Jafar Sharif-Emami

Last updated

Jafar Sharif-Emami
Jafar Sharif-Emami portrait.jpg
38th Prime Minister of Iran
In office
27 August 1978 6 November 1978
Monarch Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded by Jamshid Amouzegar
Succeeded by Gholam Reza Azhari
In office
31 August 1960 5 May 1961
Monarch Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded by Manouchehr Eghbal
Succeeded by Ali Amini
President of the Senate
In office
11 September 1964 24 March 1978
Monarch Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Preceded by Mohsen Sadr
Succeeded byMohammad Sajadi
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
30 July 1960 1 December 1960
Prime Minister Manouchehr Eghbal
Preceded by Abbas Aram
Succeeded by Ghods-Nakhai
Personal details
Born9 September 1910
Tehran, Iran
Died16 June 1998(1998-06-16) (aged 87)
New York City, United States
Political party Rastakhiz Party
Spouse(s)Eshrat Sharif Emami (died November 1997)
Children3
Alma mater Tehran University

Jafar Sharif-Imami (Persian : جعفر شریف‌امامی; 9 September 1910 – 16 June 1998) was an Iranian politician who was prime minister from 1960 to 1961 and again in 1978. He was a cabinet minister, president of the Iranian Senate, president of the Pahlavi Foundation and the president of the Iran chamber of industries and mines during the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. [1]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Iranian peoples diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

Prime Minister of Iran former a political post in Iran

The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.

Contents

Early life and education

Mohammad-Reza Shah welcomes Sharif Emami and his government in Niavaran Palace Sharif Emami, Shah.jpg
Mohammad-Reza Shah welcomes Sharif Emami and his government in Niavaran Palace
Sharif-Emami as President of Senate Dr. Jafar Sharif-Emami (1976).jpg
Sharif-Emami as President of Senate

Sharif-Emami was born in Tehran on 8 September 1910 to a clerical family and his father was a mullah. [2] After high school, Sharif-Emami was sent (along with thirty other young men) to Germany where he studied for eighteen months, returning to Iran in 1930 to work with state railroad organization until the Anglo-Soviet Invasion. [2] Years later he was sent to Sweden for technical training, returning in 1939 when he received a degree in engineering. [1]

Tehran City in Iran

Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.694 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Invasion during World War II

The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the joint invasion of Iran in 1941 during the Second World War by the British Commonwealth and the Soviet Union. The invasion lasted from 25 August to 17 September 1941 and was codenamed Operation Countenance. Its purpose was to secure Iranian oil fields and ensure Allied supply lines for the USSR, fighting against Axis forces on the Eastern Front. Though Iran was neutral, the Allies considered Reza Shah to be friendly to Germany, deposed him during the subsequent occupation and replaced him with his young son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Career and activities

Sharif-Emami began his career the Iranian state railways in 1931. [3] Arrested in summer of 1943 for alleged ties to Germany he was kept in detention along with many other members of Iran's elite. After his release he was appointed director general of the Irrigation Agency. [1] In 1950, he was appointed undersecretary of roads and communications. [3] In June 1950, prime minister and General Haj Ali Razmara appointed him acting minister and then minister of roads, his first cabinet post. [1]

He served as the minister of industries and mines in Manuchehr Eqbal's cabinet. [4] He was prime minister from 1960 to 1961, and again in 1978, a few months before the overthrow of the Shah. [3] He was appointed prime minister by Shah on 27 August 1978 because of his ties to clergy. [5] Sharif-Emami succeeded Jamshid Amouzegar in the post. [5] [6]

Jamshid Amouzegar Iranian politician

Jamshid Amouzegar was an Iranian economist and politician who was prime minister of Iran from 7 August 1977 to 27 August 1978 when he resigned. Prior to that, he served as the minister of interior and minister of finance in the cabinet of Amir-Abbas Hoveida. He was the leader of Rastakhiz Party during his tenure as prime minister of Iran.

During his short tenure, he undid many of the Shah's plans including the closing of casinos, abandoning the Imperial calendar, abolishing the Rastakhiz Party and allowing all political parties to be active and personally responsible for preventing SAVAK to get involved and preventing the KGB backed clergyman from creating and continuing the 1979 revolution. [4] All of his efforts to reform the political system in Iran, was overshadowed by the Black Friday massacre in Jaleh Square (8 September 1978), mass protests, martial law and nationwide strikes, which brought the country's economy to its knees. He resigned from office amid riots on 5 November 1978. [7] Gholam Reza Azhari replaced him in the post. [3] He was also long-time president of the Iranian senate [8] and chairman of the Pahlavi Foundation. [9] [10] He was one of the close confidants of the Shah. [8]

Black Friday (1978) September 8, 1978, shooting of protesters in Tehran, Iran

Black Friday is the name given to 8 September 1978 because of the shootings in Jaleh Square in Tehran, Iran. Between 84–88 people were killed in the incident and 205 were injured. The deaths were described as the pivotal event in the Iranian Revolution that ended any "hope for compromise" between the protest movement and regime of the Mohammad Reza Shah. The incident is described by historian Ervand Abrahamian as "a sea of blood between the shah and the people."

Gholam Reza Azhari Iranian military leader and prime minister

Gholam Reza Azhari was a military leader and Prime Minister of Iran.

Personal life

Sharif-Emami was married and had three children, two daughters and a son. [3]

For some years he was also the Grand Master of the Freemason Grand Lodge of Iran, which gave him some informal influence among Iran's political elite. [1] [2]

Later years and death

Sharif-Emami left Iran following the 1979 Islamic revolution. He settled in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City. [3] There he served as the president of the Pahlavi Foundation and later resigned from the post. [3] He died at a hospital on 16 June 1998 at age 87 in New York City. [3] He was buried in Valhalla, New York. [3]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Memoirs of Sharif-Emami, Prime Minister
  2. 1 2 3 Abbās Mīlānī. Eminent Persians: The Men and Women who Made Modern Iran, 1941 - 1979. Syracuse University Press. p. 305. ISBN   978-0-8156-0907-0 . Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Saxon, Wolfang (23 June 1998). "Jafar Sharif-Emami, 87, Aide to Shah and a Prime Minister". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  4. 1 2 'Alí Rizā Awsatí (عليرضا اوسطى), Iran in the Past Three Centuries (Irān dar Se Qarn-e Goz̲ashteh - ايران در سه قرن گذشته), Volumes 1 and 2 (Paktāb Publishing - انتشارات پاکتاب, Tehran, Iran, 2003). ISBN   964-93406-6-1 (Vol. 1), ISBN   964-93406-5-3 (Vol. 2).
  5. 1 2 Mansoor Moaddel (January 1994). Class, Politics, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution. Columbia University Press. p. 160. ISBN   978-0-231-51607-5 . Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  6. Nikazmerad, Nicholas M. (1980). "A Chronological Survey of the Iranian Revolution". Iranian Studies. 13 (1/4): 327–368. doi:10.1080/00210868008701575. JSTOR   4310346.
  7. "On this day. 5 November 1978: Iran's PM steps down amid riots". BBC. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  8. 1 2 "Centers of Power in Iran" (PDF). CIA. May 1972. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  9. Miri, Rozita. "The Senate". IICHS. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  10. John H. Lorentz (14 April 2010). The A to Z of Iran. Scarecrow Press. p. 306. ISBN   978-1-4617-3191-7 . Retrieved 25 July 2013.
Political offices
Preceded by
Abbas Aram
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1960
Succeeded by
Hossein Ghods-Nakhai
Preceded by
Manouchehr Eghbal
Prime Minister of Iran
1960–1961
Succeeded by
Ali Amini
Preceded by
Mohsen Sadr
President of the Senate
1964–1978
Succeeded by
Mohammad Sajadi
Preceded by
Jamshid Amouzegar
Prime Minister of Iran
1978
Succeeded by
Gholam Reza Azhari