Jacques Maurice Hatry (Strasbourg, 12 February 1742 – Paris, 30 November 1802) was a career soldier who became a French major general.
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014.
Hatry joined the Royal Army in October 1758 as Lieutenant Second, became 2nd Lieutenant in August 1759, was Lieutenant in March 1767, became Captain Second in March 1788, was Captain-Commander as of September 1782, Captain of grenadiers in June 1783, Captain of hunters since September 1785, and a few months after the fighting had started after the French Revolution, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in June 1792. However, a fine promotion track up the army ranks came to an end in December 1792 when he was dismissed from the army for leaving his regiment. But wars do strange things to armies at war who are desperate to find good experienced leadership and he was reinstated to the army in March 1793 and was assigned to the Army of the Rhine where he served as Adjutant-General Battalion Chief and then Division Chief of Staff as of September 1793. Then in November 1793, the military folk's decision to gamble and reinstate him pays off when he becomes a Brigadier General and only two months later became général de division in January 1794. He fought with distinction in the armée du Nord, des armée des Ardennes and Armée de la Moselle at the Battle of Fleurus and blockade of Luxembourg (where he forced a garrison of 12,000 men to surrender).
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
The Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794, was an engagement between the army of the First French Republic, under General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and the Coalition Army, commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg, in the most significant battle of the Flanders Campaign in the Low Countries during the French Revolutionary Wars. Both sides had forces in the area of around 80,000 men but the French were able to concentrate their troops and defeat the First Coalition. The Allied defeat led to the permanent loss of the Austrian Netherlands and to the destruction of the Dutch Republic. The battle marked a turning point for the French army, which remained ascendant for the rest of the War of the First Coalition. The French use of the reconnaissance balloon l'Entreprenant was the first military use of an aircraft that influenced the result of a battle.
Despite his long military record, arguably the single most significant day in that career occurred on 2 March 1796 when he became an important footnote in history. On that day, upon reviewing the record of the existing Commander-In-Chief of the Army of Italy (France), Barthelemy Louis Joseph Scherer, the Committee of Public Safety found him wanting and had him replaced today by a rising star who was then Commander-In-Chief at the Army of the Interior, a guy named Full General Napoleon Bonaparte. Meanwhile, France's military leadership had a problem; who would replace Bonaparte at the interior army. As military leadership scrambled to find Bonaparte's replacement, Bonaparte used this time to get married on 9 March 1796. Then surprise, surprise, on 10 March 1796, military leadership found their man, he was Jacques Maurice Hatry who now got his first ever tour of duty as a Commander In Chief of the recently vacated job at the Army of the Interior. The military folks who took that risk in March 1793 to reinstate this career military man must have been proud.
The Army of Italy was a field army of the French Army stationed on the Italian border and used for operations in Italy itself. Though it existed in some form in the 16th century through to the present, it is best known for its role during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
The Committee of Public Safety, created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a stage of the French Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine and later of twelve members—was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial and legislative efforts. It was formed as an administrative body to supervise and expedite the work of the executive bodies of the Convention and of the government ministers appointed by the Convention. As the Committee tried to meet the dangers of a coalition of European nations and counter-revolutionary forces within the country, it became more and more powerful.
The Army of the Interior was a name given to two field armies of the French Revolutionary Army.
In the armée de Sambre-et-Meuse, in the 1796 campaign, he was made général en chef of the armée de Mayence. In June 1798 he replaced general Joubert as commander of the troops stationed in the Netherlands. He was one of the first members of the Sénat conservateur in December 1799. His name is engraved on the north pillar, column 5, of the Arc de Triomphe.
Barthélemy Catherine Joubert was a French general. He joined the royal French army in 1784 and rose rapidly in rank during the French Revolutionary Wars. Napoleon Bonaparte recognized his talents and gave him increased responsibilities. Joubert was killed while commanding the French army at the Battle of Novi in 1799.
The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on 19 January 1795 and ended on 5 June 1806, with the accession of Louis I to the throne of Holland. From October 1801 onward, it was known as the Batavian Commonwealth. Both names refer to the Germanic tribe of the Batavi, representing both the Dutch ancestry and their ancient quest for liberty in their nationalistic lore.
The Sénat conservateur was an advisory body established in France during the Consulate following the French Revolution. It was established in 1799 under the Constitution of the Year VIII following the Napoleon Bonaparte-led Coup of 18 Brumaire. It lasted until 1814 when Napoleon Bonaparte was overthrown and the Bourbon monarchy was restored. The Sénat was a key element in Napoleon's regime.
“Jacques Maurice Hatry”, in Charles Mullié, Biographie des célébrités militaires des armées de terre et de mer de 1789 à 1850, 1852
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The Battle of Aldenhoven or Battle of the Roer saw a Republican French army commanded by Jean Baptiste Jourdan attack a Habsburg Austrian army under François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt which was defending the line of the Roer River. The key crossing was won by the French right wing at Düren after heavy fighting. The Austrian retreat from the Roer conceded control of the west bank of the Rhine River to France. The battle occurred during the War of the First Coalition, part of a wider conflict called the Wars of the French Revolution. Aldenhoven is located in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany about 21 kilometres (13 mi) northeast of Aachen.
The Ministry of the Armed Forces is the French cabinet member charged with running the French Armed Forces.
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The siege of Luxembourg was a siege by France of the Habsburg-held Fortress of Luxembourg that lasted from 1794 until 7 June 1795, during the French Revolutionary Wars. Although the French army failed to breach the walls of the city, which were renowned as amongst the best in the world, the fortress was forced to surrender after more than seven months.
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The Army of the Moselle was a French Revolutionary Army from 1791 through 1795. It was first known as the Army of the Centre and it fought at Valmy. In October 1792 it was renamed and subsequently fought at Trier, First Arlon, Biesingen, Kaiserslautern, Froeschwiller and Second Wissembourg. In the spring of 1794 the left wing was detached and fought at Second Arlon, Lambusart and Fleurus before being absorbed by the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse. In late 1794, the army captured Trier and initiated the Siege of Luxembourg. During the siege, the army was discontinued and its divisions were assigned to other armies.
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Charles-Étienne César Gudin de La Sablonnière was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
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Jean-Jacques Ambert commanded a French division in several engagements during the French Revolutionary Wars. He embarked on a French ship of the line during the American Revolutionary War and saw several actions. At the start of the French Revolutionary Wars he commanded a battalion and thereafter enjoyed fast promotion. He led a division in action at Kaiserslautern in 1793, Kaiserslautern in 1794, Luxembourg, Handschusheim, and Mannheim in 1795, and Kehl in 1796. His career later suffered eclipse because of his association with two French army commanders suspected of treason. He spent much of the Napoleonic Wars commanding a Caribbean island, clearing his name, and filling interior posts. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe.
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Henri François Marie Charpentier became a French chief of staff during the French Revolutionary Wars and a division commander during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1791 he joined a volunteer battalion and later became a staff officer. He served as Jacques Desjardin's chief of staff when that general served as commander of the right wing of the Army of the North during the battles of Grandreng, Erquelinnes and Gosselies in 1794. Next year he was Jacques Maurice Hatry's chief of staff during the Siege of Luxembourg. He was promoted to general of brigade and fought at the Trebbia and Novi in 1799 and fought at Montebello and Marengo in 1800. Napoleon appointed him general of division in 1804.