Jakob Hurt (22 July [ O.S. 10 July] 1839 in Himmaste – 13 January 1907 [ O.S. 31 December 1906] in St Petersburg) was a notable Estonian folklorist, theologian, and linguist. With respect to the last, he is perhaps best known for his dissertation on "pure" -ne stem nouns ("Die estnischen Nomina auf -ne purum", 1886).
Also known as the "king of Estonian folklore", Hurt planned the publication in the 1870s of a six volume series called Monumenta Estoniae Antiquae . Hurt organised around 1400 volunteer collectors via a press campaign, who visited almost every house in Livonia collecting around 124,000 pages of folklore. Due to financial difficulties, however, only two volumes of folk songs were published in 1875–76, entitled Vana kannel (Old Zither). Two more volumes were published in 1938 and 1941. Hurt also published a three volume collection called Setukeste laulud (The Setos' Songs) between 1894 and 1907.
There are monuments to him at Tartu and in Põlva. Tartu, Põlva, Otepää and Himmaste also have a street named after him. He was also featured on the 10 krooni note.
Jakob Hurt was an honorary alumnus of the Estonian Students' Society.
Anton Hansen, better known by his pseudonym A. H. Tammsaare and its variants, was an Estonian writer whose pentalogy Truth and Justice is considered one of the major works of Estonian literature and "The Estonian Novel".
Mart Laar is an Estonian politician and historian. He served as the Prime Minister of Estonia from 1992 to 1994 and from 1999 to 2002. Laar is credited with having helped bring about Estonia's rapid economic development during the 1990s. He is a member of the centre-right Isamaa party.
Kristjan Raud was an Estonian symbolist painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Estonian National Museum. Folklore elements figure heavily in his subject matter and his style is reminiscent of Primitivism. His twin brother, Paul, also became a well-known painter.
Jaan Anvelt, was an Estonian Bolshevik revolutionary and writer. He served the Russian SFSR, was a leader of the Communist Party of Estonia, the first premier of the Soviet Executive Committee of Estonia, and the chairman of the Council of The Commune of the Working People of Estonia. Imprisoned during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge in 1937, he died from the injuries sustained during a beating by Aleksandr Langfang while in NKVD custody.
Karl Ristikivi was an Estonian writer. He is among the best Estonian writers for his historical novels.
The earliest mentioning of Estonian singing dates back to Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum. Saxo spoke of Estonian warriors who sang at night while waiting for a battle. Henry of Livonia at the beginning of the 13th century described Estonian sacrificial customs, gods and spirits. In 1578 Balthasar Russow described the celebration of midsummer (jaanipäev), the St. John's Day by Estonians. In 1644 Johann Gutslaff spoke of the veneration of holy springs and J.W. Boecler described Estonian superstitious beliefs in 1685. Estonian folklore and beliefs including samples of folk songs appear in Topographische Nachrichten von Liv- und Estland by August W. Hupel in 1774–82. J.G von Herder published seven Estonian folk songs, translated into German in his Volkslieder in 1778 and republished as Stimmen der Völker in Liedern in 1807.
Jüri Talvet is an Estonian poet and academic. He is the author of various literary works including poetry, criticism, and essays.
The Monumenta Estoniae Antiquae is an academic publication series of Estonian folklore, including folksongs in trochaic verse form (regilaul), legends, proverbs, riddles and folk tales.
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Estonia. The stamps of Estonia are issued by the postal administration Eesti Post which is the country's only provider of universal postal services.
The Tallinn offensive was a strategic offensive by the Red Army's 2nd Shock and 8th armies and the Baltic Fleet against the German Army Detachment Narwa and Estonian units in mainland Estonia on the Eastern Front of World War II on 17–26 September 1944. Its German counterpart was the abandonment of the Estonian territory in a retreat codenamed Operation Aster.
Himmaste is a settlement in Põlva Parish, Põlva County in southeastern Estonia.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Republic of Estonia.
The Tartu offensive operation, also known as the Battle of Tartu and the Battle of Emajõgi was a campaign fought over southeastern Estonia in 1944. It took place on the Eastern Front during World War II between the Soviet 3rd Baltic Front and parts of the German Army Group North.
Heinrich Rosenthal was an activist of the Estonian national movement, doctor and author.
Lauri Vahtre is an Estonian politician, historian, translator and writer.
The siege of Tartu took place in 1224 and resulted in the fall of the last major center of Estonian resistance in the mainland provinces to the Christian conquest of Estonia.
Jean Baptiste Holzmayer or Johann Baptist Holzmayer was a Baltic German teacher, archaeologist and folklorist who worked on Saaremaa. He carried out excavations on locations of the ancient forts and stone graves, and gathered material about local religious customs and folklore. Holzmayer was also one of the founders of the local research society, and led the volunteer firefighter society.
Kalle Kurg is an Estonian poet, writer, critic, translator and editor. As a versatile figure in Estonian culture, he has also published caricatures and worked as a theatre director.
The Estonian Folklore Archives (EFA) is the central folklore archives in Estonia. The Archives functions currently as the subdivision of the Estonian Literary Museum but it was established in 1927 as the division of the Estonian National Museum. The current Head of the Archives is Dr. Risto Järv.
Heiki Arike was an Estonian politician and a major in the Estonian Defence League, who was also Estonia's Minister of the Interior from 1993 to 1994.
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