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Jacopo Sadoleto (July 12, 1477 – October 18, 1547) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and counterreformer noted for his correspondence with and opposition to John Calvin.
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. It began with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and largely ended with the 1781 Patent of Toleration, although smaller expulsions of Protestants continued into the 19th century. Initiated to preserve the power, influence and material wealth enjoyed by the Catholic Church and to present a theological and material challenge to Reformation, the Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of apologetic and polemical documents, ecclesiastical reconfiguration as decreed by the Council of Trent, a series of wars, political maneuvering including the efforts of Imperial Diets of the Holy Roman Empire, exiling of Protestant populations, confiscation of Protestant children for Catholic institutionalized upbringing, heresy trials and the Inquisition, anti-corruption efforts, spiritual movements, and the founding of new religious orders.
John Calvin was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation, in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational, Reformed and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world.
He was born at Modena in 1477, the son of a noted jurist, he acquired reputation as a neo-Latin poet, his best-known piece being one on the group of Laocoön. In Rome, he obtained the patronage of Cardinal Carafa and adopted the ecclesiastical career. Pope Leo X chose him as his secretary along with Pietro Bembo,and in 1517 made him bishop of Carpentras.
Modena is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Laocoön, the son of Acoetes, is a figure in Greek and Roman mythology and the Epic Cycle. He was a Trojan priest who was attacked, with his two sons, by giant serpents sent by the gods. The story of Laocoön has been the subject of numerous artists, both in ancient and in more contemporary times.
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
A faithful servant of the papacy in many negotiations under successive popes, especially as a peacemaker, his major aim was to win back the Protestants by peaceful persuasion and by putting Catholic doctrine in a conciliatory form. Sadoleto was a diligent bishop, made cardinal in 1536, given the titular church of San Callisto.
A titular church or titulus is a church in Rome assigned or assignable to one of the cardinals, or more specifically to a Cardinal priest.
San Callisto is a Roman Catholic titular church in Rome, Italy, built over the site of Saint Pope Callistus I and the location of his martyrdom. The original building dates form the time of Pope Gregory III who ordered the building of a church on the site. The church has been rebuilt twice since, first in the twelfth century and again the current church in 1610. In 1458 Pope Callixtus III granted it a titular church as a seat for Cardinals.
In 1539 Cardinal Sadoleto wrote to the people of Geneva, urging them to return to the Catholic faith. John Calvin had been asked to leave Geneva the previous year, and was living in Strasbourg, but the Genevans still asked Calvin to write a response to Sadoleto, which he did.
Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014.
Sadolato died in Rome, aged 70
Muretus is the Latinized name of Marc Antoine Muret, a French humanist who was among the revivers of a Ciceronian Latin style and is among the usual candidates for the best Latin prose stylist of the Renaissance.
The Spirituali were members of a reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church, which existed from the 1530s to the 1560s. The movement is sometimes also called evangelism.
The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem or Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Rome, Italy. It is one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome.
Ecclesiastical letters are publications or announcements of the organs of Roman Catholic ecclesiastical authority, e.g. the synods, but more particularly of pope and bishops, addressed to the faithful in the form of letters.
Paolo Giovio was an Italian physician, historian, biographer, and prelate.
The diocese of Cagli e Pergola was a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in the Marche, central Italy, in the province of Pesaro and Urbino. Up until 1563 it was under the direct supervision of the Roman pontiff. In that year, the diocese of Urbino was elevated to metropolitan status, and Cagli became a suffragan see of Urbino. The diocese was abolished as an independent entity in 1986, when it was incorporated into the diocese of Fano-Fossombrone-Cagli-Pergola. It was still a suffragan of the archdiocese of Urbino.
François Jacquier was a French Franciscan mathematician and physicist.
Marius Mercator was a Latin Christian ecclesiastical writer best known for his advocacy of Augustinian theology during the Pelagian controversy.
Jacopo is a masculine Italian given name, derivant from Latin Iacōbus. it's an Italian variant of Giacomo.
Carpentras was a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Provence region, from the later Roman Empire until 1801. It was part of the ecclesiastical province under the Metropolitan, the Archbishop of Arles. The bishop was a major figure in the Comtat Venaissin, and a member of the Estates of the Comtat. He was a direct appointee of the pope.
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Concordia-Pordenone, historically Concordia Veneta, is suffragan of the Archdiocese of Venice. The name was changed in 1971.
The Diocese of Tivoli is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Latium, Italy, which has existed since the 2nd century. In 2002 territory was added to it from the Territorial Abbey of Subiaco. The diocese is immediately subject to the Holy See.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Ferrara-Comacchio has existed since 1986, when the diocese of Comacchio was combined with the historical archdiocese of Ferrara. It is a suffragan of the archdiocese of Bologna.
Giovanni Andrea Cortese was an Italian Cardinal and monastic reformer.
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Cesena-Sarsina in Emilia Romagna was created on September 30, 1986, after the Diocese of Sarsina was united with the historic Diocese of Cesena as a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Ravenna-Cervia.
Isidoro Chiari, perhaps better known by his Latin name Isidorus Clarius and sometimes called Brixianus after the land of his birth, was one of the fathers of the Council of Trent and a translator of the Bible.
The Basilica of San Giacomo Maggiore is an historic Roman Catholic church in Bologna, region of Emilia Romagna, Italy, serving a monastery of Augustinian friars. It was built starting in 1267 and houses, among the rest, the Bentivoglio Chapel, featuring numerous Renaissance artworks.
Bartolomeo Guidiccioni was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal. He was one of the closest collaborators of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, both as Bishop of Parma and afterwards when he became Pope Paul III. He served the pope as Vicar of Rome, and Prefect of the Tribunal of the Signature of Justice, as well as a member of several ad hoc commissions of cardinals. He was Bishop of Teramo (1539–1542) and Bishop of Lucca (1546–1549). He was one of the organizers and leading officers of the Council of Trent.
The Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City was a Benedictine monastery in Rome founded for the purpose of creating a critical edition of the Vulgate.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.