Jahandar Shah

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Mu'izz-ud-din Beg Muhammad Khan
Padishah of the Mughal Empire
Jahandar Shah
Jahandar Shah, Mughal Emperor..jpg
8th Mughal Emperor
Reign27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713
Coronation 29 March 1712 at Lahore
Predecessor Bahadur Shah I
Successor Farrukhsiyar
Born(1661-05-09)9 May 1661
Deccan, Mughal Empire
Died12 February 1713(1713-02-12) (aged 51)
Delhi, Mughal Empire
Burial
SpouseSayyid-un-Nissa Begum
Lal Kunwar
Anup Bai
One another wife
IssueIzz-ud-Din Mirza
A'az-ud-Din Mirza
Alamgir II
Iffat Ara Begum
Rabi Begum
Full name
Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Muhammed Khan Jahandar Shah Bahadur
Dynasty Timurid
Father Bahadur Shah I
Mother Nizam Bai
Religion Islam

Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Muhammed Khan (Persian : میرزا معزلدین بیگ محمد خان ;9 May 1661 – 12 February 1713),[ citation needed ] more commonly known as Jahandar Shah (Persian : جهاندار شاه), was a Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713. His full title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Quran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah).[ citation needed ] Sailendra Sen describes him as "a worthless debauch [who] became emperor after liquidating his three brothers". [1]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Contents

Early life

Prince Jahandar Shah was born in Deccan Subah to the later Emperor Bahadur Shah I. His mother was Nizam Bai, the daughter of Fatehyawar Jang, a noble from Hyderabad. [2]

Bahadur Shah I eighth Mughal emperor

Bahadur Shah, also known as Muhammad Muazzam and Shah Alam was the seventh Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712. In his youth, he conspired to overthrow his father Aurangzeb, the sixth Mughal emperor, and ascend to the throne a number of times. Shah's plans were intercepted by the emperor, who imprisoned him several times. In 1663, he was also imprisoned by Marathas for seven years. From 1696 to 1707, he was governor of Akbarabad, Kabul and Lahore.

Nizam Bai was a wife of the seventh Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah I. Though she never reigned as empress, having died several years before her husband ascended the throne, her son eventually succeeded as the Emperor Jahandar Shah.

Hyderabad Metropolis in Telangana, India

Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. Occupying 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) along the banks of the Musi River, Hyderabad City has a population of about 6.9 million and about 9.7 million in Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, making it the fourth-most populous city and sixth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. At an average altitude of 542 metres (1,778 ft), much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including Hussain Sagar—predating the city's founding—north of the city centre.

Jahandar Shah was appointed as Vizier of Balkh in 1671 by his grandfather, Aurangzeb. When their father died on 27 February 1712, he and his brother, Azim-ush-Shan, both declared themselves emperor and battled for succession. Azim-us-Shan was killed on 17 March 1712, after which Jahandar Shah ruled for an additional eleven months. Before ascending the throne, Jahandar Shah sailed around the Indian Ocean and was a very prosperous trader. He was also appointed Subedar of Sindh. He fathered three sons, including Aziz-ud-Din, who reigned as Mughal emperor between 1754 and 1759.

Balkh Place in Balkh Province, Afghanistan

Balkh is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about 20 km (12 mi) northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 mi) south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border. It was historically an ancient centre of Buddhism, Islam, and Zoroastrianism and one of the major cities of Khorasan, since the latter's earliest history.

Aurangzeb Sixth Mughal Emperor

Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad, commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled over nearly the entire Indian subcontinent for a period of 49 years. Widely considered to be the last effective Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb, through his compilation of the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, was also one of the few rulers to have fully established Sharia law and Islamic economics throughout South Asia.

Azim-ush-Shan Mughal prince

Prince Azim-us-Shan was the second son of Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I, by his second wife, Maharajkumari Amrita Bai Sahiba. He was the grandson of Emperor Aurangzeb, during whose reign, he was the subahdar (viceroy) of Bengal Subah, Bihar and Odisha from 1697 to his death in 1712, and the great grandson of Emperor Shah Jahan.

Reign

Lal Kunwar Lal Kunwar, by Indian School of the 18th century.jpg
Lal Kunwar
Mughal Army commander Abdus Samad Khan Bahadur being received by Jahandar Shah Abd al-Samad Khan received by Jahandar Shah.jpg
Mughal Army commander Abdus Samad Khan Bahadur being received by Jahandar Shah

Jahandar Shah led a frivolous life, and his court was often enlivened by dancing and entertainment. He chose a favourite wife, Lal Kunwar, who was a mere dancing girl before her elevation to the position of Queen Consort. Together they shocked the Mughal Empire and were even opposed by Aurangzeb's surviving daughter, Zinat-un-Nissa.

Nautch

In North India nauch is one of several styles of popular dance, performed by girls known as Nautch girls. The word Nautch is an anglicized version of नाच (nāc), a word found in several languages of North India including Hindi and Urdu, derived from the Sanskrit, Nritya, via the Prakrit, Nachcha. A simple and literal translation of Nautch is "dance" or "dancing".

Mughal Empire dynastic empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent

The Mughal Empire, or Mogul Empire, was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, and with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the first two Mughal emperors had both parents of Central Asian ancestry, while successive emperors were of predominantly Persian and Rajput ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs.

His authority was rejected by the third Nawab of the Carnatic, Muhammed Saadatullah Khan I, who killed De Singh of Orchha, primarily due to the Nawab's belief that he was the righteous commander of the Gingee Fort. Khan began a smear campaign referring to Jahandar Shah as an usurper to the Mughal throne. To further strengthen his authority, Jahandar Shah sent gifts to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmad III. [3]

Raja Desingh or Raja Tej Singh was a king of the Bundela Rajput who ruled Gingee in 1714 CE.

Orchha town in Madhya Pradesh, India

Orchha is a town in Niwari district of Madhya Pradesh state, India. The town was established by Rudra Pratap Singh some time after 1501, as the seat of an eponymous former princely state of central India, in the Bundelkhand region. Orchha lies on the Betwa River, 80 km from Tikamgarh & 15 km from Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh.

Nawab Mughal title

Nawab also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab, Nabob or Nobab, was an honorific title ratified and bestowed by the reigning Mughal emperor to semi-autonomous Muslim rulers of princely states in the Indian subcontinent.

Marriages

Jahandar Shah's first wife was the daughter of Mirza Mukarram Khan Safavi. The marriage took place on 13 October 1676. [4] After her death he married her niece, Sayyid-un-nissa Begum, the daughter of Mirza Rustam. The marriage took place on 30 August 1684. [5] Qazi Abu Sa'id united them in the presence of Emperor Aurangzeb, and Prince Muhammad Muazzam (future Bahadur Shah I). [6] The marriage was consummated on 18 September. Sayyid-un-nissa Begum was presented with jewels worth 67,000 rupees. The celebrations were supervised by Princess Zinat-un-nissa Begum. [7]

Zeenat-un-Nissa was a Mughal princess and the second daughter of Emperor Aurangzeb and his chief consort Dilras Banu Begum. Her father conferred upon her the honorable title of Padshah Begum. Princess Zeenat-un-Nissa is known by historians for her piety and extensive charity.

His third wife was Anup Bai. She was the mother of Prince Muhammad Aziz-ud-din Mirza, born on 6 June 1699. She died at Delhi on 17 April 1735, [5] nineteen years before her son's accession to the throne as Emperor Alamgir II. His fourth wife was Lal Kunwar, the daughter of Khasusiyat Khan. [8] Jahandar Shah was very fond of her, and after his accession to the throne, he gave her the title Imtiyaz Mahal. [5]

Death

Silver coin issued from Shahjahanabad, during the reign of Jahandar Shah. Silver rupee coin of Jahandar Shah.jpg
Silver coin issued from Shahjahanabad, during the reign of Jahandar Shah.

He was defeated in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713 by Farrukhsiyar, his nephew and the second son of Azim-ush-Shan, with the support of the Sayyid Brothers. He fled to Delhi where he was captured and handed over to the new Emperor, who confined him along with Lal Kunwar. He lived in confinement for a month, until 11 February 1713, when professional stranglers were sent to murder him.[ citation needed ]

Coins

Jahandar Shah reintroduced couplets and issued coins in gold, silver, and copper. Two couplets i.e. Abu al-Fateh and Sahab Qiran were used. Copper coins were issued in both weight standard i.e. 20 grams and 14 grams.[ citation needed ]

Notes

  1. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 193. ISBN   978-9-38060-734-4.
  2. Muni Lal, Mini Mughals (1989) p. 28
  3. Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (1 January 1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli.
  4. Sarkar 1947, p. 93.
  5. 1 2 3 Irvine, p. 242.
  6. Sarkar 1947, p. 151.
  7. Sarkar 1947, p. 152.
  8. Irvine, p. 180.

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Nur-un-Nissa Begum was the first wife and chief consort of Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah I.

References

Jahandar Shah
Preceded by
Bahadur Shah I
Mughal Emperor
1712–1713
Succeeded by
Farrukhsiyar