|Countess of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland|
|Reign||30 May 1417 – 12 April 1433|
|Predecessor||William IV and VI|
|Successor||Philip the Good|
|Born||15 July 1401|
|Died||8 October 1436 35) (aged|
|Father||William II, Duke of Bavaria|
|Mother||Margaret of Burgundy|
Jacqueline (Dutch : Jacoba; French : Jacqueline; 15 July 1401 – 8 October 1436), of the House of Wittelsbach, was a noblewoman who ruled the counties of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut in the Low Countries from 1417 to 1433. She was also Dauphine of France for a short time between 1415 and 1417 and Duchess of Gloucester in the 1420s, if her marriage to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, is accepted as valid.
Jacqueline was born in Le Quesnoy and from her birth she was referred to as "of Holland", indicating that she was the heiress of her father's estates.
Jacqueline was the last Wittelsbach ruler of Hainaut and Holland. Following her death, her estates passed into the inheritance of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
She was the only daughter of William II, Duke of Bavaria (also known as William VI, Count of Holland) from his marriage with Margaret, a daughter of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret III, Countess of Flanders.
At the age of 22 months (in Paris on 5 May 1403) and again at the age of four (in Compiègne on 29 June 1406), Jacqueline was betrothed to John, Duke of Touraine, fourth son of King Charles VI of France and Queen Isabeau of Bavaria. Both children were brought up in the Castle of Le Quesnoy in Hainaut. The boy had been given into tutelage of his future father-in-law, since he was expected to succeed as ruler in Hainaut and not in any way in France itself.On 22 April 1411 the Pope gave his dispensation for the union and on 6 August 1415, when Jacqueline was fourteen, she and John married in The Hague. With this marriage, Duke William II wanted to secure the succession of his daughter to his domains; although he had at least nine illegitimate children, Jacqueline was his only legitimate offspring and as a female, her rights would be contested by her paternal uncle Bishop John of Liège and her cousin Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy since 1419.
Four months after the wedding, on 15 December 1415, John's elder brother Louis, Dauphin of France, died; and thus John became the heir to the throne, with Jacqueline as the Dauphine and future Queen consort. Duke William II, who had raised John since childhood, as the father-in-law of the future King obtained a considerable influence at the French court; however, despite this he was less successful in his efforts with the German King Sigismund of Luxembourg to recognize Jacqueline as his rightful heir in the Counties of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut.In March 1416, Count William raised the matter with Sigismund while the latter was the guest of the English king, Henry V of England, but was rejected; he angrily returned home.
Dauphin John died (probably poisoned) on 4 April 1417, leaving Jacqueline as a widow aged 16. Two months later on 31 May, she unexpectedly lost her father. Duke William II was bitten by a dog, which caused a blood infection that quickly killed him. The politically inexperienced Jacqueline now had to fight for her inheritance.
In Hainaut, where female succession was long customary, Jacqueline was recognized as countess on 13 June, but in Holland and Zeeland her rights were controversial from the beginning. While the old aristocracy supported her, the municipal party supported her uncle John III, the youngest brother of her father and since 1389 the elected Bishop of Liège, although he was never fully ordained. Even before William II's death, he had expected to become his successor, and therefore he gave up his diocese. On the advice of her mother, Jacqueline initially gave her uncle the title of Guardian and Defender of the County of Hainaut (Hüters und Verteidigers des Landes Hennegau) in order to forestall his ambitions.However, the German King Sigismund, who had already been against Jacqueline's rights since 1416, formally enfeoffed John III with the counties of his deceased brother and married him to his niece Elisabeth of Görlitz, Duchess of Luxembourg and widow of Anthony, Duke of Brabant, who died in the Battle of Agincourt in 1415.
Jacqueline also remarried, but her selection of husband was unfortunate. John IV, Duke of Brabant, stepson of Elisabeth of Görlitz, who succeeded his father Anthony as Duke of Brabant, was chosen to be her second husband; modern historians believed that this decision was widely influenced by Jacqueline's mother and uncle John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy.On 31 July 1417, two months after William II's death, the betrothal between Jacqueline and John IV took place, and the wedding was celebrated in The Hague on 10 March 1418. However, the union proved to be a failure. The close relationship between the spouses required a papal dispensation, which, although granted in December 1417, was revoked in January 1418 in the Council of Constance due to the intrigues of Jacqueline's opponents, including King Sigismund of Luxembourg. In addition to this, the considerable financial problems of the young Duke John IV and his weak political leadership increased the conflicts inside the marriage.
John III, with the support of King Sigismund and the Cods, took the arms against Jacqueline, who was supported by the Hooks, this civil war was known as the Hook and Cod wars . The troops of uncle and niece met in the Battle of Gorkum in 1417; Jacqueline was victorious, but was forced to leave the major trading city of Dordrecht. In addition, her marital status was again questioned thanks to her uncle, who claimed that without papal dispensation the union was annulled;this caused even more misgivings for Jacqueline about how to maintain her marriage. Even worse, on 29 May 1418 and against the express wishes of King Sigismund, John IV pledged the district of Mons; because of this Jacqueline in 1419 signed the Compensation of Workum (Ausgleich von Workum) with her cousin Philip the Good, future Duke of Burgundy, under which for a monetary compensation she ceded to him the districts of Dordrecht, Gorkum and Rotterdam.
John III agreed to recognize the legitimacy of the marriage between Jacqueline and John IV of Brabant if only to receive a high financial compensation from the government for the next five years of the regions dominated by the spouses; however, the intervention of Pope Martin V finally ended the controversy with granting the papal dispensation on May 1419.John IV, always heavily indebted and against the will of his wife signed with John III the Treaty of St. Martinsdyk, under which he gave to Jacqueline's uncle full custody over Holland and Zeeland for the next 12 years. In exchange, John III gave a monetary compensation to the couple and left them the County of Hainaut; however, this was a little consolation for Jacqueline, whose subjects of Holland, Zeeland and Friesland were released from their oath of allegiance under the terms of the treaty. Finally, John IV also pledged Hainaut to improve his financial situation; for Jacqueline, this was enough: she and her allies began to want the formal separation from John IV.
In the meanwhile, the political situation had changed radically. The Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, was assassinated in September 1419, and the French Dauphin Charles, brother of Jacqueline's first husband, was considered an accomplice and was therefore disinherited in 1420 under the Treaty of Troyes. King Henry V of England then claimed to be the King of France. In February 1421 Jacqueline issued a statement where she stated that, because of the destructive behaviour of John IV of Brabant, she wanted the annulment of her marriage. The fight against John III, continued until the capture of the city of Leiden, the last city loyal to Jacqueline; after this, she had to admit defeat.
On 6 March 1421 Jacqueline fled to England asking the help of Henry V, who gave her a glamorous reception.She was an honoured guest at the court of England, and when the future Henry VI was born, Jacqueline was made one of his godparents. It was only after the unexpected death of Henry V in 1422 that Jacqueline obtained a dubious divorce from John IV of Brabant valid only in England that allowed her third marriage with Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, Henry V's brother and principal counsellor of the Kingdom on behalf of his infant nephew Henry VI. However, as not all rules were observed, the marriage was arranged in haste and in secret in the town of Hadleigh, Essex, sometime between February and 7 March 1423.
The news of this marriage shocked everyone. On 15 October 1423 it was announced that not only was Jacqueline married to one of the most powerful princes of Europe, but that she was also rumoured to be pregnant with his child. To secure her position, Jacqueline had to obtain the formal annulment of her marriage with John IV of Brabant. She asked Pope Martin V in Rome and Antipope Benedict XIII in Avignon to resolve her irregular marital status, but her uncle John III intervened against it. Unexpectedly, her cousin Philip the Good, who wanted to prevent an English invasion, supported the annulment.
In the autumn of 1424 Jacqueline joined Humphrey in the Duchy of Gloucester, where she had a miscarriage; this was her only recorded pregnancy.
Jacqueline and Humphrey landed in Calais and by the end of November they entered Mons, where on 5 December the Duke of Gloucester was recognized as the sovereign Count of Hainaut. Already on 3 January 1425 he signed with
Her situation changed when her uncle John III of Bavaria died on 6 January 1425, the victim of poisoning. John IV, Duke of Brabant, still claimed rights over Holland, Zeeland and Hainault and made Philip, Duke of Burgundy, regent of Holland and Zeeland, like he had done before with John III. Jacqueline escaped her imprisonment in Ghent disguised in men's clothing and fled to Schoonhoven and then Gouda, where she stayed with the leaders of the Hook faction. Now it was her former husband, John of Brabant, who tried to dispute her inheritance. In this matter, Humphrey did intervene, albeit with limited force; his efforts, however, had disastrous consequences for the English-Burgundian alliance that aided the English cause in France during the Hundred Years' War. Pope Martin V decreed that Jacqueline was still the wife of John IV, Duke of Brabant, and therefore her marriage to Humphrey of Gloucester was illegitimate.However, John IV had died a year earlier.
On 3 July 1428 Jacqueline had to agree to a peace treaty, Reconciliation of Delft (de Zoen van Delft), with the duke of Burgundy. By this treaty, Jacqueline kept her titles of Countess of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut, but the administration of her territories was placed in the hands of Philip, who was also appointed as her heir in case she died without children. She was not allowed to marry without the permission of her mother, Philip and the three counties. (Her marriage to Humphrey was annulled in this same year.) However, her financial situation was dire. She barely had enough income to support her household. Furthermore, the duke of Burgundy did not stop after the peace treaty in 1428. He bought the loyalty of her allies or estranged them from her in another way.At Easter 1433, Jacqueline "voluntarily" signed a treaty with Philip which gave Philip all her lands and titles. In return she was allowed the income of several estates, mostly situated in Zeeland.
With the renunciation of her titles, Jacqueline retired to her land in Zeeland. There, she and Francis, Lord of Borssele ("Frank van Borssele"), a local and powerful nobleman, became close. In the spring of 1434 they married and Philip granted Frank the title of Count of Oostervant.This marriage, contrary to the other three, was one out of love, at least for Jacqueline. It did not last long. In 1436 she became ill and after a few months of illness she died of tuberculosis in Teylingen Castle on 8 October 1436. Since she had no children, Philip of Burgundy inherited Hainaut and Holland. Her husband Frank survived her for thirty-four years.
There are many legends surrounding the life of Jacqueline. The most prevalent one is her supposed secret marriage to Francis of Borssele in 1432, two years prior to their public and official wedding. This secret marriage was supposed to be the real reason why she had to give up her titles and give them to the duke of Burgundy as it would violate the regulations in the peace treaty of 1428. However, there is no evidence that such a secret marriage ever took place and contemporary sources only mention the rumours of an upcoming wedding between Jacqueline and Francis at the end of 1433, half a year after Jacqueline renounced her titles.
|Ancestors of Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut|
Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester was an English prince, soldier, and literary patron. He was "son, brother and uncle of kings", being the fourth and youngest son of Henry IV of England, the brother of Henry V, and the uncle of Henry VI. Gloucester fought in the Hundred Years' War and acted as Lord Protector of England during the minority of his nephew. A controversial figure, he has been characterised as reckless, unprincipled, and fractious, but is also noted for his intellectual activity and for being the first significant English patron of humanism, in the context of the Renaissance.
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The Hook and Cod wars comprise a series of wars and battles in the County of Holland between 1350 and 1490. Most of these wars were fought over the title of count of Holland, but some have argued that the underlying reason was because of the power struggle of the bourgeois in the cities against the ruling nobility.
The County of Hainaut, was a territorial lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, straddling what is now the border of Belgium and France. Its most important towns included Mons, now in Belgium, and Valenciennes, now in France.
Albert I, Duke of Lower Bavaria, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally, he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing, his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat, Lower Bavaria.
John IV, Duke of Brabant was the son of Antoine of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg and his first wife Jeanne of Saint-Pol. He was the second Brabantian ruler from the House of Valois.
The Battle of Brouwershaven was fought on 13 January 1426 in Brouwershaven, Zeeland. The battle was part of the Hook and Cod wars waged over control of the Low Countries and resulted in a significant victory for Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
The Burgundian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire created in 1512 and significantly enlarged in 1548. In addition to the Free County of Burgundy, the Burgundian Circle roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e., the areas now known as the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg and adjacent parts in the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. For most of its history, its lands were coterminous with the holdings of the Spanish Habsburgs in the Empire.
Bavaria-Straubing denotes the widely scattered territorial inheritance in the Wittelsbach house of Bavaria that were governed by independent dukes of Bavaria-Straubing between 1353 and 1432; a map (illustration) of these marches and outliers of the Holy Roman Empire, vividly demonstrates the fractionalisation of lands where primogeniture did not obtain. In 1349, after Emperor Louis IV's death, his sons divided Bavaria once again: Lower Bavaria passed to Stephan II, William and Albert. In 1353, Lower Bavaria was further partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing: William and Albert received a part of the Lower Bavarian inheritance, with a capital in Straubing and rights to Hainaut and Holland. Thus the dukes of Bavaria-Straubing were also counts of Hainaut, counts of Holland, and of Zeeland.
John, Dauphin of France and Duke of Touraine was the fourth son and ninth child of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria.
William II of Bavaria was duke of Bavaria-Straubing and count of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland. He ruled from 1404 until 1417, when he died from an infection caused by a dog bite.
Le Quesnoy is a commune and small town in the east of the Nord department of northern France; accordingly its historic province is French Hainaut. It had a keynote industry in shoemaking before the late 1940s, followed by a chemical factory and dairy, giving way to its weekly market, tourism, local commuting to elsewhere such as Valenciennes and local shops.
John III the Pitiless (1374–1425), of the House of Wittelsbach, was first bishop of Liège 1389–1418 and then duke of Bavaria-Straubing and count of Holland and Hainaut 1418–1425.
The Count of Hainaut was the ruler of the county of Hainaut, a historical region in the Low Countries. In English-language historical sources, the title is often given the archaic spelling Hainault.
The House of Valois-Burgundy, or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois. It is distinct from the Capetian House of Burgundy, descendants of King Robert II of France, though both houses stem from the Capetian dynasty. They ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482 and later came to rule vast lands including Artois, Flanders, Luxembourg, Hainault, the county palatine of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), and other lands through marriage, forming what is now known as the Burgundian State.
Margaret of Burgundy was Duchess of Bavaria as the wife of Duke William II.
Frank II of Borssele was a 15th-century Zeelandic nobleman.
Hugo van Lannoy, Lord of Santes, was a Flemish statesman in the service of the Dukes of Burgundy, most notably Philip III who founded the Order of the Golden Fleece.
The Burgundian State is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to as Valois Burgundy.
The Treaty of The Hague is a treaty signed on April 12, 1433, in which Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut transferred the Dutch territories of her Bavaria-Straubing inheritance to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Jacqueline had fought over the counties of Holland, Zeeland, Hainaut and Friesland since the death of her father William VI of Holland in 1417 first against her uncle John and then against duke Philip. In 1428, defeated by Philip, she was forced to sign the Treaty of Delft, which named Philip as her heir if she died without offspring and forbade her to remarry without the consent of Philip. In 1432, after she married Frank van Borssele, Philip claimed that the Treaty of Delft had been broken and demanded that Jacqueline abandon all her rights to him; the treaty of The Hague of 1433 formalized this abandonment. Jacqueline died just three years later. Her Dutch lands were eventually merged into the Habsburg Empire.