". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  249. Bruni, Frank (August 29, 1996). "Kemp Stumps For the Votes of Minorities". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  250. Gray, Jerry (September 7, 1996). "Kemp Courts Harlem Voters With Open Arms, Little Hope". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  251. Gray, Jerry (September 4, 1996). "In Inner-City Chicago, Kemp Makes Pitch for Black Votes". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  252. Rosenthal, A. M. (October 15, 1996). "Kemp and Farrakhan". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  253. 1 2 3 Gray, Jerry (September 11, 1996). "Kemp Lines Up Solidly Behind Netanyahu". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  254. Dorf, Matthew (August 16, 1996). "Can GOP ticket overcome rightist platform? Kemp seen as ally on Jewish causes". J. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California. San Francisco Jewish Community Publications Inc. Retrieved April 1, 2008.
  255. Firestone, David (October 18, 1996). "Gore, Kemp and No Politics for Dinner". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  256. 1 2 Borger, Gloria (October 6, 1996). "On the Good Shepherd's Trail". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  257. Roberts, Steven V. (August 25, 1996). "Training an Ear to the Sounds of Silence". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  258. Gray, Jerry (October 26, 1996). "Kemp Hits Back at Republicans Who Despair". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  259. Eddings, Jerelyn; Jeannye Thornton; Dorian Friedman; Josh Chetwynd; Kevin Whitelaw; Victoria Pope (October 27, 1996). "Voices from the Gallery: Fearful and eager, voters are talking up a storm of worries and wishes". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  260. Stanglin, Douglas; Bruce B. Auster; Tim Zimmermann; David Makovsky; Paul Glastris; Kenneth T. Walsh (October 6, 1996). "Clintonomics: Going Once, Going Twice; Tough Talks; Last-Minute Squeals; Eyes on the Prize?; Body Fake?". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  261. Gray, Jerry (October 9, 1996). "Gore and Kemp Practice Jabs for Tonight's Encounter". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  262. Borger, Gloria; David Fischer; Linda Kulman; Kenneth T. Walsh; Jason Vest (October 27, 1996). "Should Dole Swing Away?: Allies urge him to hammer Clinton, but Dole hates the idea and isn't very good at it, anyway". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  263. Carlson, Margaret (October 28, 1996). "A Case of Mud Lust". Time . Archived from the original on August 15, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  264. Goodgame, Dan (October 21, 1996). "From Savior to Scapegoat". Time . Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  265. "President of the Debate Team". Newsweek . November 23, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  266. Clines, Francis X. (October 10, 1996). "Economy Dominates Kemp-Gore Debate". The New York Times . Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  267. "Excerpts From Debate Between Vice President Gore and Jack Kemp". The New York Times . October 10, 1996. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
  268. DePalma, Anthony (October 11, 1996). "Both Kemp and Gore Erred in Debate Over Policy on Mexico". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  269. Berke, Richard L. (August 27, 2000). "The Nation; Surprise! Debates May Matter. And Help Bush". The New York Times . Retrieved March 15, 2008.
  270. Frantz, Douglas (September 1, 1996). "Influential Group Brought into Campaign by Kemp". The New York Times . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  271. Borger, Gloria (January 24, 1993). "The Republican Wilderness: They still like their message. They just want Reagan II". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  272. "Good Help Is Hard to Find; No Rest for the Weary". U.S. News & World Report . January 17, 1993. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  273. Hesnball, Mark; Isikoff, Michael (April 25, 2005). "Oil-For-Food: How Much Did Boutros-Ghali Hear?". Newsweek . Retrieved February 24, 2008.
  274. Feuer, Alan (September 20, 2007). "Of Many Characters Mentioned at Oil-for-Food Trial, the Most Prominent Is Dead". The New York Times . Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  275. Novak, Viveca (September 30, 1996). "Singing Another Tune". Time . Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  276. "Six Flags Ends Sale Process; Appoints Mark Shapiro CEO; Jack Kemp, Harvey Weinstein and Michael Kassan Join Board". Business Wire. CNET Networks, Inc. December 14, 2005. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2008.
  277. Norris, Floyd (August 18, 1996). "Jack Kemp: A Director With No Shares". The New York Times . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  278. Ramo, Joshua Cooper; Jackson, David S. (May 12, 1997). "The Prince of San Mateo". Time . Archived from the original on October 27, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  279. "Six Flags no longer for sale; Kemp a director". Buffalo BusinessFirst. American City Business Journals, Inc. December 14, 2005. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
  280. Siklos, Richard (November 5, 2006). "Openers: Suits; Culling the Board". The New York Times . Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  281. 1 2 "Trustees' Biographies". Howard University. Archived from the original on March 30, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2008.
  282. Sherrid, Pamela (February 18, 2001). "A Killer App for Bureaucrats: It's called E-government, and it works. Is your city hall wired yet?". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on October 5, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  283. "Jack Kemp Joins election.com Board of Directors; Former US Cabinet Secretary and Republican Party Vice Presidential Nominee Joins election.com Board". Business Wire. January 30, 2001. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
  284. Geek cons US out of $20M with bogus software to stop Alqaeda, Sydney Morning Herald, February 22, 2011.
  285. Butler, Steven; Thomas Omestad; Kenneth T. Walsh; Jack Egan (January 4, 1998). "The Year of The IMF: As Seoul struggles with reforms, Capitol Hill takes aim". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  286. Brownstein, Ronald (March 8, 1998). "Hurry! Only 974 Days Left to Campaign: Why the presidential race has begun so early". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on October 17, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  287. Jenkins Jr., Kent (August 3, 1997). "A Quixotic Drive to Pay Back the National Debt: The deficit fades, a new political fad arrives". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  288. Miller, Matthew (July 27, 1997). "A Tax None Will Touch: Why politicians in Washington still protect the tax that economists call job-killing, deceptive, and unfair". U.S. News & World Report . Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  289. Provost, Taran (May 5, 1997). "Round Two". Time . Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
  290. Litsky, Frank (December 11, 2007).
Jack Kemp
Jack Kemp official portrait.jpg
Official portrait, c.1989–1993
9th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
In office
February 13, 1989 January 20, 1993