Jacob Hübner (20 June 1761 – 13 September 1826, in Augsburg) was a German entomologist. He was the author of Sammlung Europäischer Schmetterlinge (1796–1805), a founding work of entomology.
Augsburg is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and regional seat of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population of 300,000 inhabitants, with 885,000 in its metropolitan area.
Hübner was the author of Sammlung Europäischer Schmetterlinge (1796–1805), a founding work of entomology. He was one of the first specialists to work on the European Lepidoptera. He described many new species, for example Sesia bembeciformis and Euchloe tagis , many of them common. He also described many new genera and species.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In the past the term "insect" was vaguer, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, land snails, and slugs. This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms. It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.
He was a designer and engraver and from 1786 he worked for three years as a designer and engraver at a cotton factory in Ukraine. There he collected butterflies and moths including descriptions and illustrations of some in Beiträge zur Geschichte der Schmetterlinge (1786–1790) along with other new species from the countryside around his home in Augsburg.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds.
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Russia to the north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it both the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy.
Hübner's masterwork "Tentamen" was intended as a discussion document. Inadvertently published, it led to subsequent confusion in classification. His publications were issued in sections, some after his death, often without associated publication dates. Arthur Francis Hemming, secretary of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, summarized all the citations of Hübner's proposed taxonomic names, thereby constraining the possible dates of publication leading to the acceptance of Hübner's works as valid taxonomic publications.
The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 27 members from 19 countries, mainly practicing zoological taxonomists.
Carl Geyer (1796–1841) was a German entomologist who wrote and illustrated various supplements to Jacob Hübner's works on Lepidoptera.
Dr Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer was a German entomologist and physician. He was born, and died, in Regensburg. Herrich-Schäffer studied and collected particularly butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera). He was chairman of the Regensburg Botanical Society from 1861 to 1871, and was awarded an honorary citizenship of Regensburg in 1871.
Johann Friedrich Gmelin was a German naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist, and malacologist.
Franz von Paula Schrank was a German priest, botanist and entomologist.
Georg Gustav Fülleborn was a German philosopher, philologist and miscellaneous writer.
Christian Friedrich Freyer was a German entomologist mainly interested in Lepidoptera.
Dyspteris is a monotypic moth genus in the family Geometridae erected by Jacob Hübner in 1818 found in North America. Its only species, Dyspteris abortivaria, the bad-wing, was first described by Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer in 1855. It is called "bad-wing" because its forewing is much larger than its hindwing, making it often difficult to pull into position for spreading.
Lepidopterology, is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies. Someone who studies in this field is a lepidopterist or, archaically, an aurelian.
Polyommatus myrrha is a species of butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It was first described as Lycaena myrrha by Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer in 1851 in the six volume Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa. This rare species has been found in Anatolia area of Turkey. and in the Zangezur Mountains, which is inhabited by subspecies P. m. cinyraeaNekrutenko & Effendi, 1979.
Cupido lorquinii is a small butterfly found in the West Palearctic that belongs to the blues family.
Tomares nogelii is a small butterfly found in the Palearctic that belongs to the blues family.
Erebia ottomana is a small butterfly found in the East Palearctic that belongs to the browns family.
Polyommatus boisduvalii is a butterfly found in the Palearctic that belongs to the blues family.
Eogenes alcides is a butterfly found in the East Palearctic Asia Minor to Iran, Afghanistan to Pakistan, West China. that belongs to the skippers family.Subspecies E. a. ahriman is found in Turkestan.
Polyommatus iphigenia is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It was described by Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer in 1847. It is found in the Balkans and Asia Minor.
Francis Hemming. Hübner: A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner, and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer , Gottfried Franz von Frölich, and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer. London: Royal Entomological Society of London, 1937. 2 volumes.
Franz Anton Gottfried Frölich was a German entomologist who specialised in Lepidoptera.
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