Jacob Leisler

Last updated
Jacob Leisler
01 Jacob Leisler.JPG
The statue of Jacob Leisler (1913) on North Avenue in New Rochelle, New York
8th Colonial Governor of New York
In office
1689 1691 in rebellion
Preceded by Francis Nicholson
Succeeded by Henry Sloughter
Personal details
Born ca. 1640
Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany
Died May 16, 1691
New York
Profession Merchant, Lieutenant governor of New York

Jacob Leisler (ca. 1640 – May 16, 1691) was a German-born colonist in the Province of New York. He gained wealth in New Amsterdam (later New York City) in the fur trade and tobacco business. In what became known as Leisler's Rebellion following the English Revolution of 1688, he took control of the city, and ultimately the entire province, from appointees of deposed King James II, in the name of the Protestant accession of William III and Mary II.

New Amsterdam historical Dutch colonial settlement that became New York City

New Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland. The factorij became a settlement outside Fort Amsterdam. The fort was situated on the strategic southern tip of the island of Manhattan and was meant to defend the fur trade operations of the Dutch West India Company in the North River. In 1624, it became a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic and was designated as the capital of the province in 1625.

Fur trade worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur

The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued. Historically the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, and the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands.

Leislers Rebellion

Leisler's Rebellion was an uprising in late-17th century colonial New York in which German American merchant and militia captain Jacob Leisler seized control of the colony's south and ruled it from 1689 to 1691. The uprising took place in the aftermath of Britain's Glorious Revolution and the 1689 Boston revolt in the Dominion of New England, which had included New York. The rebellion reflected colonial resentment against the policies of deposed King James II.

Contents

Beginning in 1689, Leisler led an insurrection and seized control of the city by taking over Fort James at the lower end of Manhattan. He took over control of the entire province, appointing himself as acting Lieutenant Governor of the Province of New York, which he retained until March 1691, refusing to yield power until the newly appointed governor himself finally arrived. While Leisler claimed to have acted to support the Protestant accession against Jacobite officeholders in New York, he was arrested by the newly appointed governor of New York in March 1691. With opponents active against him, he was condemned and executed in New York City for treason against the English monarchs William III and Mary II. His estate was forfeited to the Crown.

Fort Amsterdam former fort in New York

Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of New York from 1625 or 1626, until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution.

Province of New York English, from 1707, British, possession in North America between 1664 and 1776

The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America. As one of the Thirteen Colonies, New York achieved independence and worked with the others to found the United States.

Jacobitism political ideology

Jacobitism was the name of the political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the House of Stuart to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The movement was named after Jacobus, the Latin form of James.

During his period of control, Leisler completed a major purchase of property from John Pell, lord of Pelham Manor, to set up a French Huguenot settlement north of Manhattan. This developed as the city of New Rochelle, New York.

John Pell British mathematician

John Pell was an English mathematician and political agent abroad.

New Rochelle, New York City in New York, United States

New Rochelle is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state.

Leisler's son and supporters found the trial and conviction most unjust; it was mounted by his enemies. They worked to clear the names of Leisler and Jacob Milborne (his son in law) and for the restoration of their estates to their heirs, which was achieved in 1695 by an act of Parliament. Remains of the two men were reinterred with honors at the Dutch Reformed Church in Manhattan.

Jacob Milborne was an American clerk living in the Province of New York who was an ally, secretary and son-in-law of the rebel Jacob Leisler, served briefly as Attorney General of the province, and was executed for his part in Leisler's Rebellion.

Early life

Leisler was born in the village of Bockenheim, now a central part of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in March 1640, the son of Calvinist French Reformed minister Jacob Victorian Leisler. After his father's death in 1651, Leisler was sent to military school. [1]

Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main) Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main in Hesse, Germany

Bockenheim is a city district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

He went to New Amsterdam (later New York) in 1660 as a soldier in the service of the Dutch West India Company. Leaving the company's employ soon after his arrival, Leisler engaged in the lucrative fur trade and tobacco trade, and became a wealthy man. [2] New York tax records from 1676 list Leisler as the third wealthiest man in the city. [3]

Dutch West India Company Dutch trading company

Dutch West India Company was a chartered company of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors. Among its founders was Willem Usselincx (1567–1647). On June 3, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the Dutch West Indies by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over Dutch participation in the Atlantic slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America. The area where the company could operate consisted of West Africa and the Americas, which included the Pacific Ocean and the eastern part of New Guinea. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants. The company became instrumental in the largely ephemeral Dutch colonization of the Americas in the seventeenth century. From 1624 to 1654, in the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War, the WIC held Portuguese territory in northeast Brazil, but they were ousted from Dutch Brazil following fierce resistance.

In 1674, Leisler was one of the administrators of a forced loan imposed by Anthony Colve. [4] While residing in Albany in 1676, Leisler engaged in a theological dispute with the Rev. Nicholas van Rensselaer, who had been appointed to the Reformed pulpit by James, Duke of York (later King James II). [2] His finances and reputation both suffered from this encounter, as he and a fellow dissenter Jacob Milborne were forced to pay all the costs of a lawsuit they had initiated in the dispute. [4] While on a voyage to Europe in 1678, he was captured by Moorish pirates, and was compelled to pay a ransom of 2,050 pieces of eight to obtain his freedom. [2]

Leisler had endeared himself to the common people by befriending a family of French Huguenots who had been landed on Manhattan island. They were so destitute that a public tribunal had decided they should be sold into slavery in order to pay their ship charges. Leisler prevented the sale by purchasing the freedom of the widowed mother and son before the sale could be held. French Huguenots were arriving in New York as refugees from religious persecution by Catholics in France. Under Thomas Dongan's administration in 1683, Leisler was appointed one of the judges, or "commissioners," of the court of admiralty in New York, a justice of the peace for New York City and County, and a militia captain. [2]

Leisler's rebellion

The English Revolution of 1688 also played out in New York, where people of a wide variety of religious and ethnic backgrounds divided into two well-defined factions. In general, the small shopkeepers, small farmers, sailors, poor traders and artisans allied against the patroons (landholders), rich fur-traders, merchants, lawyers and crown officers. The former were led by Leisler (himself a wealthy man), the latter by Peter Schuyler, Nicholas Bayard, Stephen Van Cortlandt, William Nicolls and other representatives of the aristocratic Hudson Valley families. The Leislerians claimed greater loyalty to the Protestant accession. [5]

In 1688, Governor Dongan was succeeded by Lieutenant-Governor Francis Nicholson. In 1689, the military force of the city of New York consisted of a regiment of five companies, with Leisler as one of the company captains. He was popular with the men and was probably the only wealthy resident in the province who sympathized with the Dutch lower classes. At that time, the latter were agitated owing to the attempts of the Jacobite office-holders to retain power in spite of the revolution in England and the accession of William III and Mary II to the throne. [2] When news was received that Governor Sir Edmund Andros had been imprisoned in Boston by the opposition, the Leislerians took possession, on May 31, 1689, of Fort James at the southern end of Manhattan Island. They renamed it Fort William and announced their determination to hold it until the arrival of a governor commissioned by the new sovereigns. [5]

On a report that supporters of King James II were about to seize the fort and massacre their Dutch fellow-citizens, an armed mob gathered on the evening of 2 June 1689 to overthrow the existing government. The cry of "Leisler" was raised, and the crowd rushed to his house. At first, he refused to lead the movement, but when the demand was reiterated he acceded, and within an hour received the keys of the fort, which had been seized. The revolutionaries took advantage of the fort containing all the public funds, which return Lieutenant Governor Nicholson demanded in vain.

Four hundred of the new party signed an agreement to hold the fort "for the present Protestant power that reigns in England," while a committee of safety of ten of the city freeholders assumed the powers of a provisional government, of which they declared Jacob Leisler to be the head. They commissioned him as "captain of the fort." In this capacity, he began to repair the fort, strengthening it with a battery of six guns beyond its walls. This was the origin of the public park known as the Battery in Lower Manhattan. [2] Thus began Leisler's Rebellion. [5]

Leisler as acting lieutenant-governor

The aristocrats also favored deposing James, but preferred to continue the provincial government established by his authority rather than risk the danger of an interregnum. [5] Nicholson and the council of the province, with the authorities of the city, headed by Mayor Stephen van Cortlandt, attempted to prevent the uprising, but without effect. Finally, becoming alarmed for his own safety, Lieutenant-Governor Nicholson sailed for England on the 24th of June. The New York City mayor and other officials retired to Albany. [2]

Albany held out against Leisler's authority for a time. In November, Leisler sent Jacob Milborne to Albany with an armed force to assist in its defense against any Indians. Milborne was directed to withhold aid unless Leisler's authority was recognized. This was refused, and Milborne returned unsuccessful. [2] But after the destruction of Schenectady on February 19, 1690, by the French and their allied Indians, Christian Mohawk among them, Albany submitted to Leisler's authority. [6]

Under authority of a letter from the home government addressed to Nicholson, "or in his absence, to such as for the time being takes care for preserving the peace and administering the laws in His Majesty's province of New York," Leisler had assumed the title of lieutenant-governor in December 1689. He dissolved the committee of safety, appointed a council, and took charge of the government of the entire province. [5] [7] He appointed Jacob Milborne as Clerk to the Council, Attorney-General, Advocate General and his Secretary. [8] Milborne married Leisler's daughter Mary.

Leisler summoned the first Intercolonial Congress in America, which met in New York on May 1, 1690, to plan concerted action against the French and Native Americans in the ongoing conflict in North America. [5] The congress planned an expedition against Canada. It equipped and dispatched against Quebec the first fleet of men-of-war ever sent from the Port of New York. However, the expedition was unsuccessful. [6] [7]

In the meantime, Colonel Henry Sloughter had been commissioned Governor of the Province of New York by William and Mary on September 3, 1689, but he did not reach New York until March 19, 1691. [5]

Leisler and the Huguenots

Acting on behalf of a group of Huguenots in New York, Leisler brokered the purchase of land upon which they could settle. In 1689 John Pell, Lord of Pelham Manor, officially deeded 6,100 acres (25 km²) to Leisler for the establishment of a Huguenot community north of Manhattan. On September 20, 1689, Leisler donated a third of this land to Huguenot refugees. [9] In addition to the purchase money, Leisler and his heirs and assigns were to yield and pay unto John Pell and his heirs and assigns (Lords of the Pelham Manor) one "Fat Calf" yearly, as acknowledgment of their feudal obligation to the Manor. [10] This settlement developed as the city of New Rochelle, New York. [2]

End of the rebellion

Howard Pyle's depiction of Governor Sloughter signing Leisler's death warrant LeislersDeathWarrant.jpg
Howard Pyle's depiction of Governor Sloughter signing Leisler's death warrant

On January 28, 1691, English Major Richard Ingoldesby, who had been commissioned Lieutenant Governor of the province, landed with two companies of soldiers in Manhattan and demanded possession of Fort James. Leisler refused to surrender the fort without an order from the king or the governor. After some controversy, Ingoldesby attacked the fort on 17 March, during which Leisler's forces killed two of his soldiers and wounded several. [5]

When Governor Sloughter finally arrived in New York the following March, he immediately demanded Leisler's surrender. Leisler refused to surrender the fort until he was convinced of Sloughter's identity and the governor had sworn in his council. As soon as the latter event occurred, he wrote the governor a letter resigning his command.

Sloughter responded by arresting Leisler and nine of his colleagues, including his son-in-law Jacob Milborne. All but Milborne were released after trial. Leisler was imprisoned, charged with treason and murder. Shortly afterward he was tried and condemned to death. His son-in-law and secretary, Milborne, was condemned on the same charges. Leisler's son and other supporters were outraged by the trials, as they were considered unjust. The judges were the personal and political enemies of the prisoners, and their acts were described as "gross." [2]

Governor Sloughter was said to have hesitated to sign the death-warrants, but was trying to stabilize politics in the colony and did not have sufficient influence among the elite of New York City. He was said to finally sign the warrants under the influence of wine. [2]

On the 16 May 1691, Leisler and Milborne were executed. [5] The court had sentenced them to be hanged "by the Neck and being Alive their bodyes be Cutt downe to Earth and Their Bowells to be taken out and they being Alive, burnt before their faces. . ."[ citation needed ] (In fact, the real villain [Robert Livingston] later bragged in writing that the pair were spared the disemboweling and were cut down before dead and decapitated by sword. The crowd then began fighting over their heads to acquire hair as a souvenir.) and by the English law of treason, their estates were forfeited to the Crown. Leisler's son and other supporters appealed for justice from the committee of the Privy Council; it reported that, although the trial was in conformity to the forms of law, they nevertheless recommended the restoration of the estates to their heirs.

Restitution

In 1695, by an act of Parliament, achieved through the efforts of Leisler's son and supporters, the names of Jacob Leisler and Milborne were cleared. Leisler's estate was restored to his heirs. Three years later the Earl of Bellomont, who had been one of the most influential supporters of Leisler's son, was appointed as governor of New York. Through his influence the assembly voted an indemnity to Leisler's heirs. [2]

Personal life

He married Elsie Tymens, the widow of Pieter Cornelisz van der Veen in 1663. [5]

As stated above, Leisler, along with Milborne were executed in New York on 16 May 1691. [5]

Some descendants of Leisler use his surname as a middle name. The most prominent of them is Walther Leisler Kiep, a CDU politician.

Legacy and honors

Related Research Articles

Joseph Dudley Royal governor of Massachusetts

Joseph Dudley was an English colonial administrator, a native of Roxbury, Massachusetts, and the son of one of its founders. He had a leading role in the administration of the Dominion of New England (1686–1689), which was overthrown in the 1689 Boston revolt. He served briefly on the council of the Province of New York where he oversaw the trial which convicted Jacob Leisler, the ringleader of Leisler's Rebellion. He then spent eight years in England in the 1690s as Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight, including one year as a Member of Parliament for Newtown. In 1702, he returned to New England after being appointed governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and Province of New Hampshire, posts that he held until 1715.

The Albany Convention was an independent governing body led by local civil and military officials centred on Albany, New York during Leisler's Rebellion.

Francis Nicholson British general and colonial official

Lieutenant-General Sir Francis Nicholson was a British Army general and colonial official who served as the Governor of South Carolina from 1721 to 1725. He previously was the Governor of Nova Scotia from 1712 to 1715, the Governor of Virginia from 1698 to 1705, the Governor of Maryland from 1694 to 1698, the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia from 1690 to 1692, and the Lieutenant Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1688 to 1689.

Henry Sloughter was briefly colonial governor of New York and Massachusetts in 1691. Sloughter was the governor who put down Leisler's Rebellion, which had installed Jacob Leisler as de facto governor in 1689. He was briefly appointed as governor of Massachusetts following the Massachusetts Charter of 1691. Lieutenant Governor Richard Ingoldesby, who had served against Leisler's rebels, took over after Sloughter's death until the arrival of Benjamin Fletcher.

Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont Colonial governor of New York, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts

Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont, known as The Lord Coote between 1683–89, was a member of the English Parliament and a colonial governor. Born in Ireland, he was an early supporter of William III and Mary II, siding with them in the Glorious Revolution.

Richard Ingoldsby or Ingoldesby was a British army officer and lieutenant governor of both New Jersey and New York. He became the acting governor for the two colonies from May 1709 to April 1710.

Gerardus Willemse Beekman was a wealthy physician, land owner, and colonial governor of the Province of New York.

New Rochelle is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state. The town was settled by refugee Huguenots in 1688 who were fleeing Catholic pogroms in France. Many of the settlers were artisans and craftsmen from the city of La Rochelle, France, thus influencing the choice of the name of "New Rochelle".

1689 Boston revolt April 1689 revolt in Boston

The 1689 Boston revolt was a popular uprising on April 18, 1689 against the rule of Sir Edmund Andros, the governor of the Dominion of New England. A well-organized "mob" of provincial militia and citizens formed in the town of Boston, the capital of the dominion, and arrested dominion officials. Members of the Church of England were also taken into custody if they were believed to sympathize with the administration of the dominion. Neither faction sustained casualties during the revolt. Leaders of the former Massachusetts Bay Colony then reclaimed control of the government. In other colonies, members of governments displaced by the dominion were returned to power.

Godefridus Dellius was a clergyman of the Dutch Reformed Church active in and around Albany, New York during the late 17th century and up to 1699. He also served as a missionary to the Mohawk people in what the English claimed as the Province of New York.

The Charter of Liberties and Privileges was an act passed by the New York General Assembly during its first session in 1683 that laid out the political organization of the colony, set up the procedures for election to the assembly, created 12 counties, and guaranteed certain individual rights for the colonists. The colony operated under the Charter until May 1686 when Thomas Dongan, the governor of New York, received instructions from King James II that New York would be assimilated into the Dominion of New England. After the Glorious Revolution William III and Mary II appointed a new governor, who convened the colonial assembly on April 5, 1691.

Nicholas van Rensselaer was a Reformed Dutch Church clergyman, and one time director of the Manor of Rensselaerwyck.

Statue of Jacob Leisler

The Jacob Leisler Monument is a bronze sculpture designed by American artist Solon Borglum and located in the city of New Rochelle, in Westchester County, New York. The monument was erected by the Huguenot Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, and the Huguenot Association of New Rochelle to the memory of Jacob Leisler, 17th-century advocate of the Huguenot settlers and said to be the first chief executive of the province of New York to draw his power directly from the people. The unveiling of the statue on June 24, 1913, was the principal event in the celebration of the 250th anniversary of the founding of New Rochelle. The monument is the only existing statue of Leisler.

Davenport Neck

Davenport Neck is a peninsula in New Rochelle, New York, extending southwesterly from the mainland into Long Island Sound, and running parallel to the main shore. It divides the city's waterfront into two, with New Rochelle Harbor to the south and southwest, and Echo Bay, to the north and northeast. Glen Island and Neptune Island lie just to the west of the Neck, and Davids' and Huckleberry islands lie to the south.

William Pinhorne was an American colonial politician and jurist, who served in various capacities in both New York and New Jersey.

Abraham Gouverneur was a Dutch born colonial American merchant and Leislerian politician who served as the Speaker of the New York General Assembly.

James Graham was an English born colonial American politician who served as the Speaker of the New York General Assembly.

William Nicoll was an English born colonial American merchant and politician who served as the Speaker of the New York General Assembly.

References

Notes

  1. Voorhees, David (July 1994). "The 'fervent zeale' of Jacob Leisler". The William and Mary Quarterly. 51 (3): 455. doi:10.2307/2947438. JSTOR   2947438.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Wikisource-logo.svg Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1892). "Leisler, Jacob". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography . New York: D. Appleton.
  3. Voorhees 1994 , p. 457
  4. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Leisler, Jacob". The American Cyclopædia .
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Chisholm 1911 , p. 402
  6. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg  Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Leisler, Jacob". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  7. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Leisler, Jacob". Encyclopedia Americana .
  8. "The Supreme Court of the Province of New York 1674-1776". Historica Society of the New York Courts. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  9. Voorhees 1994 , p. 465
  10. New York - A Guide to The Empire State, Work Projects Administration of New York, p. 245.
  11. 1 2 "Jacob Leisler; New Rochelle's Founder Taken as Hero in Drama", New York Times, 29 June 1913, accessed 13 November 2015
  12. Swales, Martin and Schoeps, Karl-Heinz. Literature and Film in the Third Reich. Camden House, 2004, pgs 133-136

Sources

Further reading

Government offices
Preceded by
Edmund Andros
Francis Nicholson

as Governor and Lieutenant Governor of the Dominion of New England
Governor of the Province of New York (in rebellion)
December 1689-January 28, 1691
Succeeded by
Henry Sloughter