Jagadish Chandra Bose

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Jagadish Chandra Bose

Kt, CSI, CIE, FRS
Jagadish Chandra Bose 1926.jpg
Bose lecturing on the "nervous system" of plants at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1926
Born(1858-11-30)30 November 1858
Died23 November 1937(1937-11-23) (aged 78)
Giridih, Bengal Presidency, British India (now Giridih, Jharkhand, India)
Residence Kolkata, Bengal Presidency, British India
Citizenship Indian
Alma mater Hare school
St. Xavier's College, Calcutta
Christ's College, Cambridge
University College, London [1]
Known for Millimetre waves
Radio
Crescograph
Contributions to plant biology
Crystal radio
Crystal detector
Spouse(s) Abala Bose
Awards Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) (1903)
Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI) (1911)
Knight Bachelor (1917)
Scientific career
Fields Physics, biophysics, biology, botany, archaeology, Bengali literature, Bengali science fiction
Institutions University of Calcutta
University of Cambridge
University of London
Academic advisors John Strutt (Rayleigh)
Notable students Satyendra Nath Bose
Meghnad Saha
Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis
Sisir Kumar Mitra
Debendra Mohan Bose
Signature
Jagadish-Chandra-Bose-sign.svg

Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose [2] CSI CIE FRS [3] [4] [5] ( /bs/ ; [6] , IPA:  [dʒɔɡodiʃ tʃɔndro bosu] ; 30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937 [7] ), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, [8] was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction. [9] He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent. [10] IEEE named him one of the fathers of radio science. [11] Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction, and also invented the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour. [12]

Fellow of the Royal Society Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, including Honorary, Foreign and Royal Fellows

Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science, and medical science'.

Polymath Individual whose knowledge spans a significant number of subjects

A polymath is an individual whose knowledge spans a significant number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term entered the lexicon in the 20th century and has now been applied to great thinkers living before and after the Renaissance.

Physicist scientist who does research in physics

A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole. The field generally includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, and theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies.

Contents

Born in Mymensingh, Bengal Presidency (present-day Bangladesh), during British governance of India, [7] Bose graduated from St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. He went to the University of London,US to study medicine, but could not pursue studies in medicine because of health problems. Instead, he conducted his research with the Nobel Laureate Lord Rayleigh at Cambridge and returned to India. He joined the Presidency College of the University of Calcutta as a professor of physics. There, despite racial discrimination and a lack of funding and equipment, Bose carried on his scientific research. He made remarkable progress in his research of remote wireless signalling and was the first to use semiconductor junctions to detect radio signals. However, instead of trying to gain commercial benefit from this invention, Bose made his inventions public in order to allow others to further develop his research.

Mymensingh City in Mymensingh Division, Bangladesh

Mymensingh is the capital of Mymensingh Division of Bangladesh. The city is located on the Brahmaputra River, about 120 km (75 mi) north of Dhaka the capital of the country. Border area cover [[Himalayan states|Himalayan state of India, Gazipur District, Tangail District, Jamalpur District, Netrokona District, Kishoreganj District. Mymensingh is the 8th administrative divisional headquarter and 12th City corporation of Bangladesh. According to Ministry of Public Administration, Mymensingh is ranked 4 in district status. It is a major financial center of North Central Bangladesh and the eighth largest city in Bangladesh. The density of Mymensingh city is 44,458/km2 which is the second most densely populated city in Bangladesh. Mymensingh attracts 25 percent of health tourists visiting Bangladesh. Mymensingh is the anglicised pronunciation of the original name Mominshahi, referring to a Muslim ruler called Shah Momin. Its elevation is over 19 m above sea level, the highest of Bangladesh's major cities. Mymensingh related with old Brahmaputra river, handcrafted duvet called Nakshikantha and a rural ballad called Maimansingha Gitika

Bengal Presidency administrative unit in British India

The Bengal Presidency (1757–1912), later reorganized as the Bengal Province (1912–1947), was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India following the dissolution of the Mughal Bengal, with its seat in Calcutta. It was primarily centred in the Bengal region. At its territorial peak in the 19th century, the presidency extended from the present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan in the west to Burma, Singapore and Penang in the east. The Governor of Bengal was concurrently the Viceroy of India for many years. Most of the presidency's territories were eventually incorporated into other British Indian provinces and crown colonies. In 1905, Bengal proper was partitioned, with Eastern Bengal and Assam headquartered in Dacca and Shillong. British India was reorganised in 1912 and the presidency was reunited into a single Bengali-speaking province.

Bangladesh Country in South Asia

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. While it is the 92nd-largest country, spanning 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi), it is the world's 8th-most populous country with a population nearing 163 million, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north and the east and Myanmar to the east, whereas the Bay of Bengal lies to its south. Dhaka, its capital and largest city, is also the economic, political and the cultural hub of the country. Chittagong, the largest sea port, is the second largest city. The country's geography is dominated by the Ganges delta which empties into the Bay of Bengal the combined waters of several river systems, including those of the Brahmaputra and the Ganges. As a result, the country is criss-crossed by numerous rivers and inland water ways. Highlands with evergreen forests cover the landscape in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. The country also features the longest natural sea beach and most of the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plants and wildlife, including the endangered Bengal tiger, the national animal.

Bose subsequently made a number of pioneering discoveries in plant physiology. He used his own invention, the crescograph, to measure plant response to various stimuli, and thereby scientifically proved parallelism between animal and plant tissues. Although Bose filed for a patent for one of his inventions because of peer pressure, his objections to any form of patenting was well known. To facilitate his research, he constructed automatic recorders capable of registering extremely slight movements; these instruments produced some striking results, such as quivering of injured plants, which Bose interpreted as a power of feeling in plants. His books include Response in the Living and Non-Living (1902) and The Nervous Mechanism of Plants (1926).

Crescograph

A crescograph is a device for measuring the growth in plants. It was invented in the early 20th century by Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose.

Stimulus (physiology) in physiology, a detectable change in the internal or external environment

In physiology, a stimulus is a detectable change in the physical or chemical structure of an organism's internal or external environment. The ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli is called sensitivity. When a stimulus is applied to a sensory receptor, it normally elicits or influences a reflex via stimulus transduction. These sensory receptors can receive information from outside the body, as in touch receptors found in the skin or light receptors in the eye, as well as from inside the body, as in chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors. An internal stimulus is often the first component of a homeostatic control system. External stimuli are capable of producing systemic responses throughout the body, as in the fight-or-flight response. In order for a stimulus to be detected with high probability, its level must exceed the absolute threshold; if a signal does reach threshold, the information is transmitted to the central nervous system (CNS), where it is integrated and a decision on how to react is made. Although stimuli commonly cause the body to respond, it is the CNS that finally determines whether a signal causes a reaction or not.

Legal scholars, economists, activists, policymakers, industries, and trade organizations have held differing views on patents and engaged in contentious debates on the subject. Critical perspectives emerged in the nineteenth century that were especially based on the principles of free trade. Contemporary criticisms have echoed those arguments, claiming that patents block innovation and waste resources that could otherwise be used productively, and also block access to an increasingly important "commons" of enabling technologies, apply a "one size fits all" model to industries with differing needs, that is especially unproductive for industries other than chemicals and pharmaceuticals and especially unproductive for the software industry. Enforcement by patent trolls of poor quality patents has led to criticism of the patent office as well as the system itself. Patents on pharmaceuticals have also been a particular focus of criticism, as the high prices they enable puts life-saving drugs out of reach of many people. Alternatives to patents have been proposed, such Joseph Stiglitz's suggestion of providing "prize money" as a substitute for the lost profits associated with abstaining from the monopoly given by a patent.

In 2004, Bose was ranked number 7 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time. [13] [14] [15]

<i>Greatest Bengali of all time</i>

Soon after the completion of 100 Greatest Britons poll in 2002, the BBC organized a similar opinion poll to find out who is the greatest Bengali personality in Bengali nation's history of thousand years. In 2004, BBC's Bengali Service conducted the opinion poll with the title Greatest Bengali of all time started from February 11 continued onto March 22. The poll was participated by Bengalis around the world including from Bangladesh, India and overseas Bengali communities.

Early life and education

Jagadish Chandra Bose in Royal Institution, London J.C.Bose.JPG
Jagadish Chandra Bose in Royal Institution, London

Jagadish Chandra Bose was born in a Bengali Kayastha family in Munsiganj (Bikrampur), Bengal Presidency (present-day Bangladesh) [7] [16] on 30 November 1858. His father, Bhagawan Chandra Bose, was a leading member of the Brahmo Samaj and worked as a deputy magistrate and assistant commissioner in Faridpur, [17] Bardhaman and other places. [18]

Bengali Kayastha denotes a Bengali Hindu who is a member of the Kayastha caste. In Bengal, Kayasthas, alongside Brahmins and Baidyas are regarded as the "highest Hindu castes" that comprise the "upper layer of Hindu society."

Bikrampur was a pargana situated 12 miles (19 km) south of Dhaka, the modern capital city of Bangladesh. In the present day it is known as Munshiganj District of Bangladesh. It is a historic region in Bengal. It was a part of the Bhawal Estate.

Brahmo Samaj is the societal component of Brahmoism, which began as a monotheistic reformist movement of the Hindu religion that appeared during the Bengal Renaissance. It is practised today mainly as the Adi Dharm after its eclipse in Bengal consequent to the exit of the Tattwabodini Sabha from its ranks in 1839. After the publication of Hemendranath Tagore's Brahmo Anusthan in 1860 which formally divorced Brahmoism from Hinduism, the first Brahmo Samaj was founded in 1861 at Lahore by Pandit Nobin Chandra Roy.

Bose's education started in a vernacular school, because his father believed that one must know one's own mother tongue before beginning English, and that one should know also one's own people. Speaking at the Bikrampur Conference in 1915, Bose said:

Vernacular common speech variety of a specific population

A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the speech variety used in everyday life by the general population in a geographical or social territory. The vernacular is contrasted with higher-prestige forms of language, such as national, literary, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area. The vernacular is usually native, normally spoken informally rather than written, and seen as of lower status than more codified forms. It may vary from more prestigious speech varieties in different ways, in that the vernacular can be a distinct stylistic register, a regional dialect, a sociolect, or an independent language.

At that time, sending children to English schools was an aristocratic status symbol. In the vernacular school, to which I was sent, the son of the Muslim attendant of my father sat on my right side, and the son of a fisherman sat on my left. They were my playmates. I listened spellbound to their stories of birds, animals and aquatic creatures. Perhaps these stories created in my mind a keen interest in investigating the workings of Nature. When I returned home from school accompanied by my school fellows, my mother welcomed and fed all of us without discrimination. Although she was an orthodox old-fashioned lady, she never considered herself guilty of impiety by treating these ‘untouchables’ as her own children. It was because of my childhood friendship with them that I could never feel that there were ‘creatures’ who might be labelled 'low-caste'. I never realised that there existed a 'problem' common to the two communities, Hindus and Muslims. [18]

Bose joined the Hare School in 1869 and then St. Xavier's School at Kolkata. In 1875, he passed the Entrance Examination (equivalent to school graduation) of the University of Calcutta and was admitted to St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. At St. Xavier's, Bose came in contact with Jesuit Father Eugene Lafont, who played a significant role in developing his interest in natural sciences. [18] [19] He received a BA from the University of Calcutta in 1879. [17]

Bose wanted to go to England to compete for the Indian Civil Service. However, his father, a civil servant himself, cancelled the plan. He wished his son to be a scholar, who would “rule nobody but himself.” [20] Bose went to England to study Medicine at the University of London. However, he had to quit because of ill health. [21] [ self-published source ] The odour in the dissection rooms is also said to have exacerbated his illness. [17]

Through the recommendation of Anandamohan Bose, his brother-in-law (sister's husband) and the first Indian wrangler, he secured admission in Christ's College, Cambridge to study natural sciences. He received a BA (Natural Sciences Tripos) from the University of Cambridge [19] and a BSc from the University of London in 1884, [1] and a DSc from the University of London in 1896. [19] Among Bose's teachers at Cambridge were Lord Rayleigh, Michael Foster, James Dewar, Francis Darwin, Francis Balfour, and Sidney Vines. At the time when Bose was a student at Cambridge, Prafulla Chandra Roy was a student at Edinburgh. They met in London and became intimate friends. [17] [18] Later he was married to Abala Bose, the renowned feminist and social worker. [22]

One of the important influences on Bose was Sister Nivedita who supported him by organizing financial support and editing his manuscripts; she made sure that Bose was able to continue with and share his work. [23]

Radio research

Bose's 60 GHz microwave apparatus at the Bose Institute, Kolkata, India. His receiver (left) used a galena crystal detector inside a horn antenna and galvanometer to detect microwaves. Bose invented the crystal radio detector, waveguide, horn antenna, and other apparatus used at microwave frequencies. Microwave Apparatus - Jagadish Chandra Bose Museum - Bose Institute - Kolkata 2011-07-26 4051.JPG
Bose's 60 GHz microwave apparatus at the Bose Institute, Kolkata, India. His receiver (left) used a galena crystal detector inside a horn antenna and galvanometer to detect microwaves. Bose invented the crystal radio detector, waveguide, horn antenna, and other apparatus used at microwave frequencies.

The Scottish theoretical physicist James Clerk Maxwell mathematically predicted the existence of electromagnetic radiation of diverse wavelengths, but he died in 1879 before his prediction was experimentally verified. Between 1886 and 1888, German physicist Heinrich Hertz published the results of his experiments on electromagnetism, which showed the existence of electromagnetic waves in free space. Subsequently, British physicist Oliver Lodge, who had also been researching electromagnetism, conducted a commemorative lecture in August 1894 (after Hertz's death) on the quasi-optical nature of "Hertzian waves" (radio waves) and demonstrated their similarity to light and vision including reflection and transmission at distances up to 50 metres. Lodge's work was published in book form and caught the attention of scientists in different countries, including Bose in India. [24]

The first remarkable aspect of Bose's follow-up microwave research was that he reduced the waves to the millimetre level (about 5 mm wavelength). He realised the disadvantages of long waves for studying their light-like properties. [24]

During a November 1894 (or 1895 [24] ) public demonstration at Town Hall of Kolkata, Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using millimetre range wavelength microwaves. [25] Lieutenant Governor Sir William Mackenzie witnessed Bose's demonstration in the Kolkata Town Hall. Bose wrote in a Bengali essay, Adrisya Alok (Invisible Light), "The invisible light can easily pass through brick walls, buildings etc. Therefore, messages can be transmitted by means of it without the mediation of wires." [24]

Bose's first scientific paper, "On polarisation of electric rays by double-refracting crystals" was communicated to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in May 1895, within a year of Lodge's paper. His second paper was communicated to the Royal Society of London by Lord Rayleigh in October 1895. In December 1895, the London journal Electrician (Vol. 36) published Bose's paper, "On a new electro-polariscope". At that time, the word coherer, coined by Lodge, was used in the English-speaking world for Hertzian wave receivers or detectors. The Electrician readily commented on Bose's coherer. (December 1895). The Englishman (18 January 1896) quoted from the Electrician and commented as follows:

Should Professor Bose succeed in perfecting and patenting his ‘Coherer’, we may in time see the whole system of coast lighting throughout the navigable world revolutionised by a Bengali scientist working single handed in our Presidency College Laboratory.

Bose planned to "perfect his coherer" but never thought of patenting it. [24]

Diagram of microwave receiver and transmitter apparatus, from Bose's 1897 paper. Jagadish Chandra Bose microwave apparatus.png
Diagram of microwave receiver and transmitter apparatus, from Bose's 1897 paper.

Bose went to London on a lecture tour in 1896 and met Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi, who had been developing a radio wave wireless telegraphy system for over a year and was trying to market it to the British post service. In an interview, Bose expressed his disinterest in commercial telegraphy and suggested others use his research work. In 1899, Bose announced the development of a "iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector" in a paper presented at the Royal Society, London. [26]

Place in radio development

Bose's work in radio microwave optics was specifically directed towards studying the nature of the phenomenon and was not an attempt to develop radio into a communication medium. [27] His experiments took place during this same period (from late 1894 on) when Guglielmo Marconi was making breakthroughs on a radio system specifically designed for wireless telegraphy [28] and others were finding practical applications for radio waves, such as Russian physicist Alexander Stepanovich Popov radio wave base lightning detector, also inspired by Lodge's experiment. [29] Although Bose's work was not related to communication he, like Lodge and other laboratory experimenters, probably had an influence on other inventors trying to develop radio as communications medium. [29] [30] [31] Bose was not interested in patenting his work and openly revealed the operation of his galena crystal detector in his lectures. A friend in the US persuaded him to take out a US patent on his detector but he did not actively pursue it and allowed it to lapse." [17]

Bose was the first to use a semiconductor junction to detect radio waves, and he invented various now-commonplace microwave components. [29] In 1954, Pearson and Brattain gave priority to Bose for the use of a semi-conducting crystal as a detector of radio waves. [29] In fact, further work at millimetre wavelengths was almost non-existent for the following 50 years. In 1897, Bose described to the Royal Institution in London his research carried out in Kolkata at millimetre wavelengths. He used waveguides, horn antennas, dielectric lenses, various polarisers and even semiconductors at frequencies as high as 60 GHz;. [29] Much of his original equipment is still in existence, especially at the Bose Institute in Kolkata. A 1.3 mm multi-beam receiver now in use on the NRAO 12 Metre Telescope, Arizona, US, incorporates concepts from his original 1897 papers. [29]

Sir Nevill Mott, Nobel Laureate in 1977 for his own contributions to solid-state electronics, remarked that "J.C. Bose was at least 60 years ahead of his time. In fact, he had anticipated the existence of P-type and N-type semiconductors." [29]

Plant research

Jagadish Chandra Bose with other prominent scientists from Calcutta University. M N Saha, J C Bose, J C Ghosh,Snehamoy Dutt, S N Bose, D M Bose, N R Sen, J N Mukherjee, N C Nag.jpg
Jagadish Chandra Bose with other prominent scientists from Calcutta University.

His major contribution in the field of biophysics was the demonstration of the electrical nature of the conduction of various stimuli (e.g., wounds, chemical agents) in plants, which were earlier thought to be of a chemical nature. These claims were later proven experimentally. [32] He was also the first to study the action of microwaves in plant tissues and corresponding changes in the cell membrane potential. He researched the mechanism of the seasonal effect on plants, the effect of chemical inhibitors on plant stimuli and the effect of temperature.

Study of metal fatigue and cell response

Bose performed a comparative study of the fatigue response of various metals and organic tissue in plants. He subjected metals to a combination of mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical stimuli and noted the similarities between metals and cells. Bose's experiments demonstrated a cyclical fatigue response in both stimulated cells and metals, as well as a distinctive cyclical fatigue and recovery response across multiple types of stimuli in both living cells and metals.

Bose documented a characteristic electrical response curve of plant cells to electrical stimulus, as well as the decrease and eventual absence of this response in plants treated with anaesthetics or poison. The response was also absent in zinc treated with oxalic acid. He noted a similarity in reduction of elasticity between cooled metal wires and organic cells, as well as an impact on the recovery cycle period of the metal. [33] [34]

Science fiction

In 1896, Bose wrote Niruddesher Kahini (The Story of the Missing One), a short story that was later expanded and added to Abyakta (অব্যক্ত) collection in 1921 with the new title Palatak Tuphan (Runaway Cyclone). It was one of the first works of Bengali science fiction. [35] [36] It has been translated into English by Bodhisattva Chattopadhyay. [37]

Legacy

Acharya Bhavan, the residence of J C Bose built in 1902, was turned into a museum. Acharya Bhavan - Kolkata 2009-11-07 2938.JPG
Acharya Bhavan, the residence of J C Bose built in 1902, was turned into a museum.

Bose's place in history has now been re-evaluated. His work may have contributed to the development of radio communication. [26] He is also credited with discovering millimetre length electromagnetic waves and being a pioneer in the field of biophysics. [39]

Many of his instruments are still on display and remain largely usable now, over 100 years later. They include various antennas, polarisers, and waveguides, which remain in use in modern forms today.

To commemorate his birth centenary in 1958, the JBNSTS scholarship programme was started in West Bengal. In the same year, India issued a postage stamp bearing his portrait. [40]

On 14 September 2012, Bose's experimental work in millimetre-band radio was recognised as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical and Computer Engineering, the first such recognition of a discovery in India. [41]

On 30 November 2016, Bose was celebrated in a Google Doodle on the 158th anniversary of his birth. [42]

The Bank Of England has decided to redesign the 50 UK Pound currency note with an eminent scientist. Indian scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose has been featured in that nomination list for his pioneering work on Wifi technology. [43] [44] [45]

Honours

Publications

Bust of Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum JC Bose bust BITM.JPG
Bust of Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum
Journals
Books
Other

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Bose, Jagadis Chandra (BS881JC)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  2. Page 3597 of Issue 30022. The London Gazette. (17 April 1917). Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  3. Page 9359 of Issue 28559. The London Gazette. (8 December 1911). Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  4. Page 4 of Issue 27511. The London Gazette. (30 December 1902). Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  5. 1 2 Saha, M. N. (1940). "Sir Jagadis Chunder Bose. 1858–1937". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society . 3 (8): 2–12. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1940.0001.
  6. "Bose". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  7. 1 2 3 Editorial Board (2013). Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose. Edinburgh, Scotland: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN   9781593392925.
  8. See for example the sources mentioned in the bibliography of this article.
  9. "A versatile genius". Frontline . The Hindu. 21 (24). 20 November 2004.
  10. Chatterjee, Santimay and Chatterjee, Enakshi, Satyendranath Bose, 2002 reprint, p. 5, National Book Trust, ISBN   81-237-0492-5
  11. Sen, A. K. (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science". Microwave Symposium Digest. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium. Denver, CO: IEEE. pp. 557–560. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602854. ISBN   0-7803-3814-6.
  12. Bose (crater)
  13. "Listeners name 'greatest Bengali'". 14 April 2004. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  14. "The Hindu : International : Mujib, Tagore, Bose among 'greatest Bengalis of all time'". www.thehindu.com. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  15. "Bangabandhu judged greatest Bangali of all time". The Daily Star. 16 April 2004. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  16. David L. Gosling (2007). Science and the Indian Tradition: When Einstein Met Tagore. Routledge. p. 143. ISBN   9781134143320.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Mahanti, Subodh. "Acharya Jagadis Chandra Bose". Biographies of Scientists. Vigyan Prasar, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Mukherji, pp. 3–10.
  19. 1 2 3 Murshed, Md Mahbub (2012). "Bose, Sir Jagdish Chandra". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  20. "Pursuit and Promotion of Science : The Indian Experience" (PDF). Indian National Science Academy. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  21. "Jagdish Chandra Bose". calcuttaweb.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
  22. Sengupta, Subodh Chandra and Bose, Anjali (editors), 1976/1998, Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (Biographical dictionary) Vol I, (in Bengali), p23, ISBN   81-85626-65-0
  23. "The Scientist and the Nun: How Sister Nivedita Made Sure J.C. Bose Never Gave Up" via thewire.in.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 Mukherji, pp. 14–25
  25. "Jagadish Chandra Bose" (PDF). Pursuit and Promotion of Science: The Indian Experience (Chapter 2). Indian National Science Academy. 2001. pp. 22–25. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
  26. 1 2 Bondyopadhyay, P.K. (January 1998). "Sir J. C. Bose's Diode Detector Received Marconi's First Transatlantic Wireless Signal of December 1901 (The "Italian Navy Coherer" Scandal Revisited)" (PDF). Proceedings of the IEEE . 86 (1): 259–285. doi:10.1109/5.658778.
  27. Sungook Hong, Wireless: From Marconi's Black-box to the Audion, MIT Press – 2001, page 199
  28. Sungook Hong, Wireless: From Marconi's Black-box to the Audion, MIT Press – 2001, page 21
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Emerson, D. T. (1997). "The work of Jagadis Chandra Bose: 100 years of MM-wave research". IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Research. 45 (12): 2267–2273. Bibcode:1997imsd.conf..553E. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602853. ISBN   9780986488511. reprinted in Igor Grigorov, Ed., Antentop , Vol. 2, No.3, pp. 87–96.
  30. Sungook Hong, Wireless: From Marconi's Black-box to the Audion, MIT Press – 2001, page 22
  31. Jagadish Chandra Bose: The Real Inventor of Marconi’s Wireless Receiver; Varun Aggarwal, NSIT, Delhi, India
  32. Wildon, D. C.; Thain, J. F.; Minchin, P. E. H.; Gubb, I. R.; Reilly, A. J.; Skipper, Y. D.; Doherty, H. M.; O'Donnell, P. J.; Bowles, D. J. (1992). "Electrical signalling and systemic proteinase inhibitor induction in the wounded plant". Nature. 360 (6399): 62–5. Bibcode:1992Natur.360...62W. doi:10.1038/360062a0.
  33. Response in the Living and Non-Living by Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose – Project Gutenberg. Gutenberg.org (3 August 2006). Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  34. Jagadis Bose (2009). Response in the Living and Non-Living. Plasticine. ISBN   978-0-9802976-9-0.
  35. "Bengal". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  36. "Symposium at Christ's College to celebrate a genius". University of Cambridge. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
  37. Jagadish Chandra Bose. "Runaway Cyclone". Bodhisattva Chattopadhyay. Strange Horizons. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  38. Acharya Bhavan Opens Its Doors to Visitors. The Times of India. 3 July 2011.
  39. "Collected Physical Papers". 1927.
  40. "J C Bose: The Scientist Who Proved That Plants Too Can Feel". Phila Mirror: The Indian Philately Journal. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  41. "First IEEE Milestones in India: The work of J.C. Bose and C.V. Raman to be recognized". the Institute. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  42. "Jagadish Chandra Bose's 158th Birthday". 30 November 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  43. "Proud Moment For India As Scientist Sir JC Bose May Get Featured On New UK 50 Pound Note". indiatimes.com. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  44. "Jagadish Chandra Bose may become face of UK's new 50-pound note". dna. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  45. "Jagadish Chandra Bose among nominees to become face of UK's new 50-pound note". The Week. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
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References

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