Jalairid Sultanate

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Jalayirid Sultanate

Chupanid - Jalayerid dyansty 1337-1432 ad.PNG
Division of Ilkhanate territory
Capital Baghdad (Till 1358 and 1388-1411), Tabriz (1358-1388), Basra (1411-1432)
Common languages Persian [1]
Arabic(diplomatic) [2]
Mongolian(government) [2]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Ilkhanate
Kara Koyunlu Blank.png
Today part of Iran
Faravahar background Faravahar at Behistun.jpg
Faravahar background
History of Greater Iran
Jalairid coinage, Baghdad, 1382-1387. Jalayrids Baghdad 1382 1387.jpg
Jalairid coinage, Baghdad, 1382-1387.

The Jalairids were a Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol khanate of Persia in the 1330s. [3] The Jalairid sultanate lasted about fifty years, until disrupted by Timur's conquests and the revolts of the Kara Koyunlu ("Black Sheep") Turkmen. [4] After Timur's death in 1405, there was a brief attempt to re-establish the sultanate in southern Iraq and Khuzistan. The Jalairids were finally eliminated by the Kara Koyunlu in 1432.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Ilkhanate breakaway khanate of the Mongol Empire

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan, and the Northwestern edge of the Indian sub-continent. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, converted to Islam.

Timur Turco-Mongol ruler

Timur, historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane, was a Turco-Mongol conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia, he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an islamized and iranized society", and not steppe nomadic.



The Jalairid administration and chancellery was modeled after Ilkhanate protocols, with documents in Persian and Mongolian. [2] Their diplomatic correspondence also copied the Ilkhanate's, using a red ink square seal with Islamic phrases in Arabic. [2]

Rulers of Jalayirid Sultanate

Title/Name [5] Personal NameReign
تاج الدین
Hasan Buzurg 1336–1356
Mu'izz-ud-duniya wa al-Din
معزالدنیا والدین
Bahadur Khan
Shaikh Awais Jalayir 1356–1374
جلال الدین
Shaikh Hasan Jalayir 1374
غیاث الدین
Shaikh Hussain Jalayir 1374–1382
Shaikh Bayazid Jalayir
Ruler of Iraq-i 'Ajam at Soltaniyeh and contender for the throne
Sultan Ahmed Jalayir
Ruler of Iraq-i 'Arab at Baghdad and contender for the throne
Shah Walad Jalayir
son of Shaikh Ali Jalayir
Mahmud bin Shah Walad Jalayir
under tutelage of Tandu Khatun
1411 (1st reign)
Awais bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1411-1421
Muhammad bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1421
Mahmud bin Shah Walad Jalayir 1421-1425 (2nd reign)
Hussain bin Ala-ud-Daulah bin Sultan Ahmed Jalayir 1425-1432

Family tree

Husein Gurkan
daughter of Arghun
Hasan Buzurg
Dilshad Khatun
Uvais I
Husain I
Shah Valad
Tandura Khatun
Al'a od-Dowleh
Uvais II
Husain II

See also

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Jalair is one of the Darliqin Mongol tribes according to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami' al-tawarikh. They lived along the Shilka River in modern Zabaykalsky Krai of Russia. After the Mongol conquest in the 13th century many Jalairs spread over Central Asia and the Middle East. Jalairs are one of the founding tribes of Mongolia's largest ethnic group Khalkha. Smaller clans named Jalayir are also found among the Inner Mongolians in China. The Jalayirs who stayed in Central Asia under the rules of Genghis Khan's older sons' descendants eventually adopted Turkic language. They are found among the Kazakhs of the Great jüz; also they are found among the Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, and the Kyrgyz. The Jalairs who went to Iran and Iraq found the Jalairid Sultanate in 1330, and expanded into Turkey. The state was then taken over by the "Black sheep Turkomans" or Kara Koyunlu in 1432. Smaller numbers of powerful Jalair families lived in Khorasan, Iran as well as in the Mughal Empire until the 19th century.

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Bayram Khwaja (died 1380, r. 1351–1380 was founder of the Kara Koyunlu state. The Kara Koyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans, were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.


  1. Jackson, edited by Peter; Lockhart, the late Laurence (1986). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 6: The Timurid and Safavid periods (Repr ed.). Cambridge: New York. p. 978. ISBN   0521200946.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  2. 1 2 3 4 Broadbridge, Anne F. Kingship and Ideology in the Islamic and Mongol Worlds, (Cambridge University Press, 2008), 157.
  3. Bayne Fisher, William. The Cambridge History of Iran, p.3: "From then until Timur's invasion of the country, Iran was under the rule of various rival petty princes of whom henceforth only the Jalairids could claim Mongol lineage"
  4. The History Files Rulers of Persia
  5. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. The new Islamic dynasties: a chronological and genealogical manual. New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys Series; ISBN   0-7486-2137-7, 978-0-7486-2137-8