Jacob Harold Gallinger

Last updated

Jacob H. Gallinger
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg
Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference
In office
March 4, 1913 August 17, 1918
Deputy James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. (1915)
Preceded by Shelby Moore Cullom
Succeeded by Henry Cabot Lodge
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
February 12, 1912 March 4, 1913
Preceded by Augustus O. Bacon
Succeeded by James Paul Clarke
United States Senator from
New Hampshire
In office
March 4, 1891 August 17, 1918
Preceded by Henry W. Blair
Succeeded by Irving W. Drew
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from New Hampshire's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1885 March 3, 1889
Preceded by Ossian Ray
Succeeded by Orren C. Moore
Member of the New Hampshire Senate
In office
Member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives
In office
Personal details
Born(1837-03-28)March 28, 1837
Cornwall, Ontario, British Canada
DiedAugust 17, 1918(1918-08-17) (aged 81)
Franklin, New Hampshire, U.S.
Political party Republican

Jacob Harold Gallinger (March 28, 1837 – August 17, 1918), was a United States Senator from New Hampshire who served as President pro tempore of the Senate in 1912 and 1913.

New Hampshire State of the United States of America

New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 5th smallest by area and the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state. It has no general sales tax, nor is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U.S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die". The state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite formations and quarries.

President pro tempore of the United States Senate second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate

The President pro tempore of the United States Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. Article One, Section Three of the United States Constitution provides that the Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate, and mandates that the Senate must choose a President pro tempore to act in the Vice President's absence. Unlike the Vice President, the President pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, able to speak or vote on any issue. Selected by the Senate at large, the President pro tempore has enjoyed many privileges and some limited powers. During the Vice President's absence, the President pro tempore is empowered to preside over Senate sessions. In practice, neither the Vice President nor the President pro tempore usually presides; instead, the duty of presiding officer is rotated among junior U.S. Senators of the majority party to give them experience in parliamentary procedure.



Mrs. Bailey Gallinger Mrs Bailey Gallinger.jpg
Mrs. Bailey Gallinger

Born in Cornwall, Ontario, British Canada, Gallinger moved to the U.S. at an early age and first worked as a printer. He studied medicine at the Cincinnati Eclectic Medical Institute, from which he graduated in May 1858. He studied abroad for two years, and then returned to the United States and engaged in the practice of homeopathic medicine and surgery in Concord, New Hampshire. He was an active member of the American Institute of Homeopathy (AIH) from 1868–80, and throughout his political career, he was a forthright advocate of the homeopathic school of thought and practice. Besides the AIH, he was a member of many state and national medical societies and a frequent contributor to the journals of his profession. He was on the board of trustees of Columbia Hospital for Women, and a member of the board of visitors to Providence Hospital.

Cornwall, Ontario City in Ontario, Canada

Cornwall is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada, and the seat of the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. Cornwall is Ontario's easternmost city, located on the Saint Lawrence River in the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor along Ontario Highway 401, and is the urban centre for surrounding communities, including Long Sault and Ingleside to the west, Mohawk Territory of Akwesasne to the south, St. Andrew's and Avonmore to the north, and Glen Walter, Martintown, Apple Hill, Williamstown, and Lancaster to the east.

Canada under British rule Colonial Canada

Canada was under British rule beginning with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire. Gradually, other territories, colonies and provinces that were part of British North America would be added to Canada, along with land through the use of treaties with First Peoples.

Concord, New Hampshire capital of New Hampshire

Concord is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Hampshire and the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 42,695.

He was elected to the New Hampshire House of Representatives and served from 1872 to 1873. He served as a member of the state constitutional convention in 1876. He was then elected to the New Hampshire Senate and served from 1878 to 1880. He became surgeon general of New Hampshire, with the rank of brigadier general, from 1879 to 1880. He was then elected as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives, serving from March 4, 1885, to March 3, 1889, but declined to be a candidate for reelection in 1888.

New Hampshire House of Representatives lower house of U.S. state legislature

The New Hampshire House of Representatives is the lower house in the New Hampshire General Court, the bicameral legislature of the state of New Hampshire. The House of Representatives consists of 400 members coming from 204 legislative districts across the state, created from divisions of the state's counties. On average, each legislator represents about 3,300 residents.

Constitutional convention (political meeting) gathering for the purpose of writing or revising a constitution

A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution. Members of a constitutional convention are often, though not necessarily or entirely, elected by popular vote. However, a wholly popularly-elected constitutional convention can also be referred to as a constituent assembly.

New Hampshire Senate upper state chamber of a state of the United-States of America

The New Hampshire Senate has been meeting since 1784. It is the upper house of the New Hampshire General Court. It consists of 24 members representing Senate districts based on population. As of December 5, 2018, there are 14 Democrats and 10 Republicans.

After a brief stint returning to the New Hampshire House, Gallinger was elected to the United States Senate in 1891. He was reelected by the legislature without opposition in 1897, 1903 and 1909, and by popular vote in 1914, and served from March 4, 1891, until his death in Franklin, New Hampshire in 1918. He was chairman of the delegations from his state to the Republican National Convention of 1888, 1900, 1904 and 1908, and for a time was a member of the Republican National Committee.

Franklin, New Hampshire City in New Hampshire, United States

Franklin is a city in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 8,477, the least of any of New Hampshire's 13 cities. Franklin includes the village of West Franklin.

The Republican National Convention (RNC) is a series of presidential nominating conventions of the United States Republican Party since 1856. Administered by the Republican National Committee, the stated purpose of the convocation is to nominate an official candidate in an upcoming U.S. presidential election, and to adopt the party platform and rules for the election cycle.

Republican National Committee top institution of the U.S. Republican Party

The Republican National Committee (RNC) is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy. It is also responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U.S. state and most U.S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman.

He was President pro tempore during the Sixty-second Congress and was also Republican Conference chairman. His additional achievements included chairman of the Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, Committee on Pensions, Committee on the District of Columbia, and chairman of the Merchant Marine Commission. [1] He also was named a member of the National Forest Reservation Commission, established by the Weeks Act, the Senate version of which Gallinger had sponsored. [2]

The United States Senate Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, was a Senate committee, initially authorized by Senate resolution as a select committee on December 16, 1872. The select committee, also known as the Windom Select Committee for its first chairman, William Windom, submitted their significant report regarding current rail and water transportation on April 24, 1874; it was ordered to be printed the same day. The committee became a standing committee on March 19, 1879, with little documented activity, and continued to exist until 1921.

The Weeks Act is a federal law enacted by the United States Congress on March 1, 1911. Introduced by Massachusetts Congressman John W. Weeks and signed into law by President William Howard Taft, the law authorized the US Secretary of Agriculture to "Examine, locate and recommend for purchase ... such lands within the watersheds of navigable streams as ... may be necessary to the regulation of flow of navigable streams...." This meant that the federal government would be able to purchase private land if the purchase was deemed necessary to protect rivers' and watersheds' headwaters in the eastern United States. Furthermore, the law allowed for land acquired through this act to be preserved and maintained as national forest territory. Six years earlier, the Transfer Act of 1905 transferred control over the federal forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture and its Forest Service. Responsibility for land purchased through the Weeks Act was not given to former Chief Forester Gifford Pinchot because he resigned in 1907, with the stipulation that he would only resign if he could appoint his successor. This stipulation led to the Forest Service's tradition of picking a head with forestry knowledge. With the land acquired through the Weeks Act, Pinchot's successor obtained the power to issue permits for water power development on National Forests. The Weeks Act appropriated $9 million to purchase 6 million acres (24,000 km2) of land in the eastern United States.

Gallinger received the honorary degree of A.M. from Dartmouth College in 1885 and served as trustee of George Washington University for several years. He was interred at Blossom Hill Cemetery, Concord.

A Master of Arts is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.

Dartmouth College private liberal arts university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States

Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth primarily trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history. The university gradually secularized, and by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education.

George Washington University university in Washington, D.C.

The George Washington University is a private research university in Washington, D.C. It was chartered in 1821 by an act of the United States Congress.

Biography (State Builders)

(The subsequent text concerning Gallinger's life up until 1903 is derived from State Builders, see note below)

Jacob Harold Gallinger, U.S. Senator from the State of New Hampshire, from State Builders.jpg

United States Senator Jacob H. Gallinger has been for more than thirty years a conspicuous figure in the public life of his state. He was born March 28, 1837, at Cornwall, Ontario, descended on the paternal side from German ancestry, and his mother being of American stock. At an early age with only the limited advantages of schooling possible to be had at his home, he was thrown upon his own resources and early displayed that unflagging industry which has been the chief instrument of his rise to favor in professional and public life. [3]

As a youth he learned the printing trade and for a time published a newspaper. The printing-office was to him at once a source of livelihood and a school, and there he laid the foundations for that wide knowledge of men and affairs which has since been so marvelously extended in the course of his remarkable career as a public man. [3]

While still at work at the case he began the study of medicine, and in 1855 he entered a medical school at Cincinnati, Ohio, whence he was graduated at the head of his class in 1858. Feeling, however, that he was not yet qualified for the active work of his profession, he devoted himself for the next three years to study and travel, finding means to defray his expenses by literary work and incidentally working at the printer's trade, and in 1861 he entered upon practice in the city of Keene, where he remained only a few months, removing to Concord in April 1862, where for twenty-three years he was actively engaged in the practice of medicine and established a large and especially remunerative business. [3]

His aptitude for public affairs became early apparent, and in 1872 he held his first public office as member of the New Hampshire legislature. He was re-elected in 1873, and in 1876 was chosen a member of the constitutional convention. In 1878 he was elected a member of the state senate and was chosen for a second term, serving in 1879 as president of that body. During the administration of Governor Natt Head he served upon the Chief Magistrate's staff as Surgeon-General. In 1882 he was chosen chairman of the Republican State Committee and served in that capacity until 1890 when he resigned. [3]

In 1884 he was elected to the Forty-ninth Congress, was re-elected in 1886 by an enlarged majority, and declined a third nomination in 1888. In 1888 he was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation to the Republican National Convention at Chicago, where his political sagacity was well illustrated by the fact that he was one of the seconders of the nomination of the successful candidate, General Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. In 1890 he was again elected to the legislature, and during that session of the General Court was chosen United States Senator, entering upon his duties March 4, 1891. He was re-elected after a unanimous nomination in the Republican caucus in 1897, and in 1903 he received the unprecedented honor of a third consecutive election for a full term, receiving every vote that was cast in the caucus. [3]

In the senate, he ranks with the leaders of his party. He is at the head of large and important committees and is an indefatigable worker in legislative lines. A master of parliamentary law he is frequently called upon to preside, and his voice is potent, both in speech upon the floor of the Senate and in private conference in the shaping of the great policies of his party and the nation. [3]

Senator Gallinger is a public speaker of wide repute and his services are in constant demand in many states in every campaign. The larger portion of his political activity in this line, however, he devotes to his own state, where no advocate of party policies is more eagerly heard or more enthusiastically welcomed. In 1898 Senator Gallinger was again called to the chairmanship of the Republican state committee, and was re-elected to that position in 1900 and in 1902. In 1900 he again headed his state's delegation at the Republican National Convention, and in 1901 he was made the New Hampshire member of the Republican National Committee. [3]

See also


  1. See: Report of the Merchant Marine Commission, together with the testimony taken at the Hearings, 1905, Vol. III. Hearings on the Southern Coast and at Washington, D.C. and General Index
  2. Protection and Restoration
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Willey, George Franklyn (1903). State Builders; An Illustrated Historical and Biographical Record of the State of New Hampshire at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century. Manchester NH: New Hampshire Pub. Corp. p. 205. OCLC   7566342.

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This article incorporates text from the 1903 State Builders; An Illustrated Historical and Biographical Record of the State of New Hampshire at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century by George Franklyn Willey, a book now in the public domain. Please feel free to update the text but please maintain the proper citations on the information from that source.

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Ossian Ray
U.S. Congressman from New Hampshire
Succeeded by
Orren C. Moore
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Henry W. Blair
United States Senator from New Hampshire
Succeeded by
Irving W. Drew
Political offices
Preceded by
William P. Frye
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
Rotating pro tems
Succeeded by
James P. Clarke
Preceded by
David H. Buffum
President of the New Hampshire Senate
Succeeded by
John Kimball
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Shelby Moore Cullom
Dean of the United States Senate
March 4, 1913 – August 17, 1918
Succeeded by
Henry Cabot Lodge