Jacob Golius born Jacob van Gool (1596 – September 28, 1667) was an Orientalist and mathematician based at the University of Leiden in Netherlands. He is primarily remembered as an Orientalist. He published Arabic texts in Arabic at Leiden, and did Arabic-to-Latin translations. His best-known work is an Arabic-to-Latin dictionary, Lexicon Arabico-Latinum (1653), which he sourced for the most part from the Sihah dictionary of Al-Jauhari and the Qamous dictionary of Fairuzabadi.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Middle Eastern studies and Asian studies. Traditional Oriental studies in Europe is today generally focused on the discipline of Islamic studies, while the study of China, especially traditional China, is often called Sinology. The study of East Asia in general, especially in the United States, is often called East Asian studies, while the study of Israel and Jews are called Israel studies and Jewish studies respectively, although they are often considered the same field.
Abu Nasr Isma'il ibn Hammad al-Jawhari also spelled al-Jauhari was a Turkic lexicographer and the author of a notable Arabic dictionary.
Fairuzabadi, also known as El-Firuz Abadi or al-Fayrūzābādī (1329–1414) was a lexicographer and was the compiler of a comprehensive Arabic dictionary. The dictionary, called al-Qamous (القاموس), was one of the most widely used in Arabic for nearly five centuries.
Golius was born in The Hague. He went to the University of Leiden in 1612 to study mathematics. In 1618 he registered again to study Arabic and other Eastern languages at Leiden, where he was the most distinguished pupil of Erpenius. In 1622 he accompanied the Dutch embassy to Morocco, and on his return he was chosen to succeed Erpenius as professor of Arabic at Leiden (1625). In the following year he set out on a tour of the Eastern Mediterranean lands, from which he did not return until 1629. A key purpose of the tour was to collect Arabic texts and bring them back to the Leiden University library.The remainder of his life was spent at Leiden where he held the chair of mathematics as well as that of Arabic.
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is also the seat of government of the Netherlands.
Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi). Its capital is Rabat, the largest city Casablanca. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction.
Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.
Golius taught mathematics to the French philosopher René Descartes, and later corresponded with him.It is therefore highly probable that he was able to read to him parts of the mathematical Arabic texts he had started to collect, among others on the Conics.
René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–1649) of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces. He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual figures of the Dutch Golden Age.
Among his earlier publications may be mentioned editions of various Arabic texts (Proverbia quaedam Alis, imperatoris Muslemici, et Carmen Tograipoetae doctissimi, necnon dissertatio quaedam Aben Synae, 1629; and Ahmedis Arabsiadae vitae et rerum gestarum Timuri, gui vulgo Tamer, lanes dicitur, historia, 1636). In 1656 he published a new edition, with considerable additions, of the Grammatica Arabica of Erpenius. After his death, there was found among his papers a Dictionarium Persico-Latinum which was published, with additions, by Edmund Castell in his Lexicon heptaglotton (1669). Golius also edited, translated and annotated the astronomical treatise of the 9th century Arabic astronomer Al-Farghani.
Edmund Castell (1606–1686) was an English orientalist.
Golius's Lexicon Arabico-Latinum, about 1500 pages, published at Leiden in 1653, was a big improvement on the Arabic-to-Latin dictionary of Franciscus Raphelengius, which was published at Leiden in 1613. Golius possessed mainstream medieval Arabic dictionaries written solely in Arabic, and was able to translate their contents into Latin. Raphelengius did not have the benefit of seeing these Arabic dictionaries. Golius's dictionary was later improved and expanded by Georg Freytag's Arabic-to-Latin dictionary in 1837.
Frans van Ravelingen Latinized Franciscus Raphelengius, was a Flemish-born scholar, printer and bookseller, working at Antwerp and later at Leiden. For the last decade of his life he was professor of Hebrew at Leiden University. He produced an Arabic-Latin dictionary, about 550 pages, published posthumously in 1613 at Leiden. This was the first publication by printing press of a book-length dictionary for the Arabic language in Latin.
Edward Pococke was an English Orientalist and biblical scholar.
Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī. (800/805-870) also known as Alfraganus in the West, was an astronomer in the Abbasid court in Baghdad, and one of the most famous astronomers in the 9th century. The lunar crater Alfraganus is named after him.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Freytag was a German philologist.
Isaac Beeckman was a Dutch philosopher and scientist, who, through his studies and contact with leading natural philosophers, may have "virtually given birth to modern atomism".
Hiob or Job Ludolf, also known as Job Leutholf, was a German orientalist, born at Erfurt. Edward Ullendorff rates Ludolf as having "the most illustrious name in Ethiopic scholarship".
Thomas van Erpe [known as Thomas Erpenius], Dutch Orientalist, was born at Gorinchem, in Holland. He was the first European to publish an accurate book of Arabic grammar.
William Bedwell was an English priest and scholar, specializing in Arabic and other "oriental" languages as well as in mathematics.
Valentin Schindler was a Lutheran Hebraist and professor of the University of Wittenberg, where he was an important teacher of the Hebrew language. He moved by 1594 to Helmstedt.
1226 Golia, provisional designation 1930 HL, is a metallic asteroid from the central region of the asteroid belt, approximately 15 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 22 April 1930, by Dutch astronomer Hendrik van Gent at Leiden Southern Station, annex to the Johannesburg Observatory in South Africa. It is named for Jacobus Golius.
Johann Peter Berg was a German Protestant theologian, historian, and Orientalist.
Ange de Saint Joseph was a French missionary friar of the Order of Discalced Carmelites. He was a linguist, and wrote works on Oriental pharmacology.
Carl Gottfried Woide, also known in England as Charles Godfrey Woide, was an Orientalist, a biblical scholar and a pastor.
Christian Ravis (1613–1677) was an itinerant German orientalist and theologian.
William Robertson was a Scottish Hebraist. He was educated at Edinburgh University, taught Hebrew in London from 1653–1680, then in 1680 was appointed lecturer in Hebrew at Cambridge University.
Janua linguarum reserata is a textbook written by John Amos Comenius in 1629. It was published in 1631 in Leszno and was soon translated into most European languages.
Levinus Warner, was a German-born Orientalist, manuscript collector and diplomat for the Dutch Republic in the Ottoman Empire.
Franciscus à Mesgnien Meninski (1623–1698) was the author of a multi-volume Turkish-to-Latin dictionary and grammar of the Turkish language, first published in 1680, which was ground-breaking in its comprehensiveness at the time, and for historians and linguists today it is a valuable reference for the Turkish language of the early modern period.
Andrea Alpago was an Italian physician and arabist. In publications of his work in Latin his name is frequently given as Andreas Alpagus Bellunensis, where "Bellunensis" refers to his birthplace of Belluno in northeastern Italy. He worked in Damascus in Syria for decades as physician to the consulate of Republic of Venice in Damascus. He was appointed professor of medicine in Padua in northeastern Italy in 1521, where he taught for only two or three months before his death. None of his works were published during his lifetime; after his death they were published on the initiative of his nephew Paolo Alpago. His best known work is his commentary and editing of the Latin translation of The Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sina. This medicine book was translated from Arabic to Latin in the late 12th century by Gerard of Cremona. Andrea Alpago's edition and supplements to Gerard of Cremona's translation was widely read in European medical circles during the 16th century. It was first published in 1527 and an expanded edition was published in 1544.
Saadia ben Levi Azankot was a 17th century Jewish Moroccan Orientalist.
The Mathematics Genealogy Project is a web-based database for the academic genealogy of mathematicians. By 13 February 2019, it contained information on 238,725 mathematical scientists who contributed to research-level mathematics. For a typical mathematician, the project entry includes graduation year, thesis title, alma mater, doctoral advisor, and doctoral students.
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