This article has statements which are anachronisms . (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (May 2009)
Jacob H. Gallinger
|Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference|
March 4, 1913 –August 17, 1918
|Deputy||James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. (1915)|
|Preceded by||Shelby Moore Cullom|
|Succeeded by||Henry Cabot Lodge|
|President pro tempore of the United States Senate|
February 12, 1912 –March 4, 1913
|Preceded by||Augustus O. Bacon|
|Succeeded by||James Paul Clarke|
| United States Senator from|
March 4, 1891 –August 17, 1918
|Preceded by||Henry W. Blair|
|Succeeded by||Irving W. Drew|
|Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives |
from New Hampshire's 2nd district
March 4, 1885 –March 3, 1889
|Preceded by||Ossian Ray|
|Succeeded by||Orren C. Moore|
|Member of the New Hampshire Senate|
|Member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives|
|Born||March 28, 1837|
Cornwall, Ontario, British Canada
|Died||August 17, 1918 81) (aged|
Franklin, New Hampshire, U.S.
Jacob Harold Gallinger (March 28, 1837 – August 17, 1918), was a United States Senator from New Hampshire who served as President pro tempore of the Senate in 1912 and 1913.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 5th smallest by area and the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state. It has no general sales tax, nor is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U.S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die". The state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite formations and quarries.
The President pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate, and mandates that the Senate must choose a President pro tempore to act in the Vice President's absence. Unlike the Vice President, the President pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue. Selected by the Senate at large, the President pro tempore has enjoyed many privileges and some limited powers. During the Vice President's absence, the President pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the Vice President nor the President pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior U.S. Senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.
Born in Cornwall, Ontario, British Canada, Gallinger moved to the U.S. at an early age and first worked as a printer. He studied medicine at the Cincinnati Eclectic Medical Institute, from which he graduated in May 1858. He studied abroad for two years, and then returned to the United States and engaged in the practice of homeopathic medicine and surgery in Concord, New Hampshire. He was an active member of the American Institute of Homeopathy (AIH) from 1868–80, and throughout his political career, he was a forthright advocate of the homeopathic school of thought and practice. Besides the AIH, he was a member of many state and national medical societies and a frequent contributor to the journals of his profession. He was on the board of trustees of Columbia Hospital for Women, and a member of the board of visitors to Providence Hospital.
Cornwall is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada, and the seat of the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. Cornwall is Ontario's easternmost city, located on the Saint Lawrence River in the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor along Ontario Highway 401, and is the urban centre for surrounding communities, including Long Sault and Ingleside to the west, Mohawk Territory of Akwesasne to the south, St. Andrew's and Avonmore to the north, and Glen Walter, Martintown, Apple Hill, Williamstown, and Lancaster to the east.
Canada was under British rule beginning with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire. Gradually, other territories, colonies and provinces that were part of British North America would be added to Canada, along with land through the use of treaties with First Peoples.
Concord is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Hampshire and the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 42,695.
He was elected to the New Hampshire House of Representatives and served from 1872 to 1873. He served as a member of the state constitutional convention in 1876. He was then elected to the New Hampshire Senate and served from 1878 to 1880. He became surgeon general of New Hampshire, with the rank of brigadier general, from 1879 to 1880. He was then elected as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives, serving from March 4, 1885, to March 3, 1889, but declined to be a candidate for reelection in 1888.
The New Hampshire House of Representatives is the lower house in the New Hampshire General Court, the bicameral legislature of the state of New Hampshire. The House of Representatives consists of 400 members coming from 204 legislative districts across the state, created from divisions of the state's counties. On average, each legislator represents about 3,300 residents.
A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution. Members of a constitutional convention are often, though not necessarily or entirely, elected by popular vote. However, a wholly popularly-elected constitutional convention can also be referred to as a constituent assembly.
The New Hampshire Senate has been meeting since 1784. It is the upper house of the New Hampshire General Court. It consists of 24 members representing Senate districts based on population. As of December 5, 2018, there are 14 Democrats and 10 Republicans.
After a brief stint returning to the New Hampshire House, Gallinger was elected to the United States Senate in 1891. He was reelected by the legislature without opposition in 1897, 1903 and 1909, and by popular vote in 1914, and served from March 4, 1891, until his death in Franklin, New Hampshire in 1918. He was chairman of the delegations from his state to the Republican National Convention of 1888, 1900, 1904 and 1908, and for a time was a member of the Republican National Committee.
Franklin is a city in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 8,477, the least of any of New Hampshire's 13 cities. Franklin includes the village of West Franklin.
The Republican National Convention (RNC) is a series of presidential nominating conventions of the United States Republican Party since 1856. Administered by the Republican National Committee, the stated purpose of the convocation is to nominate an official candidate in an upcoming U.S. presidential election, and to adopt the party platform and rules for the election cycle.
The Republican National Committee (RNC) is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy. It is also responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U.S. state and most U.S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman.
He was President pro tempore during the Sixty-second Congress and was also Republican Conference chairman. His additional achievements included chairman of the Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, Committee on Pensions, Committee on the District of Columbia, and chairman of the Merchant Marine Commission.He also was named a member of the National Forest Reservation Commission, established by the Weeks Act, the Senate version of which Gallinger had sponsored.
The United States Senate Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, was a Senate committee, initially authorized by Senate resolution as a select committee on December 16, 1872. The select committee, also known as the Windom Select Committee for its first chairman, William Windom, submitted their significant report regarding current rail and water transportation on April 24, 1874; it was ordered to be printed the same day. The committee became a standing committee on March 19, 1879, with little documented activity, and continued to exist until 1921.
The Weeks Act is a federal law enacted by the United States Congress on March 1, 1911. Introduced by Massachusetts Congressman John W. Weeks and signed into law by President William Howard Taft, the law authorized the US Secretary of Agriculture to "Examine, locate and recommend for purchase ... such lands within the watersheds of navigable streams as ... may be necessary to the regulation of flow of navigable streams...." This meant that the federal government would be able to purchase private land if the purchase was deemed necessary to protect rivers' and watersheds' headwaters in the eastern United States. Furthermore, the law allowed for land acquired through this act to be preserved and maintained as national forest territory. Six years earlier, the Transfer Act of 1905 transferred control over the federal forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture and its Forest Service. Responsibility for land purchased through the Weeks Act was not given to former Chief Forester Gifford Pinchot because he resigned in 1907, with the stipulation that he would only resign if he could appoint his successor. This stipulation led to the Forest Service's tradition of picking a head with forestry knowledge. With the land acquired through the Weeks Act, Pinchot's successor obtained the power to issue permits for water power development on National Forests. The Weeks Act appropriated $9 million to purchase 6 million acres (24,000 km2) of land in the eastern United States.
Gallinger received the honorary degree of A.M. from Dartmouth College in 1885 and served as trustee of George Washington University for several years. He was interred at Blossom Hill Cemetery, Concord.
A Master of Arts is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth primarily trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history. The university gradually secularized, and by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education.
The George Washington University is a private research university in Washington, D.C. It was chartered in 1821 by an act of the United States Congress.
(The subsequent text concerning Gallinger's life up until 1903 is derived from State Builders, see note below)
United States Senator Jacob H. Gallinger has been for more than thirty years a conspicuous figure in the public life of his state. He was born March 28, 1837, at Cornwall, Ontario, descended on the paternal side from German ancestry, and his mother being of American stock. At an early age with only the limited advantages of schooling possible to be had at his home, he was thrown upon his own resources and early displayed that unflagging industry which has been the chief instrument of his rise to favor in professional and public life.
As a youth he learned the printing trade and for a time published a newspaper. The printing-office was to him at once a source of livelihood and a school, and there he laid the foundations for that wide knowledge of men and affairs which has since been so marvelously extended in the course of his remarkable career as a public man.
While still at work at the case he began the study of medicine, and in 1855 he entered a medical school at Cincinnati, Ohio, whence he was graduated at the head of his class in 1858. Feeling, however, that he was not yet qualified for the active work of his profession, he devoted himself for the next three years to study and travel, finding means to defray his expenses by literary work and incidentally working at the printer's trade, and in 1861 he entered upon practice in the city of Keene, where he remained only a few months, removing to Concord in April 1862, where for twenty-three years he was actively engaged in the practice of medicine and established a large and especially remunerative business.
His aptitude for public affairs became early apparent, and in 1872 he held his first public office as member of the New Hampshire legislature. He was re-elected in 1873, and in 1876 was chosen a member of the constitutional convention. In 1878 he was elected a member of the state senate and was chosen for a second term, serving in 1879 as president of that body. During the administration of Governor Natt Head he served upon the Chief Magistrate's staff as Surgeon-General. In 1882 he was chosen chairman of the Republican State Committee and served in that capacity until 1890 when he resigned.
In 1884 he was elected to the Forty-ninth Congress, was re-elected in 1886 by an enlarged majority, and declined a third nomination in 1888. In 1888 he was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation to the Republican National Convention at Chicago, where his political sagacity was well illustrated by the fact that he was one of the seconders of the nomination of the successful candidate, General Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. In 1890 he was again elected to the legislature, and during that session of the General Court was chosen United States Senator, entering upon his duties March 4, 1891. He was re-elected after a unanimous nomination in the Republican caucus in 1897, and in 1903 he received the unprecedented honor of a third consecutive election for a full term, receiving every vote that was cast in the caucus.
In the senate, he ranks with the leaders of his party. He is at the head of large and important committees and is an indefatigable worker in legislative lines. A master of parliamentary law he is frequently called upon to preside, and his voice is potent, both in speech upon the floor of the Senate and in private conference in the shaping of the great policies of his party and the nation.
Senator Gallinger is a public speaker of wide repute and his services are in constant demand in many states in every campaign. The larger portion of his political activity in this line, however, he devotes to his own state, where no advocate of party policies is more eagerly heard or more enthusiastically welcomed. In 1898 Senator Gallinger was again called to the chairmanship of the Republican state committee, and was re-elected to that position in 1900 and in 1902. In 1900 he again headed his state's delegation at the Republican National Convention, and in 1901 he was made the New Hampshire member of the Republican National Committee.
Reed Smoot was a businessman and apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints when he was elected by the Utah state legislature to the United States Senate in 1902; he served as a Republican senator from 1903 to 1933. From his time in the Senate, Smoot is primarily remembered as the co-sponsor of the 1930 Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act, which increased almost 900 American import duties. Thomas Lamont, a partner at J.P. Morgan at the time said, "That Act intensified nationalism all over the world". The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act is widely regarded as one of the catalysts for the Great Depression.
Frank Bartlett Willis was a Republican politician from Ohio. He served as the 47th Governor of Ohio from 1915 to 1917, then served as a U.S. Senator from Ohio from 1921 until his death in 1928.
Samuel Livermore was a U.S. politician. He was a U.S. Senator from New Hampshire from 1793 to 1801 and served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate in 1796 and again in 1799.
The Senate Republican Conference is the formal organization of the Republican Senators in the United States Senate, who currently number 53. Over the last century, the mission of the conference has expanded and been shaped as a means of informing the media of the opinions and activities of Senate Republicans. Today the Senate Republican Conference assists Republican Senators by providing a full range of communications services including graphics, radio, television, and the Internet. Its current Chairman is Senator John Thune, and its Vice Chairwoman is currently Senator Joni Ernst.
Harry Stewart New was a U.S. politician, journalist, and Spanish–American War veteran. He served as Chairman of the Republican National Committee, a United States Senator from Indiana, and United States Postmaster General.
George Higgins Moses was a U.S. diplomat and political figure. He served as a United States Senator from New Hampshire and was chosen as the Senate's President pro tempore.
Jacob Merritt Howard was an American attorney and politician. He was most notable for his service as a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan, and his political career spanned the American Civil War.
Thomas Collier Platt was a two-term member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1873–1877) and a three-term U.S. Senator from New York in the years 1881 and 1897–1909. He is best known as the "political boss" of the Republican Party in New York State in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Upon his death, the New York Times stated that "no man ever exercised less influence in the Senate or the House of Representatives than he," but "no man ever exercised more power as a political leader." He considered himself the "political godfather" of many Republican governors of the state, including Theodore Roosevelt.
Royal Samuel Copeland, a United States Senator from New York from 1923 until 1938, was an academic, homeopathic physician, and politician. He held elected offices in both Michigan and New York.
Henry Wilder Keyes was a Republican politician from Haverhill, New Hampshire. He served as Governor of New Hampshire and as a United States Senator.
William Joseph DeBoe was a U.S. Senator representing Kentucky from 1897 to 1903.
William Paul Dillingham was an American attorney and politician from the state of Vermont. A Republican and the son of Congressman and Governor Paul Dillingham, William P. Dillingham served as governor from 1888 to 1890 and United States Senator from 1900 until his death.
Frank Obadiah Briggs was the Mayor of Trenton, New Jersey from 1899 to 1902. He was a United States Senator from New Jersey from 1907 to 1913.
Alfred Beard Kittredge was a United States Senator from South Dakota.
Henry Clay Hansbrough was a United States politician who served as the first United States Representative from North Dakota, as well as a Senator from North Dakota.
Aaron Harrison Cragin was an American politician and a United States Representative and Senator from New Hampshire.
Austin Franklin Pike was a United States Representative and Senator from New Hampshire. Born in Hebron, New Hampshire, he pursued an academic course, studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Merrimack County in 1845. He was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1850 to 1852 and in 1865–1866, and served as speaker during the last two years. He was a member of the New Hampshire Senate in 1857–1858, serving as president the last year.
Henry Eben Burnham was a United States Senator from New Hampshire. Born in Dunbarton, New Hampshire, he attended the public schools and Kimball Union Academy and married Hannah Elizabeth Patterson. Burnham graduated from Dartmouth College in 1865, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1868 and commenced practice in Manchester. He engaged in banking and insurance and was member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1873-1874, was treasurer of Hillsborough County from 1875 to 1877, was judge of probate for Hillsborough County from 1876 to 1879, and was a member of the State constitutional convention of 1889. He was chairman of the Republican State convention in 1888, served as a ballot-law commissioner from 1892 to 1900, and was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 1901.
Irving Webster Drew was a United States Senator from New Hampshire. Born in Colebrook, he attended Kimball Union Academy and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1870. He moved to Lancaster, New Hampshire, where he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1871 and commenced practice in Lancaster. He was appointed major of the New Hampshire National Guard in 1876 and served three years. In 1883-1884 he was a member of the New Hampshire Senate. He left the Democratic Party in 1896 and became a member of the Republican Party; he was a delegate to the State constitutional conventions in 1902 and 1912, and engaged in banking and the railroad business.
Thomas H. Tongue was an American politician and attorney in the state of Oregon. Born in England, his family immigrated to Washington County, Oregon, in 1859. In Oregon, he would serve in the State Senate from 1889 to 1893 and was the seventh mayor of Hillsboro. A Republican, he was chairman of the state party, and national convention delegate in 1892. Tongue served as Congressman from 1897 to 1903 representing Oregon's 1st congressional district.
This article incorporates text from the 1903 State Builders; An Illustrated Historical and Biographical Record of the State of New Hampshire at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century by George Franklyn Willey, a book now in the public domain. Please feel free to update the text but please maintain the proper citations on the information from that source.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacob Harold Gallinger .|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|U.S. House of Representatives|
| U.S. Congressman from New Hampshire |
Orren C. Moore
Henry W. Blair
| United States Senator from New Hampshire |
Irving W. Drew
William P. Frye
| President pro tempore of the United States Senate |
Rotating pro tems
James P. Clarke
David H. Buffum
| President of the New Hampshire Senate |
Shelby Moore Cullom
| Dean of the United States Senate |
March 4, 1913 – August 17, 1918
Henry Cabot Lodge