Jacques-Antoine de Chambarlhac de Laubespin
General of Division Jacques-Antoine de Chambarlhac de Laubespin
|Born||2 August 1754|
Les Estables, France
|Died||23 February 1826 71) (aged|
|Years of service||1770-1815|
|Rank||General of Division|
|Awards|| Légion d'honneur (Commander)|
Order of Saint Louis (Knight)
Baron of the Empire
|Other work||Mayor of Ablon-sur-Seine|
Jean Jacques-Antoine Vital François de Chambarlhac (2 August 1754 – 23 February 1826) was a French infantry commander during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted France against Great Britain, Austria and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (1792–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France had conquered a wide array of territories, from the Italian Peninsula and the Low Countries in Europe to the Louisiana Territory in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).
On May 1, 1769 at age 15, Chambarlhac enlisted as a soldier in the régiment d'Auvergne. On March 26, 1770, he became sub-lieutenant, and left the service four years later on January 1, before returning to service in 1791.
Chambarlhac commanded the 1st Volunteer Battalion of Haute-Loire on June 21, 1792. He served with the armée des Alpes, commanded by Kellermann, in 1792. On Prairial, year II (1795), he was chief of the 117th semi-brigade of the first formation. Later on 26 ventose, year IV, he was the brigadier chief of the 75th semi-brigade of the second formation.
In year IV, as colonel, he fought with General Bonaparte in 1796-97. He fought in the battle of Arcole in Italy under Napoleon, and participated in the Siege of Kehl. Chambarlhac later returned to Italy in 1799 and fought in the battle of Verona, serving with Schérer.
The Battle of Arcole or Battle of Arcola was a battle fought between French and Austrian forces 25 kilometres (16 mi) southeast of Verona during the War of the First Coalition, a part of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Battle of Verona on 26 March 1799 saw a Habsburg Austrian army under Pál Kray fight a First French Republic army led by Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer. The battle encompassed three separate combats on the same day. At Verona, the two sides battled to a bloody draw. At Pastrengo to the west of Verona, French forces prevailed over their Austrian opponents. At Legnago to the southeast of Verona, the Austrians defeated their French adversaries. The battle was fought during the War of the Second Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. Verona is a city on the Adige River in northern Italy.
During the Republican Year VIII (1799-1800), the Consular Government sent Chambarlhac into the Vendée against the Chouans, as described in a letter addressed to the first Consul on 8 pluviôse by Lefebvre (commander of the 15th and 17th military divisions).
The French Republican calendar, also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar, was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871. The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France. It was used in government records in France and other areas under French rule, including Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Malta, and Italy.
The War in the Vendée was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution. The Vendée is a coastal region, located immediately south of the Loire River in western France. Initially, the war was similar to the 14th-century Jacquerie peasant uprising, but quickly acquired themes considered by the Jacobin government in Paris to be counter-revolutionary, and Royalist. The uprising headed by the newly formed Catholic and Royal Army was comparable to the Chouannerie, which took place in the area north of the Loire.
The Chouannerie was a royalist uprising or counter-revolution in 12 of the western départements of France, particularly in the provinces of Brittany and Maine, against the French First Republic during the French Revolution. It played out in three phases and lasted from the spring of 1794 until 1800.
Chambarlhac took part in the Battle of Marengo under the command of General Victor. In year X (1800-1801), he was commander of the Fortress of Mainz, and later the 13th military division. On 19 frimaire, year XII (1802), the first consul nominated him a member of the Legion of Honour and on 25 prairial, commander of the Order and elector of the Haute-Loire department.
The Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy. Near the end of the day, the French overcame Gen. Michael von Melas's surprise attack, driving the Austrians out of Italy and consolidating Napoleon's political position in Paris as First Consul of France in the wake of his coup d’état the previous November.
The Fortress of Mainz was a fortressed garrison town between 1620 and 1918. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, under the term of the 1815 Peace of Paris, the control of Mainz passed to the German Confederation and became part of a chain of strategic fortresses which protected the Confederation. With the dissolution of the Confederation and the Austro-Prussian War, control of the fortress first passed to Prussia, and, after the 1871 Unification of Germany, to the German Empire.
Chambarlhac commanded the 24th Military Division at Ghent during the ultimately unsuccessful Walcheren Campaign. He was created Baron of the Empire on August 30, 1811. In early 1813, while commander at Brussels, Chambarlhac formed a special corps for soldiers who were separated from their units, and rejoined the army in Saxony.
Ghent is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, and the second largest municipality in Belgium, after Antwerp. The city originally started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Leie and in the Late Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe, with some 50,000 people in 1300. It is a port and university city.
The Walcheren Campaign was an unsuccessful British expedition to the Netherlands in 1809 intended to open another front in the Austrian Empire's struggle with France during the War of the Fifth Coalition. Around 40,000 soldiers, 15,000 horses together with field artillery and two siege trains crossed the North Sea and landed at Walcheren on 30 July. This was the largest British expedition of that year, larger than the army serving in the Peninsular War in Portugal. The Walcheren Campaign involved little fighting, but heavy losses from the sickness popularly dubbed "Walcheren Fever". Although more than 4,000 British troops died during the expedition, only 106 died in combat; the survivors withdrew on 9 December.
Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 161 km2 (62 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.
After the Fall of Paris in 1814, he submitted to the French Provisional Government of 1814. Louis XVIII nominated him the Knight of the Order of Saint Louis on August 21, 1814 and mayor of the village of Ablon (now known as Ablon-sur-Seine).
After the second Bourbon Restoration, he retired from public office. He died in Paris on 3 February 1826.
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