Jakob Hurt (22 July [ O.S. 10 July] 1839 in Himmaste – 13 January 1907 [ O.S. 31 December 1906] in St Petersburg) was a notable Estonian folklorist, theologian, and linguist. With respect to the last, he is perhaps best known for his dissertation on "pure" -ne stem nouns ("Die estnischen Nomina auf -ne purum", 1886). He was also featured on the 10 krooni note.
Also known as the "king of Estonian folklore", Hurt planned the publication in the 1870s of a six volume series called Monumenta Estoniae Antiquae . Hurt organised around 1400 volunteer collectors via a press campaign, who visited almost every house in Livonia collecting around 124,000 pages of folklore. Due to financial difficulties, however, only two volumes of folk songs were published in 1875–76, entitled Vana kannel (Old Zither). Two more volumes were published in 1938 and 1941. Hurt also published a three volume collection called Setukeste laulud (The Setus' Songs) between 1894 and 1907.
Jakob Hurt was an honorary alumnus of the Estonian Students' Society.
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Anton Hansen Tammsaare, was an Estonian writer whose pentalogy Truth and Justice is considered one of the major works of Estonian literature and "The Estonian Novel".
Jaan Kross was an Estonian writer. He was nominated several times for the Nobel Prize in Literature during the early 1990s.
Mart Laar is an Estonian politician and historian. He served as the Prime Minister of Estonia from 1992 to 1994 and from 1999 to 2002. Laar is credited with having helped bring about Estonia’s rapid economic development during the 1990s. He is a member of the centre-right Isamaa party.
This is a sub-article to Battle of Narva (1944).
Kristjan Raud was an Estonian symbolist painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Estonian National Museum. Folklore elements figure heavily in his subject matter and his style is reminiscent of Primitivism. His twin brother, Paul, also became a well-known painter.
Jaan Anvelt, was an Estonian Bolshevik revolutionary. He served the Russian SFSR, was a leader of the Communist Party of Estonia, the first premier of the Soviet Executive Committee of Estonia, and the chairman of the Council of The Commune of the Working People of Estonia. Imprisoned during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge in 1937, he died from the injuries sustained during a beating by Aleksandr Langfang while in NKVD custody.
Karl Ristikivi was an Estonian writer. He is among the best Estonian writers for his historical novels.
The German Luftwaffe and Soviet Long Range Aviation bombed the Estonian capital Tallinn several times during World War II. The first instance was during the Summer War of 1941. A number of bombing missions followed in 1942–43.
Estonian literature is literature written in the Estonian language The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia resulted in few early written literary works in the Estonian language. The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences. The Liber Census Daniae (1241) contains Estonian place and family names. The earliest extant samples of connected Estonian are the so-called Kullamaa prayers dating from 1524 and 1528. The first known printed book is a bilingual German-Estonian translation of the Lutheran catechism by S.Wanradt and J. Koell (1535). For the use of priests an Estonian grammar was printed in German in 1637. The New Testament was translated into southern Estonian in 1686. The two dialects were united by Anton Thor Helle in a form based on northern Estonian. Writings in Estonian became more significant in the 19th century during the Estophile Enlightenment Period (1750–1840).
The earliest mentioning of Estonian singing dates back to Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum. Saxo speaks of Estonian warriors who sang at night while waiting for a battle. Henry of Livonia at the beginning of the 13th century describes Estonian sacrificial customs, gods and spirits. In 1578 Balthasar Russow describes the celebration of midsummer, (jaanipäev) the St. John's Day. by Estonians. In 1644 Johann Gutslaff speaks of the veneration of holy springs and J.W. Boecler describes Estonian superstitious beliefs in 1685. Estonian folklore and beliefs including samples of folksongs appear in Topographische Nachrichten von Liv- und Estland by August W. Hupel in 1774–82. J.G von Herder publishes seven Estonian folksongs, translated into German in his Volkslieder (1778). republished as Stimmen der Völker in Liedern in 1807
The Monumenta Estoniae Antiquae is an academic publication series of Estonian folklore, including folksongs in trochaic verse form (regilaul), legends, proverbs, riddles and folk tales.
The Tallinn Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Red Army's 2nd Shock and 8th Armies and the Baltic Fleet against the German Army Detachment Narwa and Estonian units in mainland Estonia on the Eastern Front of World War II on 17–26 September 1944. Its German counterpart was the abandonment of the Estonian territory in a retreat codenamed Operation Aster.
The Tartu Offensive Operation, also known as the Battle of Tartu and the Battle of Emajõgi was a campaign fought over southeastern Estonia in 1944. It took place on the Eastern Front during World War II between the Soviet 3rd Baltic Front and parts of the German Army Group North.
This is a sub-article to Leningrad–Novgorod Offensive and Battle of Narva.
The Narva Offensive was an operation conducted by the Soviet Leningrad Front. It was aimed at the conquest of the Narva Isthmus from the German army detachment "Narwa". At the time of the operation, Joseph Stalin, the supreme commander of the Soviet Armed Forces, was personally interested in taking Estonia, viewing it as a precondition to forcing Finland out of the war.
This is a sub-article to Battle of Narva.
The 30th Guards Leningrad Army Corps was an army corps of the Soviet Ground Forces. As part of the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War it was designated the 30th Guards Rifle Corps.
Kalle Kurg is an Estonian poet, writer, critic, translator and editor. As a versatile figure in Estonian culture, he has also published caricatures and worked as a theatre director.
The Estonian Folklore Archives (EFA) is the central folklore archives in Estonia. The Archives functions currently as the subdivision of the Estonian Literary Museum but it was established in 1927 as the division of the Estonian National Museum. The current Head of the Archives is Dr. Risto Järv.
Heiki Arike was an Estonian politician and a major in the Estonian Defence League, who was also Estonia's Minister of the Interior from 1993 to 1994.